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RESPIRATORY PROTECTION

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					RESPIRATORY PROTECTION

      29 CFR 1910.134
RESPIRATOR PROGRAM
   Requires a written program with work-
    specific procedures when respirators are
    needed
   Must keep written program updated as
    needed
   A program administrator is required
   Employer must provide respirators,
    training, and medical evaluations at no
    cost to employees

                                               2
PROGRAM ELEMENTS
   Proper selection        Fit testing
   Medical evaluation      Breathing air quality
   Proper use              Training
   Care/maintenance        Program evaluation




                                                 3
WHEN RESPIRATORS ARE
USED BUT NOT REQUIRED
   If respirators will not create hazard and if
    requested, employer may furnish
    respirators for “comfort” only use
   If approved, employees may wear their
    own respirators for comfort only, but must
    follow program requirements
   Voluntary use of filtering masks has
    reduced program requirements
                                               4
PERMISSIBLE PRACTICES
   Engineering controls (enclosures,
    confinement of operations, ventilation, use of
    less toxic materials) are primary means to
    control hazards
   When effective engineering controls are not
    available, respirators will be used
   Respirators will be applicable to and suitable
    for the purpose intended
   Employer will be responsible for program
                                                     5
SELECTION
   Based on the respiratory hazards to which
    the worker is exposed, workplace factors,
    and user factors that affect respirator
    performance and reliability
   Respirators will be selected from a
    sufficient number of models and sizes to
    ensure correct fit and comfort



                                                6
TRAINING
   Employers (managers and supervisors) must
    provide appropriate and effective training to
    employees who are required to use
    respirators




                                                    7
TRAINING
   Employees must be trained and demonstrate
    skill or knowledge of at least:
     Why use is necessary
     How improper use and care can compromise
      respirator effectiveness
     Limitations and capabilities
     How to put on, remove, use, and inspect
     How to maintain and store
     General requirements of the standard

                                                 8
TRAINING
   Training must be provided prior to use
   Retraining is required at least annually,
    and whenever:
       Prior training becomes obsolete
       Employee’s skill or knowledge is deemed
        inadequate
       Any other situation arises in which
        retraining appears necessary


                                                  9
EMPLOYEE EXPOSURE
   Exposure to a concentration of an
    airborne contaminant that would occur if
    the employee were not using respiratory
    protection




                                               10
RESPIRATORY PROTECTION
   That portion of a respirator that
    forms the protective barrier between
    the user’s respiratory tract and
    contaminated air
   May be a facepiece, helmet, or hood
   May be tight fitting or loose fitting


                                            11
HAZARDOUS ATMOSPHERES
   Oxygen deficient or rich
   Toxic
   Environmental pollution
   Combination
   Flammable
   Immediately dangerous to life or health
    (IDLH)
                                          12
OXYGEN DEFICIENT
   An atmosphere with an oxygen content
    below 19.5% (normal is 20.9%)
   Spaces where oxygen may be depleted
    (confined spaces, boilers, tanks)
   Space where decomposition of organic
    material (sewers, silos, basements)


                                       13
CONTAMINATED
   Particles
   Gases
   Fumes
   Vapors
   Mists



                14
TWO RESPIRATOR TYPES
   Air purifying - Removes
    contaminates before reaching
    breathing zone
   Atmosphere supplying - Provides
    fresh air from an external source




                                        15
AIR PURIFYING
   Particulates
   Vapor and gas
   Combination
   Replaceable cartridge(s) or canister(s)




                                              16
AIR PURIFYING LIMITATIONS
   Does not supply oxygen
   Contaminant must be known and
    cannot exceed use limitations
   Non-IDLH use only
       Oxygen-deficient is IDLH
       Unknown airborne concentrations
        must be considered to be IDLH

                                          17
ATMOSPHERE SUPPLYING
   Type 1 - Airline respirator
   Type 2 - SCBA




                                  18
AIRLINE RESPIRATOR
   Has a pressure demand nozzle that
    allows user to control air flow
   Use grade D breathing air
   May be used with a hood or helmet to
    supply continuous air
   Hose limited to 300 feet
   Some mobility restriction

                                           19
SCBA
   Expensive to purchase and maintain’
   Breathing air provided from pressurized tanks
   Provides highest level of protection and mobility
   Commonly used in rescue or emergency
    situations
   Limited to air in tanks (30 or 60 minutes)
   Positive pressure provides maximum protection
    for both oxygen deficient and IDLH
   Standard requires fit testing of mask

                                                        20
SELECTION
   Must fit the wearer and be
    comfortable
   Must be the type which best
    abates the hazards
   Atmosphere hazard evaluation
    determines selection


                                   21
WRITTEN PLAN
   The program must be be assigned to a
    trained and competent person
   Describes in detail the hazard
    evaluation
   Contains procedures for selection, use,
    and maintenance


                                              22
WRITTEN PLAN
   Contains results of analysis of
    atmospheric contaminants
       Physical and chemical properties
       Adverse health effects
       Warning properties
       Permissible exposure limits (PELS)
       Other accepted exposure limits


                                             23
WRITTEN PLAN
   Additional plan criteria
       Results of workplace atmospheric
        testing
       Work requiring respirator use
       Time expected to complete the task
       Written plan to be made available to all
        involved employees

                                                   24
FIT TESTING
   Before an employee uses any
    respirator with a negative or positive
    pressure tight-fitting facepiece, the
    employee must be fit tested with the
    same make, model, style, and size of
    respirator that will be used
   Must be administered using an OSHA
    accepted protocol

                                             25
FIT TESTING
   Respirators rely on face-to-mask
    seal
   Fit testing determines which device
    will best fit and seal
   Stubble, beard, hairlines, glasses,
    and goggles will negatively affect fit
   Corrective lenses may be mounted
    inside the facepiece

                                             26
FIT TEST PROCEDURES
   Fit testing should be conducted
    annually, if facial features change
    or if a different respirator is used
   Users of tight fitting respirators
    must perform a user seal check
    each time the respirator is used


                                           27
TYPES OF FIT TESTING
   Qualitative (QLFT) – A challenge
    agent, vapor, or aerosol released
   Fit is inadequate if a presence of
    the agent is detected (irritation,
    taste, or odor)
   Quantitative (QNFT) - Measures
    actual level of agent both inside
    and outside the respirator
                                         28
FIT FACTOR
   A quantitative estimate of the fit
    of a particular respirator to a
    specific individual
   Ratio of:
     Concentration of a substance in
      ambient air
     Concentration of a substance inside
      the respirator
                                            29
FIT TESTING

   QLFT may only be used to fit test
    negative pressure air purifying
    respirators that achieve a fit factor of
    100 or less
   A fit factor of at least 100 for tight-
    fitting half facepieces, or 500 for tight-
    fitting full facepieces from a QNFT is
    acceptable
                                                 30
HEPA FILTERS
   High efficiency particulate air
   Removes 99.97% of particles that
    are 0.3 micrometers in diameter
       N, R, or P 100




                                       31
FILTERS/CARTRIDGES
   A component used in respirators to
    remove solid or liquid aerosols from
    inspired air
   Also called an air purifying cartridge




                                             32
CANISTER OR CARTRIDGE
   A container with a filter, sorbent
    (catalyst), or combination of these
    items, which removes specific
    contaminants from the air passed
    through the container




                                          33
SERVICE LIFE
   The period of time that a
    respirator, filter, sorbent, or other
    respiratory equipment provides
    adequate protection to the
    wearer




                                            34
END OF SERVICE LIFE
INDICATOR (ESLI)
   A system that warns the user of the
    approach of the end of adequate
    respiratory protection; e.g., sorbent is
    approaching saturation or is no longer
    effective




                                               35
NEGATIVE PRESSURE
RESPIRATOR
   A respirator in which the air pressure
    inside the facepiece is negative
    during inhalation with respect to the
    ambient air pressure outside the
    respirator




                                             36
FILTERING FACEPIECE
   A negative pressure particulate
    respirator with a filter as an integral
    part of the facepiece, or with the
    entire facepiece composed of the
    filtering medium
   “Dust mask”
   N, R, or P 95

                                              37
POSITIVE PRESSURE
RESPIRATOR
   A respirator in which the pressure
    inside the respiratory inlet covering
    exceeds the ambient air pressure
    outside the respirator




                                            38
POWERED AIR-PURIFYING
RESPIRATOR (PAPR)
   An air purifying respirator that uses
    a blower/motor to force ambient air
    through air-purifying elements to
    the inlet covering




                                            39
ATMOSPHERE-SUPPLYING
RESPIRATOR
   A respirator that supplies the user
    with breathing air from a source
    independent of the ambient
    atmosphere
   Includes supplied-air respirators and
    self contained breathing apparatus
    (SCBA)

                                            40
ATMOSPHERE-SUPPLYING
RESPIRATORS

   Continuous flow: Provides a
    continuous flow of breathing air to
    the respiratory inlet covering
   Pressure demand: Admits air to the
    facepiece when the positive pressure
    inside the facepiece is reduced by
    inhalation

                                           41
SUPPLIED AIR RESPIRATOR
   An atmosphere-supplying respirator
    for which the source of breathing air
    is not carried by the user
   Also called airline respirator




                                            42
SCBA
   An atmosphere-supplying
    respirator for which the breathing
    air is designed to be carried by the
    user




                                           43
    ESCAPE ONLY RESPIRATOR
   A respirator designed and intended to
    be used only for emergency exit




                                            44
POSITIVE PRESSURE FIT CHECK
   Block off exhalation valve with palm
   Blow outward gently
   A good fit results in the pressure
    holding and no leaks found




                                           45
NEGATIVE PRESSURE FIT CHECK
   Place palms over the inhalation inlets,
    or squeeze the breathing tube
   Inhale gently - facepiece should
    collapse slightly
   Hold breath about ten seconds
   Good test indicated by pressure holding
    and no leaks found


                                              46
CONTINUING EFFECTIVENESS
   Employees may leave the respirator
    use area:
       To wash face or facepiece
       If a “breakthrough” is detected
       There is a change in breathing
        resistance
       There is leakage of the facepiece
       To replace respirator, filter, cartridge, or
        canister
                                                       47
MAINTENANCE
   Inspection
   Decontamination
   Storage




                      48
INSPECTION
   Holes in the filters
   Loss of elasticity or tears in headstraps and
    hoses
   Broken or loose connectors and hoses
   Cracked or scratched facepieces
   Detergent residue
   Dirt in valves
   General cleanliness


                                                    49
CLEANING/DISINFECTING
   Follow manufacturers directions
   If worn by only one person, clean
    and disinfect periodically
   If possible to be worn by more than
    one person, clean and disinfect after
    each use


                                            50
STORAGE

   Must be protected from dust,
    sunlight, heat, cold, moisture, and
    chemicals
   Facepiece should be stored in an
    individual plastic bag
   Store masks with valves and
    breathing tubes in a natural,
    undistorted position
                                          51
IDLH ATMOSPHERES
   Only NIOSH certified for IDLH
    atmospheres may be used
   Full facepiece pressure demand
    SCBA, certified by NIOSH for a
    minimum service life of 30 minutes
   Combination full facepiece pressure
    demand SAR with auxiliary self-
    contained air supply
                                          52
NON IDLH ATMOSPHERES
   An atmosphere-supplying respirator
   An air-purifying respirator, provided
    that:
      Has ESLI certified by NIOSH; or

      A dependable canister change
       schedule
         Basis and reliance must be in

          writing
                                            53
PARTICULATES
   Atmosphere-supplying respirator
   Air-purifying respirator equipped with
    appropriate filters
       Air-purifying respirator equipped with
        any filter certified by NIOSH for the
        particulate



                                                 54
    IDLH ATMOSPHERES

   Two employees located outside
   Visual, voice, or signal
    communication must be maintained
   Outside employees must be trained
    in rescue
   Manager or supervisor must be
    notified before any rescue attempt

                                         55
IDLH ATMOSPHERES
   Rescuers must be provided necessary
    assistance and equipment:
       A pressure demand or other positive
        pressure SCBA or SAR with auxiliary SCBA
       Appropriate retrieval equipment
       Equipment means for rescue where
        retrieval equipment is not required


                                                   56
BREATHING AIR QUALITY

   Compressed breathing air must
    meet at least the requirements for
    grade D breathing air
   Systems supplying breathing air
    must be equipped with appropriate
    in-line air purifying sorbent beds
    and filters, and maintained per
    manufacturer’s instructions
                                         57
BREATHING AIR QUALITY
   Oxygen content of 19.5% - 23.5%
   No more than 5 milligrams of
    hydrocarbon (condensed) content per
    cubic meter (mg/m3) of air
   Carbon monoxide content no more than
    10 parts per million (ppm)
   Carbon dioxide content no more than
    1,000 ppm
   Lack of noticeable odor

                                           58
FILTERS (NIOSH)

   Three levels of filter efficiency (95%,
    99%, and 99.97%)
   Three levels of filter resistance to
    efficiency degradation (N, R, and P)
   Total of nine classes of filters



                                              59
FILTER SELECTION
   Selection of N, R, or P depends on
    whether there are oil particles
    present
   N for Not resistant to oil
   R for Resistant to oil
   P for oil Proof


                                         60
FILTER SELECTION
   No oil particles present
       Use any series (N, R, or P)
   Oil particles present
       Use only R or P series
   Oil particles present and filter is to be
    used more than one shift
       Use only P series

                                                61
PHYSICIAN OR LICENSED HEALTH CARE
PROFESSIONAL (PLHCP)

   Individuals whose legally permitted
    scope of practice (license,
    registration, or certification) allow
    them to independently provide, or be
    delegated the responsibility to
    provide, some or all of the health
    care services required by paragraph
    (e), medical evaluation
                                            62
MEDICAL EVALUATION
   Provide medical evaluation before fit testing
    and respirator use
   PLHCP may use questionnaire (sections 1 and
    2, part A of appendix C) or examination
   Follow-up is required for any positive
    response to questions 1-8 in section 2, part A
    of appendix C, or demonstrates the need
    during examination

                                                 63
MEDICAL EVALUATIONS
   Annual review is not automatically required
   Must provide evaluations if:
       Employee reports problem using device
       PLHCP, supervisor, or program administrator
        thinks there should be
       Observations during fit-testing indicates there
        should be
       Changes occur in the workplace or the
        employee

                                                          64
    RECORDKEEPING
   Training and medical records must be
    maintained and made available
   Fit test records must be maintained until
    the next test is administered
   A written copy of the current program must
    be maintained
   All written materials must be available to
    affected employees, and state and federal
    agents

                                                 65