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					The Graduate Career Center

Proposal to Create an Improved Career Service for Graduate Students

Proposal to create a career service for graduate students to aid in career planning at Northern Michigan University Presented by Students for Graduate Student Resources Project Manager: Annessa Buckland Writer: Rafe DiDomenico Editor: Bobbi Nease Documentation Expert: Jessica Compton

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December 7, 2006 Dr. Leslie Wong, President of Northern Michigan University Dr. Cynthia Prosen, Graduate Student Dean John Frick, Director of Jobsearch Dr. Teresa Hunt, Professor and Project Overseer

The Students for Graduate Students Resources present our proposal to create a Graduate Career Center to aid in career planning at Northern Michigan University. This proposal primarily addresses the need for graduate student resources. Currently NMU has no services or programs specifically for graduate students. Surveyed graduate students feel there is no distinct assistance to graduate students in their pursuit of a career after graduation. The Students for Graduate Students Resources feel the best way to assist graduate students would be for NMU to create a Graduate Career Center. This service center will assist graduate students in their quest for a job after graduation. In addition this center would enrich the alumni and community university relationship. A specialized career center would address the short-comings most effectively, but, by to take financial considerations into account, The Students for Graduate Students Resources has explored two other options which would each, individually or together, help: forum criteria for each department that offers a graduate program, and mentor program for traditional graduate student. The Students for Graduate Students feel a Graduate Career Center for graduate students is most prudent option but all are a benefit. The Students for Graduate Students Resources would like to thank you for considering our proposal. Respectfully submitted,

_____________________________ Annessa Buckland, Project Manager _____________________________ Rafe DiDomenico, Writer _____________________________ Bobbi Nease, Editor _____________________________ Jessica Compton, Documentation Expert

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Acknowledgements
We thank Paul Duby, Northern Michigan University‘s Associate Vice-President of Institutional Research, for generating our survey and guiding our interpretation of its results. We also extend thanks to John Frick, Director of NMU‘s Job Search, for his support of our proposal and his information about current Job Search procedures and offerings. We appreciate Tom Lehker, Senior Assistant Director of Graduate Student Services and the Career Center at the University of Michigan, for taking the time to discuss with us his Center‘s processes and history. Many thanks to Dr. Ray Ventre, Professor of English and Director of English Masters Programs, who spoke with us about NMU‘s current mentor-student relationship protocols. Our thanks also go to Dr. Cynthia Prosen, NMU‘s Graduate Student Dean, for guiding our preliminary research. We also thank Professor Teresa Hunt for her guidance.

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Abstract
Graduate students make up a considerable percentage of the student body. These students have invested much time and money into their educations, many of whom spent their undergraduate careers, also, at NMU; they deserve the same employment resources available to undergraduates. Although NMU claims, via their graduate website, that ―completing a graduate program may provide you with more professional choices and opportunities than you currently have,‖ few resources for students exist to validate that statement. Graduate students don‘t suddenly realize career opportunities the minute they decide to pursue higher education; rather, they need guidance and education about various opportunities. We propose two options that we believe would remedy the lack of assistance available to graduate students planning their post-graduation lives. One option is a full-service Graduate Career Center, which would serve graduate students through both an extensive website and in an office on campus. This Center would provide students with career planning assistance, alumni contacts, and local, regional, and national job postings. We also recommend the implementation of formal Forum and Mentor Programs, which would help to orient graduate students as they move through their respective programs. Each department would conduct their own forums to explore careers in specific fields. The Mentor Program would formalize what is currently a weak, random process that most students don‘t know about. The implementation of all options is ideal for Northern‘s Graduate Studies Program. However, the creation of a Graduate Career Center is a vast undertaking, and we understand the limitations that budget and staffing can present. However, in order for NMU alumni to be successful in their career pursuits, the university must provide assistance with their job search.

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Table of Contents
1.0 Overview

List of Tables and Figures
Figure 1: Students Who Have Located Job Prospects……………….2 Figure 2: Students Who Would Use a Graduate JOBsearch Figure….2 Figure 3: Students Who Use Their Mentor For Career Information…5 Figure 4: Students Who Would Attend Departmental Forums………6

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Northern Michigan University lacks adequate resources for post-graduate students on campus. While undergraduates have multiple job fairs and information readily available, graduate students must unearth their own opportunities. We have formed a group to write a proposal that remedies this deficit, and have decided that creating an office to collect and coordinate employment resources is the best option. 1.0 Overview 1.1 Purpose: Graduate Student Resources Graduate students make up a considerable percentage of the student body. These students have invested much time and money into their educations, many of whom spent their undergraduate careers, also, at NMU; they deserve the same employment resources available to undergraduates. Although NMU claims, via their graduate website, that ―completing a graduate program may provide you with more professional choices and opportunities than you currently have,‖ few resources for students exist to validate that statement. Graduate students don‘t suddenly realize career opportunities the minute they decide to pursue higher education; rather, they need guidance and education about various opportunities. 1.2 Staff Qualifications Some information students would find helpful includes the names of, and contacts in, companies or organizations that have hosted interns in the past; access to a list of alumni that have the authority, and desire, to host interns or hire graduates; a more comprehensive index of local companies or organizations that are open to internships; and sample checklists and letters to aid in applying for internships. The university should also strive to bring representatives of companies interested in employing graduate students to campus. To handle the task of gathering and organizing all this information, we need to create a position dedicated to graduate students; whether this position is full-time or part-time is something our group must explore further. As a team of graduate students ourselves, we are fully aware of the uncertainty that many students feel looming near their graduation date, and we will do our best to alleviate that anxiety for future students. Our team consists of four members, each uniquely suited for their role in the project.  Project Manager – Annessa Buckland Annessa took the role of project manager because she works in a wellorganized and efficient manner, and will keep the group on task. Like any good leader, she makes informed decisions and can assert herself if the need arises. Writer – Rafe DiDomenico Rafe will serve as the group‘s writer because he can make the grammatical decisions necessary to keep our document clear and effective. He can also

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tie the individually created sections together, keeping them consistent and coherent.  Editor – Bobbi Nease Bobbi will serve as the editing expert. She has had two editorial internships, including one at W.W. Norton & Co. in New York City. She also has three years‘ worth of experience in NMU's Writing Center, where she revised student work and made suggestions for improvement. As the editing expert, Bobbi will revise portions of the report as they become available, as well as revise the entire finished product. Documentation Expert – Jessica Compton Jessica is qualified for document specialist because of her knowledge of Microsoft Windows and Apple Works programs. She has had many courses in computer programming and understands how to create charts and documents with different programs. She also has knowledge of how to put data and statistics into charts, and make them readable to the average person.

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2.0 Discussion A 2.1 Broad Recommendations: Career Advisement Center NMU offers many services and resources to help undergraduates find employment, but graduate students find these lacking. Other universities have extensive online stores of information, and coordinate many fairs and seminars, all specifically designed to help graduate students find experience and employment; NMU has nothing like this. The University needs an office to collect and coordinate resources for graduate students. 2.1.1 Existing Resources An overwhelming majority of students who responded to our survey have located no prospective jobs (see Fig. 1). A majority would also like to see career services tailored to graduate students. After a bit of searching, one can find a link online for The Academic and Career Advisement Center. This center makes a feeble attempt to provide a list of career options in the form of one page pamphlets, but the over-generalized list of

Yes 30%

No 70%
Fig. 1 Students Who Have Located Job Prospects

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possibilities they provide is by no means a useful guide. As an example, for a student wondering what to do with an English/graduate bound major, the pamphlet suggests ―broadcasting‖ and ―free lance writer.‖ These brochures offer no direction or guidance; students need to know for what careers their degrees qualify them and where to find those jobs. The rather useless statement ―previous experience or internships in any of these fields can increase your chances of employment greatly‖ doesn't explain where a student should look for places to gain experience or prospective internships. Students need to hear from people with experience about what they can really do with their degrees. The other resource students might utilize is the JOBsearch center. This is a great place for undergraduate students to gain information on employment, especially for part-time jobs during school or for the summer. JOBsearch also provides job fairs and resume builders. However, most of these endeavors exclude graduate students. The majority of jobs listed do not even require degrees, making this resource anything but an ideal place to launch an actual career. 92% of the graduate students who replied to our Fig. 2 Students Who Would Use A survey said they would use a version Graduate JOBsearch of JOBsearch intended for postgraduates (see Fig. 2). Graduate students pursue their education No further for one reason: to ensure 8% a successful future. A school that prides itself on generating educated and thoughtful human beings should ensure their progeny‘s success. 2.1.2 Resources at Other Universities By looking online at the websites of other universities, we have found that some schools have developed a remedy for this problem; the University of Michigan was the best example. Yes They have created a ―Career 92% Center‖ (http://www.cpp.umich.edu/), which helps students (even alumni) find the keys to landing their perfect jobs. U of M strives to encourage their students; on their homepage, under a quote by Henry David Thoreau which states ―Go confidently in the direction of your dreams, live the life you have imagined,‖ the Career Center emblazoned their mission statement:

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The Career Center‘s website is filled with information, resources and services to help you ‗dream and plan.‘ As you imagine the future, tap the Career Center and its staff to turn your dreams into reality. Via the Career Center website and their staff, students can find answers on many topics—from which careers they can secure with their degree, to how to find a job or internship. The site even features a special graduate student section that provides students with options for their future, as well as helps to manage The University of Michigan‘s career planning service. The graduate section begins: We recognize that graduate students have unique needs, and we have created many resources specifically to meet those needs. Our work often involves collaboration with academic units, employers and alumni. …we look forward to working with you to help you reach your goals, whatever they may be. These statements make it clear that The University of Michigan acknowledges that graduate students require special attention, and they provide services appropriately. Through the career center, The University of Michigan organizes seminars, job fairs and other events all aimed specifically at graduate students. 2.1.3 Suggestion for Impletion at NMU NMU should institute a limited version of The University of Michigan‘s Career Center. The University could accomplish this rather easily, by hosting the website and making office space available. In providing this absent, but much needed, information, NMU will not only secure a more successful future for its graduate students, but will also make itself an even more attractive place to study for students considering pursuing a master‘s degree. 2.2 Feasibility Few obstacles stand in the way of establishing a Graduate Career Advisement Center. NMU could house the center in a rather small office since most of the resources would exist online. The center would still need a few employees to collect and organize information, and to maintain the website. This means the center requires some funding to pay wages for those employees. 2.2.1 Staffing Two or three students could perform the daily tasks at the office, but the center should have a staff member who would provide continuity year to year, as student employees inherently rotate yearly.

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2.2.2 Funding We suggest that NMU pay the student employees the state minimum wage, and the staff employee would receive a salary consistent with comparable jobs on campus. The University would also need to provide computers and network server space. 2.2.3 Limitations Funding is the major limitation to the establishment of a Graduate Career Advisement Center. To overcome this, the office could function with reduced hours. Having just morning hours or operating only on Mondays, Wednesdays and Fridays would help reduce the cost of the center.

3.0 Discussion B 3.1 Broad Recommendations: Mentoring & Forums We propose a Forum and Mentor program that would assist graduate students at Northern Michigan University with not only their career search, but also academic advisement. Under this option, The University would need very little additional funding; each department would incorporate the cost for the Mentoring and Forum program into their individual budgets. 3.1.1 Mentoring Over half of the students surveyed said they did not use their mentors for career information. Formal studentYes mentor relationships would provide each graduate student 43% with a guided search for employment. Each graduate No student will find a mentor 57% from the faculty or campus community. This mentor will fill out a form in the Graduate Studies Office Fig. 3 Students Who Use Their taking official responsibility Mentor For Career Information for a specific graduate student. This mentor will assist their graduate student with such tasks as what courses to take, finding a job or internship in a career or area of interest. One credit hour will be earned for successfully completing the mentor program which will be required for graduation. This mentor would also sit on a graduate student‘s thesis committee.

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3.1.2 Forums A large majority of students indicated that they would attend career forums. Each department head would organize the forums, possibly utilizing alumni. These forums would provide information about possible career choices. The guest for each forum will cover their chosen area of study, speaking on careers, job searching Fig. 4 Students Who Would Attend skills, application process etc. Departmental Forums Department heads should focus primarily on alumni of NMU, but No could bring in any appropriate professional. Guest speakers 22% would ideally have leads on jobs through recruiters or within their own companies. 3.2 Feasibility 3.2.1 Faculty Workloads A faculty member will have no more than 4 graduate students to mentor each semester. If a student chooses a mentor that is not faculty, he or she would make arrangements with the Graduate Dean and the staff member‘s supervisor.

Yes 78%

3.2.2 Mentor/Forum Assignments All staff on campus should participate as a mentor. Each department would post a list of available mentors before the subsequent semester. Graduate students can find a mentor that is not campus related, with that person‘s consent and understanding of the responsibilities, he or she can become a Graduate Students mentor. The Graduate Studies Office must approve all mentorships. All Graduate Students will need to have their Mentor approved and on file by the start of their second year of graduate school. The responsibility for finding forum speakers lies with the department heads. Each department should hold at least one forum per semester. 3.2.3 Limitations If a student or mentor does not take the program seriously, the system would not work. Since each student needs the credit for graduation, students would need to take responsibility for ensuring that both they and their mentors contribute to the process. A mentor must set requirements that meet a student‘s needs and require his or her participation, and the student must adequately fulfill those requirements.

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4.0 Summary NMU has the responsibility to ensure that its graduates have all the information they need to succeed. That extends beyond five paragraph essays and math equations—we need to know where we can use these skills beyond the campus property. We need a resource that can give us all the information we need to secure our career and financial future. Graduate students are a valuable asset to the university and need as much support and encouragement as possible. Not all post-graduates plan on completing a doctorate, so the university cannot assume that students have their future plans figured out. At least as much attention needs to be paid to helping graduate students find employment as the university already spends on undergraduates; it‘s only fair. Those with master‘s degrees didn‘t intend to continue on after their baccalaureates at the expense of helpful career services. Our proposal aims to correct this disparity.

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5.0 Appendices Telephone Interview with Tom Lehker of U of M’s Career Center http://www.cpp.umich.edu/ Annessa spoke with Tom Lehker, Senior Assistant Director of Graduate Student Services and The Career Center. (She scribbled down notes as she asked him questions, so his answers are paraphrased rather than verbatim.) When did they implement a graduate-student part of the center? Oh gosh. It‘s been a long time; I don‘t even know how long. I mean, it‘s been decades. Did it come with the undergraduate or did it develop later? I‘d say they‘ve been around about the same time. Undergraduates are definitely our largest population, but we have a fair amount of graduate students that come in as well. What kinds of resources do they offer? Continuing education (a look at PhD schools?)? Internships? Jobs? We offer PhD programs, so we help students link that possibility with expanded career opportunities, as well as what their other options are in terms of full time careers after their masters. Internships are something that we dedicate a lot of time to; they‘re as important for students as a full-time career. Do they have listings that are available only if you are a U of M grad? Well, with the website, anyone can access that information; but basically it is set up as a resource for U of M students and alumni. Some resources, like the website, are community-wide. Do they get involved with career fairs, workshops and speakers? Oh yes, definitely. That is a primary part of what we do. Does one person handle graduate students? We have a big staff; about 20 people. We work as a team for students coming in for assistance, but we then would send graduate students looking for an informational conference to a few certain individuals. Are graduate students able to schedule appointments? Yes. So if a student comes in on the path for a particular degree, but they don’t know what to do with it, can you help show them some concrete options as to what they can do? Yes, definitely. That‘s the most important thing we can do for them. What is the cost involved? (For both the university and students?)

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The cost is free for students on almost everything, except for when they‘re looking to use certain self-assessment tools. How jobs are posted- does alum contact them with job postings? Alumni often come back to campus to talk with students about career options.

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Notes from Personal Meeting with John Frick How do you help graduate students find jobs after graduation? Use much more focused approach to finding jobs for graduate students than those of bachelor‘s degree. Help find jobs that are more geared toward academic focus. Finding jobs for graduate students depends on their curriculum vite, research they did for thesis or project, presentations, classes took. What sources do you use? Web, online, network source, network with people. Do you see a graduate student job fair being beneficial for graduate students? Employers don‘t care whether you have a masters degree or bachelor‘s degree. Graduate students have been successful at normal job fairs. Knowing that you can take the time and go for the goal of getting a master‘s degree makes you more desirable to an employer. There is no need for a separate job fair, wouldn‘t know who to ask that would be solely looking for graduate students. Alumni have a role in job obtainment. Would like to develop a networking site by alumni for location for graduates to look up, make contact and have alumni help these students find a job when they move to that area. Also the idea that Alumni post jobs from their companies available for students. 75% in a job search are successful because they knew someone in the company, or who got them the interview. Is there a chance for forums? Forums for all areas of study, discussion early on in academic career on what jobs are available after graduation for both undergrad and graduate. During 1st year graduate student or sophomore year undergrad would take this course. This could also be a one credit course that has student‘s continually meeting solely on looking for jobs, creating a portfolio etc. These forums or classes would also have Human Resources from companies come to this seminar and talk to students about what they are looking for, what they have available. *Graduate student seminar for all graduate students so that they meet with John Frick and Dept Heads and discuss how to find jobs, where to look, what resources are out there beyond graduation. Also allows graduate students to look at other programs in Graduate Dept and what jobs available that they could apply for. *More jobs being posted on corporate website, using own technology to locate employees compared to such services as monsterjobs.com, Mass job search services don‘t get you a job. *The skills you have not the job you‘ve had get you a job!

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Notes from Personal Interview with Ray Ventre about NMU’s mentor program for graduate students Is there a mentoring system in place? There is no official mentoring system; each student‘s advisor plays that role. TA‘s are required to acquire a faculty mentor. This formal relationship provides a non-judgmental person to go to for problems. What do you suggest for a mentoring program? Director of graduate programs would be a good source. All graduate students need to work with someone for their final project, whether it is a thesis, portfolio or internship. Currently, this is a non-structured intended mentoring system, although its original intention was to be more formal—there needs to be some kind of mentoring going on. We hope that graduate students will seek internships if interested, which would serve as an informal kind of system. Would a formal mentoring system be beneficial? A formal mentoring system would be a great idea! Whether it is doable or not depends on how formal you would like it to be. It wouldn‘t necessarily have to be a faculty member or NMU employee… the community gives back to NMU. By going outside of the university, it would strengthen town and university bonds. You could have students register with the Graduate Office through Graduate Student Association as a requirement with a one credit seminar. Students need to find someone within first year to use in the second year, a one on one relationship. This relationship will be more beneficial for the student during their second year of graduate school, when they are preparing to graduate and are beginning to look for jobs. These mentors could also sit on the students‘ thesis committee. The Graduate Student Union ought to initiate the mentor program.

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Graduate Student Survey

To the Graduate Students of Northern Michigan University:

Our mutual goal as students for college is to get a job after graduation? The students of EN 503 Technical and Professional Writing Workshop are conducting a CONFIDENTIAL survey directed towards job search on Northern Michigan University‘s campus. This survey is to help the students develop a proposal for an area of job search to be directly focused on graduate students and finding a job after graduation.

All responses will be completely confidential. Once the survey responses have been submitted, any linkage between the respondent and the response is completely and permanently severed. The anonymity is absolutely guaranteed by the Office of Institutional Research and Human Subjects Research and Review Committee of Northern Michigan University.

Please take the time to fill out this survey and return it as soon as possible.
“If you have any further questions regarding your rights as a participant in a research project you may contact Dr. Cynthia Prosen of the Human Subjects Research Review Committee of Northern Michigan University (906-227-2300) cprosen@nmu.edu. Any questions you have regarding the nature of this research project will be answered by Jessica Compton (906-361-5478) jcompton@nmu.edu or by Teresa Hunt (906-227-2920) thunt@nmu.edu.”

Thank you for taking the time to take this survey.

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Survey Results 1. Do you plan to earn your graduate degree in the next year? No: 33 Yes: 44 41% no, 59% yes 2. Have you begun to look for jobs in your chosen career area? No: 49 Yes: 25 66%no, 34% yes 3. Have you identified any likely prospects? No: 52 Yes: 23 71% no, 29% yes 4. What is your graduate department? Biology: 14% HPER: 3% Psychology: 11% Non-degree: 5% Political Science: 8% English: 27% Chemistry: 3% Education: 23% Masters of Public Administration: 8% 5. What graduate degree are you pursuing? Poetry: 1 Education: 2 Immunology: 1 MA Triple Track: 1 Writing Pedagogy: 2 Masters in Reading: 1 Masters of Learning Disability: 2 Masters of Public Administration: 1 Writing: 2 General Biology: 9 Exercise Science: 2 Training and Development: 7 Guidance Counseling: 6 Education Administration: 5 Human Resources Core: 1 Creative Writing: 9 Literature and Writing: 1 Literature: 1, Biology Chemistry: 2 Literature/Fiction Writing:1

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6. Do you think that NMU needs a separate resource beyond JOBSearch to assist graduate students in finding jobs/internships? Yes: 54 No: 17 No answer: 3 73% yes, 23% no, 4% did not respond 7. As a graduate student, have you ever used NMU’s JOBSearch center? No: 44 Yes: 30 59% yes, 41 % no If yes, please rate the career/internship related advice provided by the JOBSearch Center. 1=2 2=4 3=15 4=8 5=1 8. If it were available, would you use a JOBSearch service tailored to a graduate student’s needs that would help in finding jobs/internship? Yes: 68 No: 6 92% yes, 8% no 9. Do you currently have a faculty mentor assigned to help you in your graduate academic career? Yes: 46 No: 28 62% yes, 38% no If yes, do you use your faculty mentor/advisor for job related service? No: 26 Yes: 20 43% yes, 56% no If yes, please rate the career/internship related advice provided by your faculty mentor? 1=3 2=3 3=4 4=7 5=7 10. Would you attend forums held by your department which focus on professional development (e.g., speakers, organizational hiring practices)? Yes: 58 No: 16 78% answered yes, 22% answered no

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11. Please share any comments or suggestions that you feel would be beneficial for graduate students as they pursue jobs and internships?

*Am a non-traditional, retired student on senior scholarship program. Strongly recommend using all resources available. Start very early in your program, learn interview skills, and reflect the positive attributes of leadership. *Paid internships would be necessary for me *Most of the responses were "no" because I am already employed. I would say "yes" if I needed to find employment. I was disappointed with the faculty mentor program. Since beginning my graduate studies, I have had 6 mentors. The newest being assigned. *Take jobs related to your field as you are still in graduate school. It helps you get a foot in the door. *I would like to see more assistance in showing us what jobs we should be looking for. I know what my degree is but I truly don't understand where I can apply it, other than governmental organizations. I would like to see other areas, in private business. *Thanks *Inform us of online websites to use in order to find jobs related to our field of study. I often am unsure as where to look for jobs other than the usual(careerbuilder, monster, etc.) If there was a website designed for respected fields, it would be much *I'd like to explain my response to question #6: The JobSearch is a fantastic resource for all students, but I strongly feel that departmental faculty mentors have a responsibility to provide professional career advice - it happens sporadically. *Although this may be beyond the scope of this inquiry, there should be a better resource for locating PhD programs fitting a graduating Master's student's academic interests. Internet searches are frustratingly hit-or-miss, and dept professors and other c *i would like assistance with creating a professional website as it is becoming as esential as a resume. i would also like assistance with publishing papers in professional journals and magazines to improve my possibilities of being hired. if there were re *The undergraduates get a job fair and the graduate students should have one as well. In practice several job fairs may be needed for the variety of graduate programs. *Most of my answers are NO, because a lot of the questions do not relate to me. I will be going on for additional schooling after graduate school & I will not be looking for a job right away.

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*I have had a bad experience with my current advisor...which has put me in a tight spot for graduation in May. I think that there should be degree audits every semester for grad students. According to my advisor, I was on track for graduation and was follo *I want to eventually teach in college. It would be beneficial if there were some list of job openings for creative writing teachers. *Intern possibilities in the UP are difficult to secure. More help finding options would be great! *It's hard to comment on life outside the English department, but in English there isn't much focus on what happens after NMU. When possible future plans are discussed, they always relate to careers in academia. There are other options out there for intell *This should be an issue taken up by the Graduate Student Union to ensure that this valuable work you are beginning can continue beyond your seminar. Contact Anthony Guerrierro(aguerrie@nmu.edu), the GSU's graduate student representative on the Graduate Pl *I would also be interested in resources focusing on continued education as I am looking for PhD programs right now, not jobs. *In the future, more of my answers would probably be "yes," but as of right now I'm in my first semester of a three-year program... so I haven't started thinking about it all yet. *It is a fact that Biology graduate students take an unusually long time to finish their degree. This is directly related to the work load they are assigned. Teaching assistants are most definitely given more than 20 hours worth of work per week. Perhaps i *Less focus on Internships (not beneficial for Grad Students). *In addition to internships, I would like to see more graduate assistantships/teaching assistantships offered. There is next to nothing. Additionally, some in graduate programs plan to pursue doctoral studies, a push for graduate student research and publish. *am a first semester grad. student, and I have some contacts with regards to pursuing a Ph. D. program. You're survey didn't include those questions.

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Works Cited
The Career Center at the University of Michigan. University of Michigan. September 17, 2006 <http://www.cpp.umich.edu/>. College of Graduate Studeies. Northern Michigan University. September 17, 2006 <http://www.nmu.edu/graduate_studies/>. Frick, John. Personal interview. 26 October 2006. Lehker, Tom. Telephone interview. 11 September 2006. Mathes and Stephenson, Designing Technical Reports, 2nd edition. Prentice Hall, 1991. Prosen, Cynthia. Personal interview. 19 October 2006. Ventre, Ray. Personal interview. 15 November 2006. What to do With a Major In… Northern Michigan University: Academic and Career Advisement Center: 2006.

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