SACRAMENTO CITY UNIFIED SCHOOL DISTRICT Human Resource Summary Report and Overview January 22, 2009
Mission: The Sacramento City Unified School District provides all students the knowledge, skills, and educational opportunities to achieve high academic standards and be successful in a changing global society. Vision: Create a world-class educational system, pre-kindergarten through adult, that enables all students to excel in the new millennium. Our Guiding Principles are to improve student achievement; maintain fiscal solvency; and establish systems that support high performance.
Human Resource Summary Report and Overview
Table of Contents
I. II. III. IV. V.
Background Current Status Overview of Certificated Teachers Overview of Classified Employees Overview of Certificated and Classified Management, Supervisors and Confidential Employees March 15th and Layoff Process and Procedures – Certificated Layoff Process and Procedures – Classified Conclusion
VI. VII. VIII.
The Sacramento City Unified School District is one of the largest employers in the Sacramento region. Enrollment in the school district has been declining over the past several years, coupled with a decline in state revenues, which has created a perilous budget picture for school districts statewide. During the 2007-08 school year the district reacted to a $24 million dollar budget deficit with the reduction of certain program elements, reduced central office administration, and supply budget reductions of 10%, along with several other revenue reduction strategies. In addition, the District was forced to layoff over 300 certificated teachers and administrators, and 45 classified and classified management employees. Due to the severe budget deficit a retirement incentive program was instituted which resulted in 198 teacher retirements. The retirement incentive assisted in meeting the budget reductions; however, the district lost almost 200 of the most experienced teachers. Over the past five years, the employees of the Sacramento City Unified School District have decreased by over 500 as indicated by the chart below.
Bargaining Unit UPE/Non Represented Management SCTA SEIU Teamsters CSA Confidential NonRepresented Supervisors Totals:
2004-05 Employees 252
2005-06 Employees 250
2006-07 Employees 242
2007-08 Employees 243
2008-09 Employees 222
2923 2228 89 34 32 28
2951 2251 91 34 31 28
2925 2254 91 30 31 25
2852 2218 90 29 30 24
2628 1971 79 27 28 22
II. CURRENT STATUS The Organization Chart (attached or viewed via the web site www.scusd.edu) of the Sacramento City Unified School District is designed to indicate the structure of the school district organization. Developed in a hierarchical fashion, the organization chart displays the relationships and relative ranks and job titles of the management employees of the District. Due to the school district’s size the organization chart is dissected into smaller charts for each individual department within the organization.
The Sacramento City Unified School District employs approximately 5,000 teachers and classified employees in pre-k through adult education. The breakdown is as follows: Certificated Teachers: Classified: Principals and assistant principals, and non-represented management Supervisory and Confidential: 2,628 2,077 222 50
The bargaining units identified in the school district are: Sacramento City Teachers Association (SCTA), Service Employees International Union (SEIU), United Professional Educators (UPE), Teamster, Local 151, and Classified Supervisors Association (CSA). Non-represented employees included both certificated and classified management, supervisors, and confidential employees. Bargaining units are an important aspect of school districts that provide a “voice” for employees. Unions and associations provide an avenue for the District to work collaboratively on issues and concerns surrounding employee compensation and working conditions. In 1976 the Educational Employment Relations Act established collective bargaining in California’s public schools (K-12). Active recruitment strategies have been in place to recruit teachers that reflect the demographics of the District’s student population. Recruitment fairs and targeted recruitment efforts have increased the number of teachers who reflect our students; however, because of declining enrollment and the loss of teachers through layoffs the numbers are not at an acceptable level. Recruitment efforts will continue as we develop partnerships with our colleges and universities to provide pathways for teachers to work for our District. Recruitment strategies include: -Recruitment Fairs • Black Expo • Diversity Employment Day Career Fair • Multicultural Expo • California Association for Bilingual Educators • Urban League Recruitment Fair • California State University, Sacramento • University of California, Davis -Advertising/Marketing: • Sacramento Observer • UC Davis publication • African American News Link Newspaper • Berkeley Tri City Post • Black Voice News • Vida en el Valle 3
• • • • • •
El Latino Nuevo Mundo El Observador Hmong Radio Program Hmong Tribune Chamber of Commerce: Asian, Black, Hispanic and Sacramento
Recruitment efforts have been stalled by last year’s “January surprise” which resulted in collapsing the ideal of months of preparation for recruitment into crisis overload as staff, administrators, and others in the educational community approached statutory March 15 deadline for commencement of certificated layoffs. This year, the budget picture has not improved and the District faces the unknown in fiscal opportunities for the 2009-10 school year. The following chart indicates the demographics of employees in the District as of January, 2009. SCTA 1.3% 1.0% 7.0% 65.7% 14.0% 11% CSA undeclared American Indian African American Caucasian Asian Hispanic SEIU 1.8% 2.4% 19.0% 38.8% 14.0% 24.0% undeclared American Indian African American Caucasian Asian Hispanic UPE 2.0% 11.0% 62.0% 11.0% 14.0% American Indian African American Caucasian Asian Hispanic
8.5% American Indian 79.0% Caucasian 12.5% Hispanic
1.3% 17.7% 34.2% 6.3% 40.5%
undeclared African American Caucasian Asian Hispanic
Non-represented Management, Supervisors, and Confidential employees 22.0% African American 54.0% Caucasian 12.0% Asian 12.0% Hispanic
Trends – Teacher Demographics
80% 71% 70% 60% 50% 40% 30% 20% 10% 0% 2004-05 2005-06 2006-07 2007-08 2008-09 12% 9% 6% 1% 13% 13% 10% 1% 10% 6% 6% 1% 14% 11% 7% 1%2% 8% 1% 15% 70% 69% 65% 65% White Hispanic African American Asian American Indian Undeclared 11%
Teaching Staff Demographics Comparison to Elk Grove, San Juan and the County of Sacramento 2007-08 School Year
100% 80% 60% 40% 20% 0% White SCUSD EGUSD SJUSD COUNTY 65% 77% 90% 79% Hispanic 11% 7% 5% 8%
SCUSD African American 7% 4% 1% 4% Asian 14% 8% 3% 7% American Undeclare Indian d 1% 1% 1% 1% 2% 3% 0% 1% EGUSD SJUSD COUNTY
III. OVERVIEW OF CERTIFICATED TEACHERS Teacher Requirements: All teachers must possess a valid teaching credential for the subject they are teaching, have a highly qualified status and have a certificate for teaching English Language Learners. Highly Qualified Teacher: The No Child Left Behind Act of 2001 provided an initiative to ensure that all students would increase their academic achievement if they were taught by a highly qualified teacher. The criteria for a highly qualified teacher are: 1. Must possess a bachelor’s degree. 2. A state credential or intern certificate or be currently enrolled in an approved California Commission on Teacher Credentialing (CCTC) intern program. 3. Demonstrated core academic subject matter competence. Core Academic Subjects: -English -Reading/Language Arts -Mathematics -Science -Foreign Languages -Civics/government -Economics -Arts -History -Geography Under the NCLB Act, teachers were classified into two categories, new and not new. “New” to the profession is a teacher who holds a credential or intern certificate issued on or after July 1, 2002. “Not New” to the profession is a teacher who holds a credential or intern certificate before July 1, 2002. Core Academic Subject Matter Competence – Elementary: ”New” elementary teachers must pass the California Commission on Teacher Credentialing (CCTC) approved subject matter examination – currently the California Subjects Examination for Teachers (CSET) for multiple subject. ”Not New” elementary teachers have two options to demonstrate subject matter competency: 1) Exam Option: Passing any prior or current CCTC-approved subject matter exam. 2) HOUSSE: Completing the California High Objective Uniform State Standard of Evaluation (HOUSSE)
Core Academic Subject Matter Competence – Middle and High School: ”New” middle and high school teachers have two options to demonstrate subject matter competency: 1) Exam Option: Passing any prior or current CCTC-approved subject matter examination in the core subject. 2) Course work option: Completing a course work option for each core area. a. CCTC-approved subject matter program in the core area, or b. Major in the core area, or c. Major equivalent in the core area (32 units), or d. Graduate degree in the core area “Not New” middle and high school teachers have the following options to demonstrate subject matter competency: 1) Passing any prior or current CCTC-approved subject matter exam in the core area, or 2) Completing course work in the core area, or 3) Advanced certification in the core area, or 4) California HOUSSE in the core area HOUSSE -A process for “Not New” (and some “new” special education teachers) to demonstrate or verify subject matter competence in the subject(s) they are teaching -Includes credit for experience, course work, professional development and leadership/service in subject(s) area -Includes additional option for observation or portfolio
Certification to Teach English Language Learners Crosscultural, Language and Academic Development (CLAD) and Bilingual Crosscultural, Language and Academic Development (BLAD) certificates are a requirement for teachers in the Sacramento City Unified School District. The requirement indicates that a teacher who has one (1) student who is an English Language Learner must have the certificate. Over the past 15 years, the Sacramento City Unified School District has provided free training in order to become compliant. At present, there are 14 teachers who need to complete the testing requirements for their CLAD certificate. Beginning Teacher Support and Assessment (BTSA) Beginning Teacher Support and Assessment is a state-funded induction program, cosponsored by the State Department of Education and the California Commission on Teacher Credentialing designed to support the professional development of newly credentialed, beginning teachers and fulfill the requirements for the California Clear Multiple and Single Subject Credential.
BTSA Induction is a two-year program that provides a formative assessment, individualized support and advanced context for newly credentialed, beginning teachers. BTSA Induction program provides services to 79 District schools, including three (3) charter schools, plus Sacramento Charter High School, PS7, Christian Brothers High School, St. Francis and Holy Spirit. The program is designed to: Provide an effective transition into the teaching career for first- and second-year teachers Improve the educational performance of students through improved training, information, and assistance for participating teachers Enable beginning teachers to be effective in teaching students who are culturally, linguistically, and academically diverse Ensure the professional success and retention of new teachers Ensure that a support provider provides intensive individualized support and assistance to each participating beginning teacher Ensure that an individual induction plan is in place for each participating beginning teacher and is based on an ongoing assessment of the development of the beginning teacher Ensure continuous program improvement through ongoing research, development, and evaluation The Sacramento City Unified School District currently provides BTSA Induction support for 242 teachers with the use of 74 highly qualified, skilled, well-trained support providers. To date BTSA Induction has recommended over 100 multiple and single subject teaching credentials to the California Commission on Teacher Credentialing.
Teacher Retention Rates and Average Years of Teaching Experience 2007-08:
Year Year 2 Year 3 Year 4 Year 5
Retention Rates 92.6% 80.2% 78.3% 68.3%
Average Years Teaching Experience 11
Average Years - In-District Teaching Experience 10.5
IV. OVERVIEW OF CLASSIFIED EMPLOYEES Classified employees make up almost 50% of the employees in the Sacramento City Unified School District. There are represented by Service Employees International Union (SEIU), Teamsters, and Classified Supervisors Association (CSA). • SEIU constitutes the largest classified unit and consists of the following subgroups or units: 1) Aides-Paraprofessionals Unit – 67 job classifications 2) Operations-Support Services Unit – 56 job classifications 3) Office-Technical Unit – 73 job classifications Each job classification is indicative of a single job description and all employees must meet the minimum qualifications of their respective job description. Paraprofessional Requirements Paraprofessionals in the Sacramento City Unified School District are required to be NCLB compliant. The criteria for paraprofessionals are: 1) 2) 3) An associates degree, or 48 units from an approved institution, or Passage of the State approved paraprofessional test
The Sacramento City Unified School District currently is 100% compliant with this requirement. •
Teamsters represent the School Plant Operations Managers (SPOM) of the school district. There are three classifications for the SPOM position: 1) SPOM I – elementary schools 2) SPOM II – middle schools 3) SPOM III – high schools
Classified Supervisors Association (CSA) include 18 different classifications that include the trades (plumbing, painting, carpenters, etc), supervisors, nutrition services supervisors, transportation supervisors and custodial/operations supervisors.
V. OVERVIEW OF CERTIFICATED AND CLASSIFIED MANAGEMENT, SUPERVISORS, AND CONFIDENTIAL EMPLOYEES Certificated Management - Represented The United Professional Educators (UPE) group includes all principals and assistant principals. In addition, the unit also includes specific classifications: Program Coordinator, Homeless Department, Research Specialist, Supervisor, Child’s Center, Supervisor, Psychological and Social Work Services, Supervisor, Special Education and Site Instructional Coordinator. Certificated and Classified Management – Non-represented employees Certificated and classified management employees predominantly work in the centralized departments and provide services to the school sites. Included are Specialists, Coordinators, Managers, Directors, Administrators, Chief Business Officer, Chief Financial Officer and Associate Superintendents. Supervisors and Confidential – Non-represented employees Non-represented supervisors include 19 classifications under the titles of Supervisor I, II, III and IV and provide services to nutrition services, accounting, payroll, personnel, as well as other departments. Confidential employees have 16 different classifications. The definition of a "confidential employee" means an employee who is required to develop or present management positions with respect to meeting and conferring or whose duties normally require access to confidential information which contributes significantly to the development of such management position.
VI. MARCH 15TH AND LAYOFF PROCESS AND PROCEDURES CERTIFICATED • March 15th Notices: The Education Code provides mandatory deadlines for releasing and reassigning certificated teachers and administrators. Release of Temporary Teachers The Sacramento City Unified School District employs teachers on temporary, one-year only contracts. The criteria are: categorically funded and backfilling for teachers on leave of absence. Each year the school District has the option of releasing all temporary teachers by the end of the school year. To provide the District with the most latitude in staffing, temporary teachers are provided release notice on or before March 15th. Non Reelection of Zero, 1st and 2nd Year Probationary Teachers Probationary teachers gain tenure after their second consecutive year of service to the District. Principals and BTSA Induction providers work closely with new teachers to ensure they are guided, supported and evaluated throughout their first two years. Principals will make the recommendation to their Associate Superintendent as to the 1st and 2nd year probationary teachers to be non-reelected or released from District service. The 1st or 2nd year teacher will be notified of their non-reelection on or before March 15th. Release and Reassignment of Certificated Administrators Certificated administrators must be notified on or before March 15th of each school year if they “may” be released from the District or reassigned from their current position. Administrators also gain tenure, as a teacher, if they have worked for the school District for two or more years. Those administrators who have not completed two years of District service do not gain tenure and are released from District service. Since the March 15th notice is “possible” release and/or reassignment, a second notice is required. That notice is provided, preferably, in May to give the administrator time to plan and prepare. In this second notice the Board actually releases and/or reassigns the person effective the end of the school year. The new placement is effective July 1st. • LAYOFF PROCESS AND PROCEDURES – Certificated The Education Code provides the specific reasons and methods to lay off certificated employees under Education Code §§ 44955 and 44949. Reductions of particular kinds of services (PKS) and/or decline in average daily attendance (ADA) are the two generally used as a basis for a certificated employee layoff. ADA layoffs occur when, during the first six months, the ADA in all District
schools declines below the first six months of either of the two previous school years. A corresponding number of teachers may be released. Because there is often controversy about what the ADA figures are and what the corresponding FTE should be in an ADA layoff, most Districts choose to use the PKS (reduction of a particular kind of service) as a basis for a layoff. A PKS layoff is when the Board decides to eliminate or reduce a program, service or classes (i.e., counseling, nursing, foreign language). Education Code §44955.5 also allows layoffs when the total revenue limit increase is less than 2% and the governing board believes it is necessary to decrease staff. The language of this statute is detailed but allows for adjustment of statutory notice deadlines in order to effectuate the layoff. This process is rarely used because it must be used within fifteen (15) days of adoption of the state budget and occurs in August. If the governing board determines that a layoff is necessary, the District should determine the basis for the layoff (i.e., PKS or ADA), identify the loss of students (ADA) or the services (PKS) to be reduced or eliminated (i.e., counseling, secondary English, music) and the number of FTE (full time equivalent) or portion of one FTE to be reduced (i.e., .5 FTE). This is accomplished by Board resolution and the employee(s) must receive notice by March 15th. The Board must pass a resolution establishing the need to reduce services (PKS). This must be done in advance to allow staff to identify and send the notice of layoff/termination of services to individual employees no later than to the March 15th date. Certificated layoffs are performed by seniority and classification. The accuracy of the District’s seniority list is crucial. Once finalized, a copy of the seniority list should be given to the employee organization’s exclusive representative. The layoff is conducted by seniority, however, the Board must also pass, by resolution, the establishment of tie-breaking criteria and competency standards (needs of the district) pursuant to Education Code §44955, when more than one employee has the same seniority date, they are certificated and competent to perform the same service but less than all will be subject to layoff. Tie-breaking criteria will provide a basis for ordering employees with the same date of hire. The District may determine the order of layoff based on needs of the District and students. Tie-breaking criteria should be adopted by Board resolution in advance of March 15th to allow time to reorder the employees who fall within the group to be laid off (i.e., years of service, types of credentials, etc.). Competency standards and needs of the District are determined when a District must deviate from seniority order to demonstrate a need for personnel to teach a specific course or course of study, or to provide counseling or nursing services,
and that the employee has special training and experience to teach the courses that other with more seniority do not possess (i.e., bilingual education, BCLAD, CLAD, Special Education credentials, science, math, highly qualified, etc.). Once the Board has approved the PKS resolution to effectuate a certificated layoff, the following items then occur: 1) The Board receives a list of all the effected employees and a sample of the March 15th employee notice or Accusation packet. 2) Employees receive the Accusation Packet before March 15th. The packet includes: cover letter of explanation, accusation, statement to respondent, notice of defense, notice of hearing and copies of all code sections that apply to the layoff. If the employee requests a hearing, which most teachers do, sessions with an administrative law judge (ALJ) have been dedicated and occur in the month of April. Typically, 4 days are set aside for the hearings. The ALJ will be assigned to hear the case to determine if there is cause for termination. The reason the Board made its decision and the particular programs it selects to reduce are generally not at issue in the hearing. The majority of the hearing is often comprised of the employee’s representative challenging or contesting the individual decisions made to keep, skip or bump a particular employee. The hearing officer or ALJ must issue his/her decision on or before May 7th. The deadline to serve the proposed decision on all respondents is May 7th. The Board must meet to consider the ALJ’s decision. Action on the resolution must be taken in open session of a properly agendized meeting of the Board. The Board can accept, reject or amend the decision. Notice of termination, with a copy of the ALJ decision and the Board resolution must be sent to each employee on or before May 15th.
LAYOFF PROCESS AND PROCEDURES - CLASSIFIED Classified employees, “when, as a result of the expiration of a specially funded program, classified positions must be eliminated at the end of any school year, and classified employees will be subject to layoff for lack of funds, the employees to be laid off at the end of the school year shall be given written notice on or before April 29 informing them of their layoff effective at the end of the school year and of their displacement rights, if any, and reemployment rights. However, if the termination date of any specially funded program is other than June 30, the notice shall be given not less than 45 days prior to the effective date of their layoff.
When, as a result of a bona fide reduction or elimination of the service being performed by any department, classified employees shall be subject to layoff for lack of work, affected employees shall be given notice of layoff not less than 45 days prior to the effective date of layoff, and informed of their displacement rights, if any, and reemployment rights. A classified employee may not be laid off if a short-term employee is retained to render a service that the classified employee is qualified to render. This subdivision does not create a 45-day layoff notice requirement for any individual hired as a short-term employee, as defined in Section 45103, for a period not exceeding 45 days.” (Education Code §45117) Education Code §45298 states, “Persons laid off because of lack of work or lack of funds are eligible to reemployment for a period of 39 months and shall be reemployed in preference to new applicants. In addition, such persons laid off have the right to participate in promotional examinations within the district during the period of 39 months. Employees who take voluntary demotions or voluntary reductions in assigned time in lieu of layoff or to remain in their present positions rather than be reclassified or reassigned, shall be granted the same rights as persons laid off and shall retain eligibility to be considered for reemployment for an additional period of up to 24 months; provided, that the same tests of fitness under which they qualified for appointment to the class shall still apply. The personnel commission shall make the determination of the specific period eligibility for reemployment on a class-by-class basis. Employees who take voluntary demotions or voluntary reductions in assigned time in lieu of layoff shall be, at the option of the employee, returned to a position in their former class or to positions with increased assigned time as vacancies become available, and without limitation of time, but if there is a valid reemployment list they shall be ranked on that list in accordance with their proper seniority.” A classified layoff must occur on or before April 29th to ensure that employees are provided adequate notice before the June 30th deadline. VIII. CONCLUSION The Sacramento City Unified School District’s employees are a hard working, dedicated staff that strives to fulfill the mission of the District, “to provide all students the knowledge, skills, and educational opportunities to achieve high academic standards and be successful in a changing global society.” Due to budget uncertainties and the State’s fiscal instability, layoffs may occur in our school District. Having a clear understanding of the process will enable all stakeholders to be prepared.