LIS651 lecture 1 PHP basics by maclaren1


									LIS651 lecture 3

  taming PHP

   Thomas Krichel
• The PHP function reference is available on its
  web site It
  shows the impressive array of functions within
• But one of the strengths of PHP is that you can
  create your own functions as you please.
• If you recreate one of the built-in functions, your
  own function will have no effect.
               simplest function
function beer_print {
    print “beer\n”;
beer_print() ; // prints: beer
        A more practical example
• Stephanie Rubino was an English teacher and
  objects to sentences like
   You have ordered 1 bottles of Grosswald Pils.
• Let us define a function rubino_print(). It will take
  three arguments
   – a number to check for plural or singular
   – a word for the singular
   – a word for the plural
          function their argument
• use the keyword "function" and declare the
  arguments to the function, as in:
  function rubino_print ($number, $singular,$plural) {
    if($number == 1) {
       print "one $singular";
    else {
       print "$number $plural";
             default arguments
• Sometimes you want to allow a function to be
  called without giving all its arguments. You can do
  this by declaring a default value, using an equal
  sign in the function list
  function thomas_need($thing='beer') {
    print “Thomas needs $thing.\n";
  thomas_need();        // prints: Thomas needs beer.
  thomas_need(„vodka'); // prints: Thomas needs vodka.
rubino_print using common plurals
 function rubino_print ($num, $sing,$plur=1) {
     if($num == 1) {
        print "one $sing";
     elseif($plur ==1) {
        print "$num $sing"."s";
     else {
        print "$num $plur";
                     return value
• Up until now we have just looked at the effect of a
• “return” is a special command that returns a
• It takes the return value as a parameter
   return $result;
• When return is used, the function is left.
           rubino_print with return
function rubino_print ($number, $singular,$plural) {
  if($number == 1) {
     return "one $singular";
   return "$number $plural";
print "you ordered $order\n";
// prints: you ordered 2 beers.
 utility function for database queries
function mysql_fetch_all($query) {
   if($err=mysql_error()) {
     return $err;
   if( mysql_num_rows($r) ) {
     while($row=mysql_fetch_array($r)) {
     return $result;
            usage example
my $query="SELECT * FROM my_table";
if(is_array($rows=mysql_fetch_all($query)) {
   // do something
else { if (! is_null($rows)) {
       die("Query failed!");}
            visibility of variables
• Variables used inside a function are not visible
  from the outside. Example
  function yankeefy ($name='Sam Adams') {
  print $beer;    // prints: Karlsberg
• The variable inside the function is something
  different than the variables outside.
       accessing global variables.
• There are two ways to change a global variable,
  i.e. one that is defined in the main script.
• One is just to call it as $GLOBAL['name'] where
  name is the name of the global variable.
  function yankeefy ($name="Sam Adams") {
• The other is to change it outside a function
• Example in brewer_quiz.php
    working with many source files
• Many times it is useful to split a PHP script into
  several files.
• PHP has two mechanisms.
• require(file) requires the to be included. If the file
  is not there, PHP exits with an error.
• include(file) includes the file.
          require() and include()
• Both assume that you leave PHP. Thus within
  your included file you can write simple HTML.
• If you want to include PHP in your included file,
  you have to surround it by <?php and ?>, just like
  in a PHP script.
• Here is an example to use include to build the
  basic web page.
<meta http-equiv="content-type" content="text/html;
<link rel="stylesheet" type="text/css" href="main.css"/>
<p id="validator">
<a href=""><img
  style="border: 0pt"
  alt="Valid XHTML 1.0!" height="31" width="88" /></a>
$title="my basic page\n";
print "<div>hello, world</div>";
• $title in the top.html is not understood as the title.
  It reads as $title, which means "idiot" for your web
• Even if you replace $title with
   <?php $title ?>
    $title is empty. The definition from the outer file
  is not seen in the included file.
• So you have to split into three files, and print the
  title in the main file. I leave that to you to figure
   login.php & create_account.php
• Both require a database that has three fields
  – id which is an auto_increment int acting as a handle
  – username is the username of the account. it must be
    unique and this is enforced by mySQL
  – password is a varchar(41) because the sha1 of the
    password is stored. This is 40 chars long.
• You will recall that HTTP is a stateless protocol.
  Each request/response is self-contained.
• Statefulness is crucial in Web applications.
  Otherwise users have to authenticate every time
  they access a new page.
• Traditionally, one way to create statefullness is to
  use cookies.
• PHP uses cookies to create a concept of its own,
  sessions, that makes it all very easy.
• A cookie is a piece of attribute/value data. A
  server can send cookies as value of a HTTP
  header Set-Cookie:. Multiple headers may be
• When the client visits the web site again, it will
  send the cookie back to the server with a HTTP
  header Cookie:
• Set-Cookie: name=value; [expires= date;]
  [path=path;] [domain= domain] [secure]
• where
  – name= is the variable name set in the cookie
  – value= is the variable's value
  – date= is a date when the cookie expires
  – path= restricts the cookie to be sent only when requests
    to a path starting with path are made
  – domain= restricts the sending of the cookie to a certain
  – secure restricts transmission to https
• The browser compares the request it wants to
  make with the URL and the domain that sent the
• If the path is not set the cookie will only be sent to
  a request with the originating URL.
• If the cookie matches the request a request
  header of the form
   Cookie: name1=value1 ; name2=value2
   is sent.
• Sessions are a feature of PHP. PHP remembers
  a session through a special cookie PHPSESSID.
• To activate the sessions, include session_start();
  at the beginning of your script, before any printing
  has been done.
• One a session is active, you have a special
  super-global variable $_SESSION. Session data
  is stored in special files on wotan.
• This is an array where you can read and set
  variables that you want to keep during the
  if($_SESSION[user_name]) {
    print "welcome $_SESSION[user_name]";
  else {
    // show users login form
    print login_form();
              ending sessions
• At 9 and 39 past each hour, wotan deletes all
  session files that have not been changed for 24
  minutes or more.
• If you want to remove a session yourself, you can
  call session_destroy() in your script.

• An example is in visit.php.

      Thank you for your attention!

  Please switch off machines b4 leaving!

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