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					CURRENT STATUS OF THE
MILLENNIUM DEVELOPMENT
GOALS
An ArmsDown! campaign presentation.
 The information and graphs featured in the following
presentation have been obtained from “The Millennium
          Development Goals Report 2009.”
What are the Millennium Development
Goals (MDGs)?

September 2000: World leaders came together at United
Nations Headquarters in New York to adopt the United
Nations Millennium Declaration and committed their
nations to a new global partnership to promote
development through a series of time-bound goals - with
a deadline of 2015.

In total, 8 goals were established, which have become
known as the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs).
What are the Millennium Development
Goals (MDGs)?

The eight goals include:
1) Eradicate extreme hunger and poverty.
2) Achieve universal primary education.
3) Promote gender equality and empower women.
4) Reduce child mortality.
5) Improve maternal health.
6) Combat HIV/AIDS, malaria and other diseases.
7) Ensure environmental stability.
8) Develop a global partnership for development.
 Will the MDGs be met by 2015?


Despite the hard work by numerous organizations and
individuals striving to achieve the MDGs, it has become
clear that there remains immense obstacles to the goals
being achieved by 2015.

One major obstacle…
Military Spending vs. Development Spending


 Throughout the years, funding for the MDGs has
 remained stagnant and insufficient.

 While at the same time…
 Annual military spending on average has increased to a
 2008 record high of…
The ArmsDown! campaign


In recognition of this disparity, the ArmsDown!
campaign has called on world governments to take
action:
The ArmsDown! campaign




  The ArmsDown! campaign believes that this reallocation
  of funds will make up for the lack of past funding and
  progress of the MDGs and put the MDGs back on the
  road to achievement by 2015.
Goal 1: Eradicate extreme poverty and
hunger.

Extreme poverty = living on less than $1.25 a day.
More than one billion people live in extreme poverty.
The first goal of the MDGs aims to lessen the impact
poverty and hunger has on numerous regions of the world
by achieving three specific targets:
1) Halve, between 1990 and 2015, the proportion of
   people whose income is less than $1 a day.
2) Achieve full and productive employment and decent
   work for all, including women and young people.
3) Halve, between 1990 and 2015, the proportion of
   people who suffer from hunger.
Goal 1; Target 1: Halve, between 1990 and 2015, the proportion
of people whose income is less than $1 a day.




 The following graph displays the percentage of
 unemployed people living below $1.25 a day- 1990,
 1999 and 2005.
By 2005, certain regions of the world
experienced a substantial decrease of
people living on less than $1.25
a day, whereas Sub-Saharan Africa
witnessed only a small drop.

Despite the progress, in 2008, with the
global economic meltdown, every region
of the world experienced an increase of
the number of people living below $1.25
a day.
Goal 1; Target 2: Achieve full and productive employment
and decent work for all, including women and young people.




 The following graph displays, per region, the output per
 employed person in 1998 and 2008 (in US thousand
 dollars).
In Sub-Saharan Africa, almost no change
occurred during the ten year time
period, with an output at $4,000 in 1998
compared to $5,000 in 2008.

Other regions, including Oceania, South
Eastern Asia and Southern Asia achieved
little or no growth during the ten-year
time period.

Overall, the output of developing regions
in 2008 ($11,000) remains significantly
low compared to developed regions
($71,000).
Goal1; Target 3: Halve, between 1990 and 2015, the
proportion of people who suffer from hunger.




   The following graph presents the percentage of
   undernourished people, per region, during three time
   periods- 1990-1992, 2004-2006 and 2008.
By 2008, no region has halved the
proportion of people who suffer from
hunger, and in Oceania, the number has
actually increased. Other regions,
including Sub-Saharan Africa, have
experienced an increase of malnourished
people between 2006 and 2008 due to
rising food prices.

As a whole, 17% of people from the
developing regions of the world suffered
from malnourishment in 2008, a small
decrease from the 20% figure of 1990-
1992.
Goal 2: Achieve universal primary education

Primary education = the four to five years of school when
the student is introduced to a set of studies in reading,
writing, and mathematics.

The second goal of the MDGs promotes development
through education with the desire to achieve the following
target:

Ensure that, by 2015, children everywhere, boys and girls
alike, will be able to complete a full course of primary
schooling.
Goal 2; Target 1: Ensure that, by 2015, children everywhere,
boys and girls alike, will be able to complete a full course of
primary schooling.




     The following graph displays the net enrolment
     ratio in primary education- 2000 and 2007.
Progress has been made toward
universal primary education- in the
developing world as a whole 88% of
children were enrolled in primary
education in 2007 compared to 83% in
2000.

While the numbers are encouraging, the
current trends are however moving too
slowly to meet the 2015 target.
Goal 3: Promote gender equality and
empower women.

In almost every region of the world, women continue to be
discriminated against and prevented from receiving equal
education and representation in the workforce.

The objective of the third goal of the MDGs is to reverse
this trend by achieving gender parity in all regions of the
world by achieving the following target:

Eliminate gender disparity in primary and secondary
education by no later than 2015.
Goal 3;Target 1: Eliminate gender disparity in primary and
secondary education by no later than 2015.




  The following graph displays the number of girls
  per 100 boys who are enrolled in primary school
  during the years1999 and 2007.
Progress has been made in every region
of the world, mainly in Southern Asia,
where in 2007, 95 girls per 100 boys
were enrolled in primary school as
compared to 1999 when the number was
84.

In the developing world as a whole, the
number reached 95% in 2007, up from
91% in 1999.
Goal 4: Reduce child mortality.

Child mortality is the death of a child at the age of five or
younger.

Throughout the world, the tragedy surrounding the death of
a child has a severe impact on the family and its
community. The fourth MDG addresses this pressing issue
with one specific target:

Reduce by two thirds, between 1990 and 2015, the under-
five mortality rate.
Goal 4; Target 1: Reduce by two thirds, between 1990 and
2015, the under-five mortality rate.




 The following graph shows the under-five mortality
 rate per 1,000 live births for the years 1990 and
 2007.
For the developing world as a whole, in
1990 the number of child mortality rate
was 103 deaths per 1,000 live births, in
2007 it was 74.

The under-five mortality rate has
decreased, however, not one region has
reached the goal of reducing the rate by
two thirds. Sub-Saharan Africa, Southern
Asia and Oceania have made the least
amount of progress and remain
significantly off target.
Goal 5: Improve maternal health.

Millions of women throughout the world have little or no
access to health care during their pregnancy, threatening
their life and the life of their un-born child.
The death of a mother during her pregnancy is an unjust
end to her life and a significant challenge to her family.
Therefore, the fifth goal of the MDGs continues to be
pursued by the global community with two targets in mind:
1) Reduce by three quarters, between 1990 and 2015, the
   maternal morality ratio.
2) Achieve by 2015, universal access to reproductive
   health.
Goal 5; Target 1: Reduce by three quarters, between 1990
and 2015, the maternal morality ratio.




The following graph displays the maternal deaths per
100,000 live births in the years 1990 and 2005.
• For   In Sub-Saharan Africa, where half of all
        maternal deaths occur, there were 900
        maternal deaths per 100,000 live births
        in 2005, slightly down from the 920
        figure in 1990.

        In the developing world as a whole, there
        was a slight decrease in maternal deaths
        during a fifteen period with 450 deaths
        per 100,000 live births in 2005 opposed
        to the 480 figure in 1990.
Goal 5; Target 2: Achieve by 2015, universal access to
reproductive health.




    The following graph displays the percentage of
    women, per region, who were attended four or
    more times during pregnancy by skilled health
    personnel- 2003 and 2008.
The percentage of women who have
received this amount of care is still less
than 50% in Sub-Saharan Africa and
Southern Asia, where the overwhelming
majority of maternal deaths occur.
Goal 6: Combat HIV/AIDS, malaria and
tuberculosis.

Preventable and curable diseases such as HIV/AIDS,
malaria and tuberculosis cause an untold amount of
suffering for millions of people each and every year.
The sixth goal of the MDGs provides various guidelines to
tackle this problem. The three targets of Goal 6 include:
1) Have halted by 2015 and begun to reverse the spread
   of HIV/AIDS.
2) Achieve, by 2010, universal access to treatment of
   HIV/AIDS for all those who need it.
3) Have halted by 2015 and begun to reverse the
   incidence of malaria and other major diseases.
Goal 6; Target 1: Have halted by 2015 and
begun to reverse the spread of HIV/AIDS.




The following graph displays the number of people living
with HIV, the number of people newly infected with HIV,
and the number of deaths due to AIDS, between the years
1990 and 2007.
The number of people newly infected
with HIV peaked in 1996 and has since
declined to 2.7 million in 2007.

The number of AIDS deaths peaked in
2005 at 2.2 million and has declined to 2
million in 2007.

The number of people living with HIV
worldwide continue to grow, largely due
to the longer survival rate of HIV infected
persons.
Goal 6; Target 2: Achieve, by 2010, universal access to
treatment of HIV/AIDS for all those who need it.

-In a five years time, coverage of antiretroviral treatment in
developing countries increased tenfold.
-By 2007, 3 million people in the developing world had
access to antiretroviral drugs, a 47 percent increase from
the year before.
-In 2007, an estimated 200,000 children were receiving
treatment, compared to 75,000 in 2005.
-Despite the promising trends, globally, 69% of people who
are HIV+ still do not have access to the required drugs.
 Goal 6;Target 3: Have halted by 2015 and begun to
 reverse the incidence of malaria and other major diseases.




The following graph displays the worldwide number of
administered doses of artemisinin-based combination
therapies used to combat malaria from 2001 to 2008.
Worldwide, the number was 130,000,000
doses in 2008, a dramatic increase from
the 500,000 doses in 2001.

Countries that have received this dosage
increase have seen declines of more than
50% in severe malaria cases and deaths.
Goal 6, Target 3: Have halted by 2015 and begun to
reverse the incidence of malaria and other major diseases.




The next graph shows the number of tuberculosis (TB)
cases per 100,000 people per region for the years 1990
and 2007.
The number of cases of TB has
significantly fallen in Southern Asia,
Eastern Asia and Latin America.

However, in Sub-Saharan Africa and the
CIS region, the case is the exact opposite,
with TB cases actually increasing from
1990 to 2007.

Overall, in 2008, 234 per 100,000 people
had TB in developing regions, a decrease
from the 1990 number of 370.
Goal 7: Ensure environmental stability.

Many of the environmental issues that the world is facing today- from
climate change to ozone depletion- are global in nature.
The seventh goal of the MDGs aims to remedy these environmental
issues with four targets in mind:
1) Integrate the principles of sustainable development into country
   policies and programmes and reverse the loss of environmental
   resources.
2) Reduce biodiversity loss, achieving, by 2010, a significant reduction
   in the rate of loss.
3) Halve, by 2015, the proportion of the population without sustainable
   access to safe drinking water and basic sanitation.
4) By 2020, to have achieved a significant improvement in the lives of
   at least 100 million slum dwellers.
  Goal 7; Target 1: Integrate the principles of sustainable
  development into country policies and programmes and
  reverse the loss of environmental resources.




Although governments throughout the world have pledged
their allegiance to sustainable development and clean energy,
greenhouse gas emissions continue to rise in every region of
the world, as illuminated by the following graph, which displays
the emissions of carbon dioxide(billions of metric tons) in 1990
and 2006.
Almost every region (excluding CIS)
has experienced an increase in carbon
emissions, most noticeably in the
developing regions of Eastern Asia,
where there was a significant increase
from 2.9 billion metric tons in 1990 to
6.7 billion in 2006.
Goal 7; Target 2: Reduce biodiversity loss, achieving, by
2010, a significant reduction in the rate of loss.




The target of significantly reducing the rate of loss of
biodiversity has yet to be achieved, made evident by the
following graph, which displays the annual net change in
forest area in the years 1990-2000 and 2000-2005.
In total, the net global loss during the
years 2000-2005 was 7.3 million hectares
per year, down from 8.9 million hectares
per year in 1990-2000.

However, it various regions of the world,
such as Latin America and the Caribbean,
forest loss actually increased from 2000-
2005.
Goal 7; Target 3: Halve, by 2015, the proportion of the
population without sustainable access to safe drinking
water and basic sanitation.




The global community is on its way to meeting the drinking
water target, though some communities, mainly rural ones,
still face some challenges as illustrated on the following
graph.
The world map indicates the countries
that have met the target and number of
people in other countries who still lack a
safe water source.

The regions that remain most in need of
safe drinking water include sections of
Latin America and Southern Asia.
Goal 7; Target 4: By 2020, to have achieved a significant
improvement in the lives of at least 100 million slum
dwellers.




The following graph displays the percentage of urban
populations living with shelter deprivations, 1990 and
2005.
 In 1990, almost half the urban
population in developing regions were
living in slums. By 2005, that number
had been reduced to 36%.

However, as of 2005, a large majority of
urban dwellers in Sub-Saharan Africa
(62%) were still living in slums.
Goal 8: Develop a global partnership for
development.


The eighth and final goal of the MDGs calls on
the global community to come together and
implement an array of programs and policies to
bring about sustainable development throughout
the world. The last goal of the MDGs has six specific
targets:
 Goal 8: Develop a global partnership for
 development.

1) Develop further an open, rule-based, predictable, non-discriminatory
  trading and financial system.
2) Address the special needs of the least developed countries.
3) Address the special needs of landlocked developing countries and
   small island developing States.
4) Deal comprehensively with the debt problems of developing
   countries through national and international measures in order to
   make debt sustainable in the long term.
5) In cooperation with pharmaceutical companies, provide access to
   affordable essential drugs in developing countries.
6) In cooperation with the private sector, make available the benefits of
   new technologies, especially information and communications.
 Goal 8; Target 2: Address the special needs of the least
 developed countries.




According to the following graph, which displays the net
official development assistance from OECD-DAC countries
as a proportion of donor’s gross national income,1990-
2008, not much has been accomplished in terms of an
increase of official development assistance (ODA) for the
least developed countries (LDCs).
 With ODA for the LDCs falling
significantly during the 1990’s, the ODA
numbers (as a proportion of the donors’
gross national income) for the least
developed countries has climbed back to
1990 number of around .10 %
  Goal 8; Target 4: Deal comprehensively with the debt problems
  of developing countries through national and international
  measures in order to make debt sustainable in the long term.




The following graph displays the external debt payments of
each region as a proportion of export revenues.
In every region, the external debt
payments as a percentage of export
revenues have decreased from 2000 to
2007- a positive trend.
Goal 8; Target 6: In cooperation with the private sector,
make available the benefits of new technologies,
especially information and communications.




Increasing access to technology for people around the
world has been successful according to the following
graph, which displays the number of internet users per 100
population, 2002 and 2007.
In every region of the world, the number
of internet users per 100 people
between 2002 and 2007 has grown.
However, little growth has occurred in
several regions, including Sub-Saharan
Africa and Southern Asia.