Leadership, Ethics and Weather Forecasting NEMAC’s “Chocolate Friday” Presentation February 17, 2006 Leadership Defined “Leadership is an influence relationship among leaders and their collaborators who intend real changes that reflect their mutual purposes.” (Rost, 1993) “A leader is defined as any person who influences individuals and groups within an organization, helps them in the establishment of goals and guides them towards the achievement of these goals…” (Nahavandi, 2003) “A relational process of people together attempting to accomplish change or make a difference to benefit the common good.” (Komives, Lucas and McMahon, 1998) Leadership Studies Interdisciplinary: Communication Ethics Psychology I: Intelligence and Personality Psychology II: Motivation Global and Multicultural Political Science: Power and Influence Philosophy and Classics Sociology and Anthropology Physics Environmental Sciences Biology Leadership’s Essential Components Ethical Decision Making Understanding our Multicultural Society Ethics Defined The study of moral obligations or of separating right from wrong. Ethics can also be a plural noun meaning the accepted guidelines of behavior for groups or institutions. In this sense, it means much the same as morals, which are an individuals determination of what is right from wrong; morals are influenced by a person’s values. Ethics becomes the vehicle for converting values into action. A leader should do the right thing, as perceived by a consensus of reasonable people. Right Versus Right Paradigm Dilemmas Truth versus loyalty Individual versus community Short-term versus long-term Justice versus mercy Right vs. Right Resolution Theories Most Useful Philosophical Theories: The Utilitarian Approach (Ends-based thinking) The Rights Approach (Rules-based thinking) The Golden Rule Approach (Care-based thinking) Sample Fact Pattern You’re eating an ice cream cone at a shopping center and you’ve nearly finished except for the unappealing bottom of the cone. If you hold it much longer, the melted ice cream will begin running down your hand and along your arm. There’s not a trash container to be seen. There is, however, a low hedge beside you, under which are lodged a few bits of trash. You consider throwing the cone into the hedge – but not until (being in an unusually philosophical mood) you ask yourself what the three resolution principles would counsel you to do. Application of Theories Ends-based Thinking A quick assessment of consequences suggests that (1) the shopping center probably employs sweepers to clean up the trash, and (2) the hedge is probably visited regularly by squirrels, birds, and ants. Your little piece of cone will hardly make any difference to the hedge or to the general neatness of the center: It will, in other words, be a largely inconsequential act. Decision: Throw it away. Application of Theories Rules-based Thinking You are setting the standard for the entire world. Throw it in the hedge, and you must be prepared to have everyone, from now to eternity, throw away the bottom of their ice cream cones under hedges, until shoppers all across the world are up to their eyeballs in soggy cone bottoms. Decision: Do not throw it away. Application of Theories Care-based Thinking How do you want others to behave? Don’t do what you don’t want others doing. How would you react if that woman ahead of you flipped her cone into the hedge? What about the child behind you who sees you? Don’t you want other adults to set good examples for your children, even in situations where an action that might be construed as a bad example is probably pardonable and might even be justified? Decision: Do not throw it away. Weather Forecasts and Public Warnings Dilemma Paradigm Truth versus loyalty Individual versus community? Short-term versus long-term Justice versus mercy Forecast Limitations 0 to 12 hours? 12 to 24 hours? 24 to 48 hours? Less than one week? Greater than one week? Specific areas? Amount of precipitation? Strength of winds? Threshold Leadership Questions How should leaders make a decision under uncertainty when an error might harm someone? How should leaders communicate about this uncertainty and risk to citizens? How should society respond to the problem of scientific uncertainty, as well as to the tensions raised as money and lawsuits challenge efforts to incorporate more evidence into regular forecasts? Application of Theories to Public Warning Ends-based Thinking A quick assessment of consequences suggests that (1) we cannot predict with enough specificity to be helpful, and (2) people have grown immune to these warnings because of prior inaccuracies, and (3) any warning will create some human injury due to anxiety and efforts to leave the area, and (4) the warning will have an adverse impact on business, and (5) civic leaders get angry about having to make these decisions based on such uncertainty. Decision: Wait as long as possible Application of Theories to Public Warning Rule-based Thinking We have a standard policy of alerting decision makers x number of days in advance. We don’t speak specifically about the threat until y days in advance. We use numerous computer models to track a storms direction. We don’t declare a state of emergency until after the storm hits. These procedures provide consistency of approach. Decision: We will give information and warnings on specified timetables and based on predetermined events. Application of Theories to Public Warning Care-based Thinking We will tell the public everything we know about how the storm will affect them without generating unnecessary anxiety and fear. We will give you specific information on the nature of the warning and its meaning. The warning will be focused in terms of time, location, possible outcome, and will be accompanied by practical instructions as to how the public should react. Decision: Tell the public what we know, when we know it, if we can also tell them what it means to them. Review of Public Warnings? What is common practice today? How has it changed? What was done for Katrina? Do you see reliance on one particular philosophical theory? Are we forthcoming in providing more information as scientific breakthroughs allow? Similar Situations? Terror Alerts Bird Flu Hazardous Material Disposal Air Quality Asteroids Global Warming Attitudes & Behaviors Towards Disaster Preparedness 67% said “very important” to take steps to prepare for a catastrophic disaster such as a hurricane. Only 22% have taken the initiative to receive specific information or to train on disaster preparedness and feel prepared for a catastrophic disaster. Approximately 50% don’t have information about emergency plans at work or their children’s schools. Most Americans believe being prepared for all types of disasters strengthens our national security. Most Americans said they would get prepared if it were made easy. Prepared for the American Red Cross by Wirthlin Worldwide, July 2004. The Bottom Line These are very tough choices--right versus right. We cannot duck them--we must face them. Once we face them--we must resolve them. Beyond getting it resolved--we must get it right. In getting it right, we must have the courage to stand up to the tough choices. There are no magic answer systems--moral principles won’t provide for precise decision making. Making ethical decisions depends on judgment, character, moral awareness, perception, discrimination, just to name just a few. But, the above three principles can help to guide your task of conscious reflection on moral choice. Leadership, Ethics and Weather Forecasting Thank you!
Pages to are hidden for
"Download PowerPoint of Presentation - PowerPoint Presentation"Please download to view full document