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COMMUTING AND MIGRATION PATTERNS

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COMMUTING AND MIGRATION PATTERNS Powered By Docstoc
					                                                               Aberdeen City migration and commuting patterns


ABERDEEN CITY
In 2001 the population of Aberdeen was 212,125, 65% of which were of working age.

MIGRATION
Table 1 below shows UK migration to and from Aberdeen in the year to the Census in 2001.

Table 1: Migration by total and working-age population (UK only1), 2001.
                           Total out-       Total in-
                            migration       migration     Net migration
Total migration                    9,227           8,764             -463
Working-age migration              7,642           7,745            +103
Source: Census Origin-Destination tables, 2001.

In the year to 2001 Aberdeen experienced an overall net out-migration of total population.
However, over the same period there was a small positive net in-migration for working age
people. However, it should be noted that the data do not take account of emigration to
locations outside of the UK. As Aberdeen has one of the most internationally diverse
populations in Scotland (see Table 8), it is probable that a significant number of movements
have not been recorded to locations outside of the UK.

Figure 1 presents total in-migration to Aberdeen from the UK and overseas.

Figure 1: Total2 in-migration to Aberdeen, 2001.

            Scotland                                            50%




    Rest of the world                        21%




    England & Wales                    15%




     Origin unknown                    14%




           N. Ireland        1%



                        0%        5%         10%   15%   20%    25%    30%   35%   40%    45%      50%

Of the total number of people migrating to Aberdeen (13,448) between 2000 and 2001 only half
came from Scotland; 21% (2,829) came from a country outside the UK; 15% came from England
& Wales; and 14% from an unknown place of origin.




1
  The Census data provides information on immigration to Aberdeen from outside the UK however there is no data
relating to emigration to locations outside the UK. The numbers presented in Table 1 are for movements within the UK
only.
2
  Including people from outside the UK and people with no address the year before the Census.
                                                      Aberdeen City migration and commuting patterns


Figure 2 below shows in-migration to Aberdeen from other Scottish local authorities
only.

Figure 2: Total in-migration to Aberdeen from Scottish local authorities, 2001.

   Aberdeenshire                                            45%


           Moray               8%


        Highland               8%


       Edinburgh              6%


             Fife        4%


          Angus          3%


        Glasgow          3%


  Perth & Kinross        3%


         Dundee      2%


 Shetland Islands    2%

                    0%             5%     10%   15%   20%         25%    30%    35%    40%    45%    50%




Of the 6,676 people migrating to Aberdeen in 2001 from elsewhere in Scotland, almost
half (45%) were from neighbouring Aberdeenshire. The next most popular origins for
migrants were Moray (8%) and the Highlands (8%).

Figure 3 below shows out-migrants from Aberdeen to other Scottish local authorities
only.

Figure 3: Out-migration from Aberdeen to Scottish local authorities, 2001.
  Aberdeenshire                                                   48%


      Edinburgh                     13%


        Glasgow               7%


      Highlands           5%


          Moray          4%


             Fife        3%


         Dundee      2%


 Perth & Kinross     2%


          Angus      2%


   West Lothian      1%


                    0%             5%     10%   15%   20%          25%    30%    35%    40%    45%     50%




Of the 6,728 people moving out of Aberdeen City to other Scottish areas, the highest
proportion moved to adjoining Aberdeenshire (49%). Edinburgh (13%) and Glasgow (7%)
were the next most popular destinations for out-migrants.
                                                                 Aberdeen City migration and commuting patterns
        Figures 4 and 5 below show in and out-migration by age group.

       Figure 4: In-migration3 by age, 2001.                           Figure 5: Out-migration4 by age, 2001.
                                                                                                4%
                                   3%               Aged 0-15                                                     Aged 0-15
                                                                                                      13%
                              8%        12%                                               9%
                                                    Aged 16-24                                                    Aged 16-24
                      11%
                                                                                    12%
                                                    Aged 25-34                                                    Aged 25-34



                                                    Aged 35-44                                              30%   Aged 35-44
                                              41%
                        25%

                                                    Aged 45-64                            32%                     Aged 45-64



                                                    Aged 65+                                                      Aged 65+




The largest groups migrating to Aberdeen are those aged 16-24 (41%) followed by 25-34 year
olds (25%). For out-migration, the largest groups are 25-34 (32%) and 16-24 year olds (30%).

TRAVEL TO WORK PATTERNS
Table 2 below provides an overview of Aberdeen’s residents and workers.

Table 2: Aberdeen residents and workforce, 2001.
                                                                         No.                    %
    Total population                                                     212,125                100%
    Working-age population                                                139,896                    65%
    Total Aberdeen residents in employment                                97,753                100%
    …who work in Aberdeen                                                  91,255                    93%
    ...who are out-commuters                                                6,498                    7%
    Total Aberdeen workforce                                             140,852                100%
    …who are Aberdeen residents                                            91,255                    65%
    ….who are in-commuters                                                 49,597                    35%
Source: ONS: Mid-year population estimates and Origin-Destination statistics (Census 2001).

Table 2 shows that of the 139,896 working-age population 97,753 are in employment – 93% in
Aberdeen and 7% outwith the area. Of the city’s 140,852 workforce, 65% are residents and 35%
are in-commuters.
Table 3 shows where Aberdeen’s workforce lives.

Table 3: Place or residence of Aberdeen workforce, 2001.
                                           Aberdeen workforce
                                                % of total     % of total in-
   Place of residence     No. of workers        workforce     commuters only
   Aberdeen                         91,255             64.79%
   Aberdeenshire                    36,690             26.05%           74.00%
   Moray                             2,507              1.78%             5.10%
   Angus                             2,050              1.46%             4.10%
   Highlands                         1,742              1.24%             3.50%
   Fife                              1,093              0.78%             2.20%
   Dundee                              528              0.37%             1.10%
   Glasgow                             492              0.35%             1.00%
   Edinburgh                           402              0.29%             0.80%
   Perth & Kinross                     395              0.28%             0.80%
   North Ayrshire                      367              0.26%             0.70%
   Other Scottish LAs                3,331                 2%                7%
   Total workforce                140,852            100.00%              100%

3
    Based on total number of people migrating to Aberdeen.
4
    Based on Scotland and UK only.
                                             Aberdeen City migration and commuting patterns


Table 3 shows that while 5,679 Aberdeen City residents travel to Aberdeenshire to work each
day, Aberdeenshire supplies Aberdeen with approximately 36,690 workers – equivalent to 26%
of the city’s workforce.
Table 4 below shows where Aberdeen residents work.

Table 4: Place of work of Aberdeen residents, 2001.
                                            Aberdeen residents
                                             %     of    total % of total out-
 Place of work          No. of residents     residents         commuters
 Aberdeen City                      91,255              93.4%
 Aberdeenshire                       5,679                5.8%           87.4%
 Moray                                 373                0.4%            5.7%
 Angus                                   92               0.1%            1.4%
 Edinburgh City                          80               0.1%            1.2%
 Dundee City                             60               0.1%            0.9%
 Highland                                46               0.0%            0.7%
 Glasgow City                            31               0.0%            0.5%
 Fife                                    29               0.0%            0.4%
 Shetland Islands                        24               0.0%            0.4%
 Other Scottish LAs                      84               0.1%            1.3%
 Total residents                   97,753              100.0%           100.0%

Table 4 shows that of all Aberdeen residents 93% work in Aberdeen itself. This is the highest
level of local employment of any East of Scotland local authority. 5,679 (5.8%) Aberdeen
residents travel to work in Aberdeenshire. Only a very small proportion of city residents travel
outwith the Grampian area to work.

Table 5 below compares employment status of the total Aberdeen workforce to in-commuters.

Table 5: Employment status of Aberdeen workforce, 2001.
                        Total                                                    % of in-
 Employment status      workforce       % of total      In-commuters             commuters
 Full-time                      116,245             83%         43,879                       88%
 Part-time                       24,607             17%          5,718                       12%
 Total                         140,852             100%        49,597                       100%
 Employees                      130,065             92%         46,872                       95%
 Self-employed                   10,787              8%          2,725                        5%
 Total                         140,852             100%        49,597                       100%

Of those working in Aberdeen, 83% are employed full-time, however for in-commuters this
rises to 88%. 92% of the workforce are employees, again this is higher for those in-commuting
(95%). Therefore in-commuters to Aberdeen are slightly more likely to be full-time employees
than residents working there.
Table 6 shows the employment status of all Aberdeen residents compared to out-commuters.

Table 6: Employment status of Aberdeen residents, 2001.
                                                                 Out-             % of out-
 Employment status         Total residents   % of total          commuters        commuters
 Full-time                          78,924                 80%          6,558                88%
 Part-time                          19,743                 20%             854               12%
 Total                             98,667                 100%          7,412               100%
 Employees                          90,130                 91%          6,937                94%
 Self-employed                       8,537                  9%             475                6%
 Total                             98,667                 100%          7,412               100%
                                                                                       Aberdeen City migration and commuting patterns


Table 6 shows that 80% of employed Aberdeen residents work full-time, for out-commuters
this rises to 88%. Out-commuters are also more likely to be employees (94%) compared with all
employed Aberdeen residents (91%).

Figure 6 compares industry of employment for in-commuters and Aberdeen residents.

Figure 6: Aberdeen workforce by industry and place of residence, 2001.
 Mining etc.; manufacturing; elec., gas & water                                  12%                                               11%

                    Real estate & business act                                 11%                                    6%

                       Wholesale & retail trade                           9%                           3%

                          Health & social work                           8%                        3%

                                     Education                5%                 2%

                    Transport, storage & com.                 5%                      3%

                                  Construction               4%                 3%

                          Hotels & restaurants               3%          1%

                      Public admin. & defence            3%              2%

                                          Other          3%        1%

                      Financial intermediation      1%        1%

                 Agriculture, forestry & fishing        0%

                                                   0%        2%          4%      6%         8%         10%    12%     14%    16%    18%       20%   22%    24%
                                                                                        Aberdeen residents          Non-Aberdeen residents


Of Aberdeen’s 140,852 workforce 23% are employed in ‘mining & quarrying; manufacturing;
electricity, gas & water supply’ with almost half of sector employees in-commuting. ‘Real
estate & business activities’ is the next largest sector with 17% of Aberdeen’s jobs, a third of
which are held by in-commuters.

Figure 7 compares industry of employment for Aberdeen residents who work in the city and
those who out-commute to work.

Figure 7: Aberdeen residents by industry and destination, 2001.
 Mining etc.; manufacturing; elec., gas & water                                                  18%                                   1.8%

                    Real estate & business act                                             15%                                  0.8%

                       Wholesale & retail trade                                  12%                             0.8%

                          Health & social work                                  12%                              0.4%

                                     Education                      7%                      0.6%

                    Transport, storage & com.                       7%                     0.3%

                                  Construction                     6%                   0.6%

                          Hotels & restaurants                5%                 0.3%

                      Public admin. & defence                 4%               0.4%

                                          Other              4%               0.3%

                      Financial intermediation          2%        0.2%

                 Agriculture, forestry & fishing 1% 0.1%

                                                  0%         2%          4%      6%         8%     10%       12%     14%    16%    18%        20%   22%    24%
                                             Aberdeen residents working in Aberdeen                          Aberdeen residents working outwith Aberdeen


Figure 7 shows that 20% of Aberdeen’s 97,753 employed residents work in ‘mining & quarrying;
manufacturing; electricity, gas & water supply’, of which only a small proportion travel to work
outside Aberdeen. No other industries have a significant number of people traveling to work
outside Aberdeen.
                                                                                  Aberdeen City migration and commuting patterns


Figure 8 below compares the occupations of Aberdeen residents and in-commuters working in
Aberdeen.

Figure 8: Aberdeen workforce by occupation and place of residence, 2001.
      Large employers & higher
                                        2%        2%
          managerial occ.

        Higher professional occ.                  7%                    4%

            Lower managerial &
                                                                   17%                                               10%
             professional occ.

               Intermediate occ.                   9%                         4%

         Small employers & own
                                         4%        1%
           account workers

           Lower supervisory &
                                                  7%                         6%
              technical occ.

              Semi-routine occ.                         11%                            4%


                   Routine occ.                    8%                    3%


                                   0%                  5%                10%                  15%             20%              25%              30%
                                              Aberdeen residents working in Aberdeen                                   Non-Aberdeen residents




Figure 8 shows that in-commuters account for a significant proportion of all occupational
groups working in Aberdeen although they represent a smaller proportion of workers in small
employers and own account workers, semi-routine and routine occupations.

Figure 9 below compares the occupations of Aberdeen residents working in Aberdeen and those
out-commuting.

Figure 9: Aberdeen residents by occupation and place of employment, 2001.
     Large employers & higher
                                        4%         0%
         managerial occ.

      Higher professional occ.                         10%                        1%

          Lower managerial &
                                                                                   24%                                             2%
           professional occ.

             Intermediate occ.                              13%                             1%

       Small employers & own
                                             5%              0%
         account workers

 Lower supervisory & technical
                                                       10%                        1%
             occ.

             Semi-routine occ.                                    15%                                 1%


                  Routine occ.                          12%                              1%


                                 0%                    5%                10%                  15%                20%              25%             30%

                                        Aberdeen residents working in Aberdeen                   Aberdeen residents working outwith Aberdeen


Figures 8 and 9 show that the overall occupational profiles of Aberdeen’s workforce and
residents are very similar - not unexpected given the high proportion of residents who work in
the city.
                                                                         Aberdeen City migration and commuting patterns
Figures 10 and 11 below show in and out-commuting by gender.

  Figure 10: In-commuters by gender,                                              Figure 11: Out-commuters by gender,
  2001.                                                                           2001.



                      Female, 29%
                                                                                                Female, 36%




                                                                                                                            Male, 64%
                                                  Male, 71%




  Figure 10 and 11 show that a clear majority of commuters are male. However, females
  represent a slightly higher percentage of out-commuters (36%) than in-commuters (29%).

Figures 12 and 13 show in and out-commuting by age.

 Figure 12: In-commuters by age-group,                                            Figure 13: Out-commuters by age-groups,
 2001.                                                                            2001.
                                Aged 16-24,
                                   9%                                                                              Aged 16-24,
                                                                                                                      13%
                                            Aged 25-29,
                                               10%
                                                                                               Aged 45-74,
                                                                                                  31%
             Aged 45-74,
                                                                                                                                 Aged 25-29,
                37%
                                                                                                                                    16%




                                    Aged 30-44,
                                       44%
                                                                                                             Aged 30-44,
                                                                                                                40%




 Figure 12 and 13 show that a clear majority of commuters are aged 30+. However,
 commuters aged <30 account for a higher percentage of out-commuters (29%) than in-
 commuters (19%).

Figure 14 below shows commuting by mode of transport for residents working in Aberdeen,
residents out-commuting to their place of work and in-commuters to Aberdeen.

Figure 14: Commuters by mode of transport, 2001.
                      100%                                                                      1%
                                                                          5%
                                                                                                10%
                       90%                          18%                   8%                                                 Foot/bicycle

                                                                          8%
                       80%                                                                      17%
                                                     8%

                       70%
                                                    16%                                                                      Car-
                       60%                                                                                                   passenger/taxi


                       50%

                       40%                                               80%                                                 Bus/train
                                                                                                72%
                       30%                          58%

                       20%

                                                                                                                             Car/motorcycle
                       10%

                           0%
                                                  Aberdeen    Out-commuters from Aberdeen   In-commuters


Figure 14 shows that 58% of Aberdeen residents travelling to work within Aberdeen do so by car
(as a driver) and 16% travel by bus or train. Of all out-commuters, 4 out of 5 drive to work and
only 8% use a bus or train. 17% of in-commuters use buses and trains and 72% travel by car or
motorcycle. The proportions travelling as car passengers are similar regardless of place of
work.
                                                         Aberdeen City migration and commuting patterns


ECONOMIC OVERVIEW
Table 7: Change in total and working-age population in Aberdeen City, 1998-2003.
 Aberdeen City                             1998             2003          Change 1998-2003
 Total population                       215,700          206,600        -9,100        -4.2%
 Working-age population            143,700 (67%)    138,200 (67%)       -5,500        -3.8%
    Source: Mid-year estimates, General Register Office (GRO) Scotland

Table 8: Aberdeen City residents by place of birth, 2001.
      Place of birth             %
 Scotland                            84.4%
 England                              8.4%
 Wales                                0.4%
 Northern Ireland                     0.6%
 Republic of Ireland                  0.4%
 Other EU countries                   1.5%
 Elsewhere                            4.4%
    Source: Census 2001

Table 9: Job density5 in Aberdeen City, 2002.
                                2002
 Aberdeen City                          1.27
 East of Scotland                       0.86
 Scotland                               0.82
    Source: Office of National Statistics (ONS)

Table 10: Claimant count rate, November 2004.
                           Claimant count
                           rate Nov. 2004
 Aberdeen City                        1.7%
 East of Scotland                     2.3%
 Scotland                             2.7%
    Source: Claimant Register, Nomis

Table 11: Resident and workplace-based gross weekly earnings, 2003.
                                              Workplace
                           Resident based       based
 Aberdeen City                      £399.4          £443.9
 East of Scotland                   £374.1          £372.8
 Scotland                           £367.2          £365.8
    Source: Nomis: New Earnings Survey, 2004.




5
    Ratio of filled jobs to working-age residents

				
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