Implementation

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					Implementation
  Is the actual use of an innovation or
    what an innovation consists of in
practice. ~ Michael Fullan, Alan Pomfret
   Implementation
 Became a major educational concern around 1970,
when scholars began to highlight that the innovations
 of the 60’s had one fatal flaw—the ideas were not
        finding their way into the classroom!


Goodlad & Klein’s study, Behind the Classroom Door



Million$ of dollars were being spent on curriculum
      innovations and not being implemented.
        Implementation
             Did you know?
     90% of new curriculum fails to be
      implemented (Wiles & Bondi)

                   Why?
   Seymour Sarason claimed that much
educational reform has failed because those
   in charge of the efforts had little or a
 distorted understanding of the culture of
                  schools.
         Implementation
2 Valuable Ideas on practice of implementation
  1. Distinction between fidelity & mutual
                   expectation
  Fidelity- innovation being implemented
     faithfully as intended by developers
 Mutual adaptation- users adapt or alter the
    innovation to meet their own needs

 2. An understanding that implementation is
  multi-dimensional (consisting of materials,
           behaviors, and beliefs)
             Implementation
2 Phases
    Phase I 1995-1997- focuses on the
  innovation itself (no link to stud.
  Achievement)
    Phase II 1997- Present- focused on how
  curriculum change can be seen as a part of
  system reform. (focuses more on stud.
  Achievement)
PLANNING FOR CURRICULUM

  Careful planning focuses on 3 factors:
              1.     People
              2. Programs
              3.    Process
    PLANNING FOR CURRICULUM

3 Ways to Persuade for a new curriculum:

1. It could bring some reward
2. Negative consequences of inaction
3. Ways it is similar to the ones already in place
PLANNING FOR CURRICULUM

      1. Incrementalism
      2. Communication
          3. Support
PLANNING FOR CURRICULUM

           Types of Support
Characteristics of Professional Support
     VALUE & ROLE OF CHANGE
Implementation should also be considered as a process of change.
  Change needs to have purpose, not just political expediency.

                       Questions to consider :
                What happens when change occurs?
                What is the value & role of change?
                   What is the source of change?
          Are all the consequences of change beneficial?
         Can educators control changes that affect them?
 Do different educators engage in change for the same reasons?
 Do schools that make major changes actually become the most
                      innovative and effective?
            Is change synonymous with improvement?
     VALUE & ROLE of CHANGE

Activity:
Stand up if you agree with the following
  statement…..
EDUCATORS TODAY ARE MORE EXPERT IN
  MANAGING CHANGE THAN IN DETERMINING
  THE VALUES & BENEFITS OF CHANGE DESIRED
  & ACCOMPLISHED
     VALUE & ROLE of CHANGE
Activity:
Stand up if you agree with the following
  statement…..
MORE PEOPLE SEEM TO MANAGE CHANGE JUST
  TO BE IN COMPLIANCE WITH STATE AND
  FEDERAL DEMANDS THAN TO ENACT
  CURRICULAR CHANGE THAT WILL ACTUALLY
  INCREASE THE QUALITY OF INDIVIDUAL &
  SOCIAL LIFE FOR THE BENEFIT OF ALL.
     VALUE & ROLE of CHANGE
Activity:
Stand up if you agree with the following
  statement…..
EVEN WITH OUR VALUES IN PLACE REGARDING
  EDUCATIONAL CHANGE, WE CANNOT PREDICT,
  EVEN WITH LIMITED PRECISION, HOW
  SUCCESSFUL THE CHANGE ACTIVITIES WILL BE
  FOR THOSE INVOLVED (THE TEACHERS) AND
  THOSE WHO EXPERIENCE THE CHANGED
  CURRICULUM (THE STUDENTS)
     VALUE & ROLE of CHANGE
• PUZZLE ACTIVITY
      VALUE & ROLE OF CHANGE
5 Guidelines for Change
1. Innovations designed to increase student
   achievement
2. Successful innovations require change in the
   structure of a traditional school
3. Must be manageable & feasible for the average
   teacher
4. Successful change efforts must be organic rather
   than bureaucratic. (adaptive vs. strict rules)
5. Avoid the “do something, anything” mode
     VALUE & ROLE OF CHANGE
2 Ways to Change
• 1. Slow
• 2. Rapid

3 Types of Change
• 1. Planned
• 2. Coercion
• 3. Interaction
• (4. Random)
       RESISTANCE TO CHANGE
Factors of Resisting Change
1. Inertia (the lack of desire to change)
2. Status Quo (people are satisfied with what they
   already have in place)
3. Rapidity of Change (always the next new thing)
4. Teacher’s lack of research knowledge (lack of
   time to read)
5. No financial or time support
          RESISTANCE TO CHANGE
Thomas Harvey’s List on Change Resistance
1. Lack of ownership
2. Lack of benefits
3. Increased burdens
4. Lack of administrative support
5. Loneliness
6. Insecurity
7. Norm incongruence
8. Boredom
9. Chaos
10. Differential knowledge
11. Sudden wholesale of change
12. Unique points of resistance
          CHANGE AS A PROCESS
Factors to Consider
• The “lifeworld”
• The key players involved
• Teacher’s roles (‘see’ through different identities)

Stages of Change
1. Initiation- sets the stages, gets the school receptive
2. Implementation- presenting the innovation & getting
    people to try it out
3. Maintenance- monitoring of innovation
                         MODELS OF CHANGE
             ORC-Overcoming Resistance to Change
*Rests on the assumption that the success or failure of planned organizational change basically depends
on leaders’ ability to overcome staff resistance to change

Guidelines for this model:
a. Address peoples’ fears & doubts

b. Takes their values & perspectives into account

c. Gives school administrators & teachers equal power- involved in discussions and   decisions

Stages for this model:
1. Unrelated Concerns- no relationship between myself & the suggested change

2. Personal Concerns- How will this change affect me?

3. Task-Related Concerns- How do I implement it? How much time will it require? Materials?

4. Impact-Related Concerns- How will it impact my students?

KEY PLAYERS: Administrators, Directors, Teachers, Supervisors
                 MODELS OF CHANGE
       OD-Organizational Development Model
*Emphasis is on teamwork & organizational culture

(Schmuck & Miles~ post-modern ideas)
 7 Characteristics of this model: (French & Bell)
1. Emphasis on teamwork for addressing issues
2. Emphasis on group and intergroup processes
3. Use of action research
4. Collaboration within the organization
5. Organization’s culture must be considered
6. Those in charge serve as consultants & facilitators
7. Appreciation of organization’s dynamics in a continuously changing environment.
KEY PLAYERS:      Administrators, Directors, Supervisors
                          MODELS OF CHANGE
                     CBA-Concerns-Based Adoption
*Based on the belief that all change originates with individuals. (Individuals change, and through their
changed behaviors, institutions change.)
*This model addresses only the adoption (implementation) of curriculum, not development and design.
THE FOCUS IS ON ENABLING TEACHERS TO ADOPT THE CURRICULUM & TO VIEW IT AS THEIR
OWN.

*Stages for this model:
1.         Awareness of innovation
2.         Awareness of informational level
3.         Concern for self
4.         Concern for teaching
5.         Concern for students
*In this model, curriculum is not implemented until teachers’ concerns have been adequately addressed.
Teachers are expected to be creative with it and modify where necessary, tailoring it to their students.


KEY PLAYERS: Teachers
                       MODELS OF CHANGE
                                      SYSTEMS Model
*This model is based on the idea that the school is an organization of loosely coupled units:
departments, classrooms, and individuals. These parts have flexible relationships. The belief is that
most schools have little centralized control, especially over what occurs in the classroom. For this
reason, it is difficult for curricular change to be implemented as an edict from central office
 Wisdom for Promoting Change within this model:
1.        Progress from certainty to ambiguity
2.        Allow for some chaos in your order
3.        Look beyond the person to the behavior
4.        Realize that people who feel victimized resist change
5.        Use your fallibility to build your credibility
6.        Be sensitive
7.        Upgrade permanent to temporary
8.        Have humor
KEY PLAYERS: Administrators, Directors, Teachers, Supervisors
  EDUCATIONAL CHANGE MODEL:
        (Michael Fullan)
   FACTORS AFFECTING CHANGE
       1. Characteristics of the change
  2. Characteristics at the school-district level
     3. Characteristics at the school level
 4. Characteristics external to the local system

                  KEY PLAYERS:
Administrators, teachers, students, school board,
        community members, government
         CONCLUSION

 Curriculum implementation is much more
than handing out new materials for courses
                   of study.
    It requires an understanding of the
  program’s purpose, the roles people will
     play, and those who are affected.
   The process must be planned, but not
                    rigidly.
     It requires continued fine-tuning.
      It requires a community of trust.

				
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