Firearms Injury Prevention Project Jill Officer, Denise Laughlin, Bret Hart 5th National Rural Health Conference Adelaide, South Australia, 14-17th March 1999 Proceedings Jill Officer 5 th NATIONAL RURAL HEALTH CONFERENCE Firearms Injury Prevention Project Jill Officer, Denise Laughlin, Bret Hart RATIONALE FOR PROJECT The availability of and need for firearms in rural areas, a lack of safety in storage and the recreational use of firearms in small rural communities with dwindling populations may combine to elevate rural firearm suicide rates in young people, especially when combined with high impulsiveness and/or alcohol consumption. Firearms availability is potentially significant for younger people contemplating suicide, who may be more prone to impulsiveness and aggression and may be unwilling to access mental health services. Suicides attempted with firearms almost always kill. Given the frequency, impulsiveness and low intent of many suicide attempts, the presence of guns may convert many 'attempts' into deaths through the high lethality and irreversibility of firearm injuries. There is now a large body of scientific evidence, which indicate that increases in suicides by firearms coincide with their increased availability or presence within a particular community or society. In the United States where there is a high rate of gun ownership and where firearms are more easily obtained, nearly 60 per cent of all suicides are committed with a firearm. In contrast, the proportion of suicides committed with a firearm in countries such as Canada and Australia where firearms are less readily available is 28 per cent and 26 per cent respectively.1,2 Australian and overseas studies have generally demonstrated that the ready availability of firearms (particularly in the home) is associated with increased risk for suicide.3,4,5,6 Several case-control studies have shown that the ownership or presence of particular types of firearms in the home significantly elevates the risks to the owner or other member of the household dying as a result of suicide or homicide. For example it has been shown that the increased risk associated with the presence of a handgun in the household increases the risk of suicide of a family member by a factors of 1.9 and increases their risk of homicide death by a factor of 2.2.7 In Canada, a significant reduction in firearm suicide rates and in the proportion of suicides using firearms occurred following the enforcement of stricter gun control laws in 1978.8 While it will be some time before it is possible to conclusively demonstrate that the introduction of stricter uniform firearm legislation in Australia in 1996 has resulted in a reduction in the rate and proportion of firearm suicide, there are early indications that this may be so.9 While the literature on firearms and suicide does include some papers which are critical of the methods and conclusions of these studies, the weight of evidence from studies using a variety of research designs and methodological approaches suggests that there is a clear association between firearms availability and 5 th NATIONAL RURAL HEALTH CONFERENCE firearm suicides.10, 11 Dudley et al’s 1996 review of the Australian and overseas research relating to firearms deaths concluded “beyond all reasonable doubt, a causal relationship exists between gun ownership and firearms suicide”.12 The likelihood of success of suicide prevention strategies, which aim to reduce ready access to firearms, will depend on how well they are able to target and reach the individuals and populations most at risk. The Western Australia (WA) Coroners Database has been used to locate regions of Western Australia, which have particularly high rates and proportion of suicides involving firearms over the 10 year period 1986-1995. The Health Department of Western Australia’s Coastal and Wheatbelt health region was identified as having more than double the proportion of firearm suicides in comparison with State average over the same period (33.5% vs 16%). The crude rate of firearm suicide for the Wheatbelt (Midlands) health zone over the period 1986-95 was 43 per 1,000,000 population. By contrast, the rate of firearm suicide for the Perth metropolitan area was 14 per 1,000,000 and the comparable rate for all other country areas of WA was 30 per 1,000,000. It was in appreciation of this fact that the State Youth Suicide Advisory Committee (YSAC) was approached by the Commonwealth National Youth Suicide Prevention Strategy to suggest that a project targeting the Coastal and Wheatbelt region could be funded. The Coastal and Wheatbelt Public Health Unit in association with YSAC develop a successful proposal to address access to means of suicides by firearms. FORMATIVE RESEARCH Community reference focus and nominal group research was conducted during the first six months of the project. It was from these groups, that community members were involved in the development and prioritising of the programs and activities to be undertaken as part of the project. The objectives of the focus groups were to explore: • current level of firearm injury knowledge of participants and their attitudes towards firearm injury issues, including their perception of susceptibility and seriousness of firearm injury; • suggestions as to how firearm hazards can be reduced; • communication and advocacy avenues that are acceptable and would be utilised by other gun owners and family members, and what would influence and motivate their behaviour. Graphs 1 & 2 show the top ranked strategies and the most important topics chosen by the community. Participants also raised a number issues related to firearm safety including; the necessity for firearms on farms and the need to focus on people without genuine reasons for ownership, and also that firearms cannot legally be stored at a neighbours if a family member is experiencing a difficult time. 5 th NATIONAL RURAL HEALTH CONFERENCE There were many people who were unaware that the majority of firearm deaths were due to suicide, most believed the leading cause was accidents. Repeatedly people questioned that if someone is going to commit suicide they will do so using other means if a gun was not available "it is not the gun the gun is just the tool". These issues needed to be addressed, as part of the project, taking into account the complexity and sensitive nature of suicide. When asked who would be the best person to convey firearm injury/suicide prevention information to the community, there were many suggestions including; police, gun club member, trained leader, farmer, footballer, combination of people. Others suggested that it really doesn’t matter so long as the person has a good understanding of the facts (credible), relates well to people and can empathise with people from differing backgrounds. Graph 1: Top ranked strategies Top 4 Strategies N ews paper article/s in mags eg F arm Week ly A rticle/s in community papers A rticle/s in local papers / rags A rticle/s in K ondinin Grp/F arm J rnls B ook let on firearm s afety P os ter with s afety mes s age T V advertis ement R adio T alk B ack / Interview/s Commercial R adio P amphlets s ent with licence renewal P romotion goods e.g. s tick ers /magnets Video T alk s at local community group F irearm S afety Week S chool education pack age E nforcement of firearm legis lation R andom s pot check s of firearms S upport local gun clubs to do s afety P arent/Comm. s uicide edu. S es s ions H elpline 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 5 th NATIONAL RURAL HEALTH CONFERENCE Graph 2: Top 5 ranked topic Top 5 Topics Who is at risk of firearminjury/ nature of risk /degree of risk Basic rules for firearmsafety s m Storage of firearm and am unition. Maintenance of the firearms Safer practices and procedures for use of firearms What are the legal risks? / Lawful use of firearms Current relevant firearmlegislation Licensing procedure Benefits of training Outsiders asking for permission to shoot on property Genuine need / ownership Rural suicide awareness - risk factors and warning signs Rural suicide - Practical suggestions for intervention 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 PROJECT STRATEGIES AND ACTIVITIES The following strategies and activities were undertaken as part of the project during September 1998 - January 1999. Media campaign Community reference and focus group research clearly indicated that TV advertising was the most effective way of reaching the target audience, raising awareness of the issue and promoting behaviour and attitudinal change. As much as the project would have liked to trial all forms of communication channels, it was realised that consolidation in the major media far outweighed fragmentation over a number of media. The media campaign was concentrated in three main areas: • a Television advertisement – 'Lock it and Secure the Key'; • local Community Papers – A series of four local community paper articles covering the areas of; Firearm Safety. The Facts, Using Firearm Safety, Firearm Safety. The Code and Rural Suicide. How to get the Facts; and • every opportunity was undertaken to obtain free publicity and positive promotion of activities/issues in other media. Firearm safety information brochure / poster and magnet A firearm safety information brochure/poster “Firearm Safety the Facts” and magnet “Your Gun Your Responsibility” was developed. The brochure/poster and magnet was inserted with the police department’s annual firearm licence renewal 5 th NATIONAL RURAL HEALTH CONFERENCE notices. The brochure/poster provided information on firearm safety statistics, what people can do about firearm safety, suicide danger signs, practical suggestions for intervention and contacts for further information and help. The key message of both resources is the importance of locking gun cabinets and removing and storing the key securely. Discussions with community members found that the majority of firearm owners had their compulsory cabinets but were not necessarily locking the guns in the cabinets and storing the key securely. The idea was that gun owners use the magnet to display the poster some where visible. Training of general practitioners General practitioners within the region were offered the opportunity to participate in a series of training sessions addressing youth suicide (4R - Managing Youth Suicidal Behaviour program) and access to means. A number of sessions were arranged to accommodate the local GPs as their time and availability was limited, accordingly the workshops were added to the agenda of existing Medical Advisory Committee (MAC) meetings. Feedback from the practitioners was positive. Some of the practitioners were unaware of resources that were available to assist eg 1800 numbers. Many GPs were also unaware of the legislation covering them if they needed to break confidentially for removal of a firearm. Commence development of hospital policies and protocols Work on the development of hospital policies and protocols in relation to suicide and deliberate self-harm is being undertaken. Support is being provided to initiate and/or update, and evaluate and improve hospital policies and protocols. The aim is to match appropriate policies with what occurs in their hospital environment. School program A Firearm Safety Education Package has been developed and designed to be presented to students from a range of age groups (Year 9–12) dependent on maturity level and ability of the children. The program comprises of three 40- minute classroom lessons and one optional practical activity. The lesson activities address firearm safety knowledge, affective education, and social skill development (including decision making and assertive communication). The optional practical activity provides an opportunity for the students to practise safety behaviours in association with a qualified instructor from the local gun club. The package is intended to be an adaptable resource to suit the teacher's particular situation and teaching objectives. The package can be incorporated into the existing Education Departments of WA health and physical education curriculum or as part of any other relevant program. The package is currently being piloted in schools with the region. 5 th NATIONAL RURAL HEALTH CONFERENCE Community Firearm Safety Package A firearm safety education package for use with community groups has been developed. The package contains fact sheets and presentation material for local community groups to promote the message of firearm safety. The information contained within the package is comprehensive, factual and practical. The overheads and background information has been prepared for lay presenters. As part of the media campaign and via letters addressed to service groups, the availability of guest speakers to talk to groups about the issues of firearm safety and suicide awareness as separate or combined issues was promoted. Requests for suicide sessions are linked with those trained in suicide prevention CONCLUSION This project is unique, the first of its kind to be funded to develop materials and procedures for preventing firearm suicide in our community. As a pilot project in the Coastal and Wheatbelt Public Health region it will provide recommendations (what worked / what didn’t) with a view to transferability and wider application throughout the State and elsewhere in Australia. The materials, procedures and resources developed by the program are currently being evaluated for their community acceptability and effectiveness. REFERENCES 1. Cantor CH, Turrell, Baume PJM. Access to Means of Suicide by Young Australians. Can- berra: Commonwealth Department of Health and Family Services, Youth Suicide Prevention Advisory Group, 1996. 2. Suicide Information and Education Centre. SIEC Alert: Firearms and suicide. SEIC Calgary, 1996. 3. Cantor CH and Lewin T. Firearms and suicide in Australia. Australian and New Zealand Journal of Psychiatry 1990: 24, 377-380. 4. Brent DA, Perper JA, Allman CJ, Moritz . GM, Wartella ME & Zelenak JP. The Presence and Accessibility of Firearms in the Homes of Adolescent Suicides: A Case Control Study, Journal of The American Medical Association 1991: 266, 21, 2989-2995. 5. Kellermann AL, Rivera FP, Soames G, Reay DT, Fransisco J, Banton JG, Prodzinski J, Fligner C & Hackman BB. Suicide in the Home in Relation to Gun Ownership. The New England Journal of Medicine 1992: 327,7,467-472. 6. Lester D and Leenaars A . Suicide Rates in Canada before and after the tightening of firearm control laws. Psychological Reports, 1993: 72, 787-790. 7. Cummings P, Koepsell, Grossman DC, Savarino J & Thompson RS. The Association between the Purchase of a Handgun and Homicide and Suicide. American Journal of Public Health 1997: 87; 974-978. 8. Lester D. The availability of firearms and the use of firearms for suicide: a study of 20 countries. Acta Psychiatrica Scandanavia, 81, 146-147. 9. WA Police Coronal Inquiries Section. (Unpublished data) 5 th NATIONAL RURAL HEALTH CONFERENCE 10. Mauser GA. Gun ownership and crime. Canadian Medical Association Journal: 1993: 147, 1773. 11. Blackman PH. Methods of suicide and implications for suicide prevention. Journal of Clinical Psychology 1992: 267, 3026. 12. Dudley M, Cantor C and de Moore G. Jumping the gun: firearms and the mental health of Australians. Australian and New Zealand Journal of Psychiatry 1996: 30,370-381. *This project was funded as part of the National Youth Suicide Prevention Strategy, Commonwealth Department of Human Services and Health. Additional funding was received for the WA Office of Youth Affairs and Wesfarmers Limited WA.
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