Docstoc

Vandalism

Document Sample
Vandalism Powered By Docstoc
					     Jugendliche Vandalismus
Juvenile Vandalism & Parents Watch:
    A new approach towards the
          eradication of the
       vandalism phenomena

   Prof. Israel Kim & Dr. Avi Bruchman


                 Beit-Berl College
     Pädagogische Hochschule Ludwigsburg
        Sixth Israeli-German Symposium
                6-11 October, 2005
Definitions: Vandalism is the conspicuous
defacement or destruction of a structure or
symbol. It can be done as an expression of
contempt, creativity, or both.
Vandalism as Crime:
Vandalism is defined by the FBI’s Uniform Crime
Report (UCR) as willful or malicious destruction,
injury, disfigurement, or defacement of any public
or private property, without the consent of the
owner or persons having custody or control.
Vandals: are those defined in the Israel Penal
Code § 452, 448, 449, 195 & 196 (1977) much in
the same line of the FBI`s UCR, above.
             The Israel Police Data

Out of the 254,706 property offence files issued by the
police in 2003, 28,615 were due to vandalism.
                                        ‫השחתת רכוש בזדון‬



                                                                                (vandalism)*
                              30000
                    ‫שיעורים‬


                              20000
                              10000
                                      1980   1990   1995   2000   2001   2003
                                                       ‫שנים‬




In 2003 the police issued 828 criminal files against
juveniles for vandalism as compared to the 746 issued in
2002. (403 were issued in schools)
                                        * Central bureau of statistics, 2002
     General Vandalism Theories
            Defensible Space Theory
Newman(1972) found that crime rates in high-rise
buildings where hallways, lifts, lobbies, fire
escapes, roofs etc. were isolated from public
scrutiny, were higher than in low-rise buildings.
His solution was to re-design apartment buildings
so public areas would be under surveillance by
some residents at all times.
Murry(1983) adds the concept of surveillance
watch by concernd residece groups, better
policing & the improvement in police-community
relations as nessesery in combating vandalism.
           Manageable Space Theory
Perlgut (1981,1982) emphasized the need for
management which assumes most residents can learn
and even seek out responsibility and exercise
considerable creativity in participating in their
communities, such as in curbing vandalism.

   Physical Design and Kinetic Management
                   Theory
Felson (1987) suggests the manipulating of the
environment to divert flows of likely offenders away from
likely targets, or to restrict them to where they can be
monitored. Clark & Felson (1988) add for the first time
the concept of Neighbourhood Watch & Citizens'
Patrols.
They have categorised a number of situational crime
prevention strategies collected from successful case
studies. Some are relevant to vandalism & could be
summed up by the Reduction Convergence                 of
Targets and Offenders. These are:
•Constrain offenders-
 By strengthening social controls through smaller
  classes in schools.
 By restricting access to facilities or means of
  committing crimes by placing a ban on the sale of
  aerosol paint sprays to juveniles.
 By restricting access to substances such as alcohol
  which might lead people to commit crimes by
  banning the sale of alcohol at football games.
• Protect targets-
 By target hardening, for example using vandal-
    resistant materials in public places.
 By restricting access to places where crimes could
    be committed, for example by padlocks or security
    guards on trains.
• Enhance guardianship-
 By increasing surveillance, real or apparent through
    Neighbourhood Watch, citizens' patrols,
• Assigning responsibility-
 By training employees to challenge potential
    offenders.
 By increasing the capacity to intervene by giving
    radios to bus or train drivers.
        Specific Juvenile Theories
Community Policing theories:
The “Safe- School” (Kim, Yehezkeli & Bruchman,
1996), suggests partnership between all parties
concernd to the problem of vandalism in order to curb it.
“Broken Windows” (Kelling & Wilson, 1982),
suggests giving an immediate answer to a problem.
 “Weed & Seed” (Gimshi, 2001), suggests weeding
the bullies & only then treating the problem.
These are ways and means of “zero tolerance” dealing
with juvenile vandalism.
Delinquency & the family theories (Cohen,
1955; Cloward & Ohlin, 1961; Hirshi, 1969, Shoham,
2004 and Bruchman & Kim, 2005), suggest that when
the family instills its values and norms in its children in a
clear cut and positive manner, when it supports its
children and involve in their schooling and in their
after school activities, then their kids will
demonstrate a more normative behavior and hens
get less involved in acts of vandalism. i.e.,
Parents` Watch.
Horowitz (2003), Casserly, Bass, & Garrett (1982)
suggest that the social context (Ursula, 2005) is a key
element in adolescent vandalism. When the school
climate is supportive and encourages teamwork,
and students find that schooling is related to their
lives and can advance their goals, and the school
defines norms and rules such that students feel the
system is fair, vandalism is less likely to occur.
Tygart (1988) suggests that the most important
vandalism variables are:
Objective variables-
   Age of student population.
   Staff turnover.
   Parents support of school discipline policy.
   Size of school.

Subjective variables-
   Student perception of the integrity & fairness
    of their teachers.
   The clarity of school norms.
     Vandalism in Parks & in Schools:
The phenomena of juvenile vandalism is taking place in
three major arenas namely, in public buildings, in parks
and in the schools.
This is part of the general breakdown and loss of
authority in the Israeli society in general and of parents
at home and teachers in schools in particular.
Israel teachers` union in “violent environment”(2005)
portrays the state of vandalism in schools as such:
Egg throwing. Toilet papers in the hallways & yards.
Flooding classrooms using fire hoses. Braking
classroom windows & damaging classroom & school
walls.
Damaging furniture & computers. Graffiti on school
walls. Damaging faculty members cars.
  Juvenile Vandalism & Parents Watch in the
             Ra`anna Municipality
Numerous studies in juvenile delinquency and in
particular those studying vandalism, indicate its
connection to the family. Especially, the loss of family
authority (Kenney & Watson, 1989; Bruchman, 2002;
Gimshi, 2003; Kim, 2004; Bruchman & Kim, 2005).

Parents watch is what is known in the relevant literature
as citizens' patrols & neighbourhood surveillance
programs. These parents` patrols are designd to curbing
vandalism in the municipality of Ra`anna and are based
upon the above theories, especially those of the
community policing.
In the city of Ra`anna, much as in other
municipalities in Israel there is an increase in the rate of
juvenile delinquency including violence, bullying,
substance abuse, theft and vandalism.

In a survey carried out in 2004 in the Metro-West high
school, out of 762 students, 31% rated vandalism as
high & very high in their school.

In the same year a count of broken furniture in the city
high schools at large show that 351 chairs as well as
104 desks were put out of commission, as well as over
1000 desks & chairs that were taken for repair.
Smoke bobs were also thrown in the schools.
These activities take place unobtrusively, away
from the scrutiny of authority. Most of the
perpetrators are 15 to 17 years of age, junior high
or high school student population.

Vandalism activities take place mostly very late at
night, on weekends and summer vacations. In
order to eradicate or at least minimize its
occurrence, a parents` watch was established.
This is a joint effort of formal and informal
enforcement associations. These include Al-Sam
(anti-drug association), Community Policing, the
Municipality and Concerned Parents.
This watch model brings to the fore the idea of partnership
between the police and the community in curbing crime
(Amir, 2000; Gimshi, 2003; kim & Bruchman, 2005).
The volunteers are parents to school age children. They
are incorporated into the civil guard force which is part of
the community policing. This is so due to the fact that the
volunteers, while on duty, need an official authority &
insurance in order to be able to function.
The volunteers` unit sums 65 parents who underwent
comprehensive training of 13 long 3 hour sessions each by
police professionals.
Parents patrol the neighborhood in the late hours of nights,
particularly on weekends. They survey the meeting
grounds of youth, show their presence, talk and get to
know youth. When needed, they involve professional help.
The parents` volunteer unit operates already for the 2nd
year. From interviewing some of the participating
parents, some of the youths as well as police officers
and municipality officials, it seems that there is some
deterrent of vandalism in the watch patrol mere
presence. Also, some youths who at first opposed their
parents presence, got used to it after a while.

Finally, there is no statistical count as yet to be able to
monitor the rate of success of the program. However,
the manager of the municipality emergency 24 hour call
reports of a lesser rate of vandalism complaints by
citizens.
We hope this watch model will help to restore and
rehabilitate parents` authority and save tax payers`
money.
Thanks

				
DOCUMENT INFO