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SIMPLE PRESENT

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					                                               SIMPLE PRESENT

Simple present tense digunakan untuk menunjukan suatu peristiwa, kejadian, kegiatan yang terjadi
berulang-ulang atau merupakan suatu kebiasan habit.

I leave for office at 7 every morning.
My brother works five days a week
I get up at 6 a.m. every day.

Simple present digunakan untuk menunjukan suatu fakta (fact ) atau suatu yang merupakan
kebenaran umum (general truth).

The sun shines in the east and sets up in the west.
The River Nile flow into Mediteranian.
Cows give milk and sheep give wool.

Simple present digunakan untuk menunjukan sesuatu yang akan terjadi pada waktu yang akan
datang jika kita membicarakan suatu jadwal, program dan lain-lain.

The second film begin at 9 p.m.
The first train leaves at 10 a.m.
Tomorrow is Friday.

Pada umumnya, kata kerja ditambah dengan akhiran “s” jika subjeknya orang ketiga tunggal (the
third person singular – he/she/it )

I work six days a week                         John plays tennis every Saturday
We play tennis every Saturday                  morning.
morning.                                       Yull works six days a week


Akhiran “es” digunakan pada kata kerja yang akhirnya “ s, ch, sh, o”, jika subjeknya orang ketiga
tunggal. Kata kerja yang huruf akhirnya ”y” dan didahului huruf mati, y ditukar dengan ”i”,
kemudian ditambah ”es”.

I pass your house every day.                  He passes your house every day
You watch TV.                                 She watches TV
I study English twice a week                  He studies English twice a week

Pattern

       Kalimat            Affirmative (+)        Negative (-)     Interrogative (?)     Keterangan
                         S + To be (am, is,
    I am a teacher                              S + To be + not      To be + S        Kalimat Nominal
                               are)
                                               S + Do not/Does    Do/Does + S +
  He plays foot ball     S + Verb I + s/es                                            Kalimat Verbal
                                                  not Verb I         Verb I
                             S + Aux
 You can go to school                           S + Aux + Not         Aux + S           Kata Bantu
                        (can,may,must, dll.)

Tanda Waktu :
always, as a rule, generally, normally, usually, often, every day, every week, every month, every
year, every evening, every Monday, in the morning, in march.
                         PRESENT CONTINUOUS TENSE
     Present continuous tense digunakan untuk menunjukan suatu kejadian atau
          peristiwa yang sedang atau berlangsung saat kita sedang bicara.

Jack is painting the house.
Mother is serving our dinner.
They are working in the garden.

Present continuous tense digunakan untuk menunjukan suatu kejadian atau peristiwa yang bersifat
sementara.

Breda is always busy because she is working on her thesis.
Jack is staying in my friend‟s flat at the moment.
His elder brother is working in a bank.

Present continuous tense digunakan untuk menunjukan suatu keadaa atau situasi yang berubah-
ubah.

The cost of living in our country is increasing.
The population of the world is rising very fast.

Present continuous tense digunakan untuk menunjukan sesuatu yang akan dilakukan di waktu yang
akan datang dan telah direncanakan/ditentukan sebelumnya.

I am spending my vacation in Bali next week.
We are working in this building next week.

Beberapa kata kerja tidak digunakan dalam present tense.Kata kerja yang tidak diguanakan dalam
present countinuous :

Belong                                       Seem
Know                                         Hate
Remember                                     Prefer
Believe                                      Understand
Love                                         Forget
See                                          Realize
Hear                                         Want
Need

Contoh :

Salah                                          Benar
She is knowing them all.                       She knows them all.
I am understanding what you say.               I understand what you say.

Pattern

          Kalimat                Affirmative (+)         Negative (-)         Interrogative (?)     Keterangan
 I am writing the letter now   S + To be + V (ing) S + To be + not + V (ing) To be + S + V (ing)   Kalimat Verbal
Tanda Waktu :
Now, right now, to day, soon, at present, this morning, this afternoon, tonight, tomorrow, in a few
days



                          PRESENT PERFECT TENSE
Present perfect tense digunakan untuk menunjukan suatu kejadian atau peristiwa
   yang terjadi pada waktu lampau dan masih berlangsung sampai sekarang.

They occupied the house for ten years.
John has studied English for two years.
My elder brother has worked here for three years

Present perfect tense digunakan untuk menunjukan suatu kejadian atau peristiwa yang terjadi pada
waktu lampau dan masih ada hubungannya denganwaktu sekarang atau akibatnya dapat
dilihat/dirasakan sekarang.

He has just bought a new motorcycle.
Linda has passed from senior high school
Jack has just left for office

Present perfect tense juga digunakan dengan “this morning, this afternoon, today, this month, this
year“ untuk menunjukan bahwa sesuatu kejadian atau perbuatan telah dilakukan berulang-ulang kali

I have tried to contact her three times this morning
The man has visited this city twice this month.
He have smoked six cigarette today.

Pattern

       Kalimat             Affirmative (+)            Negative (-)          Interrogative (?)     Keterangan
  Wulan has brought      S + have/has + Verb   S + have/has + not + Verb
                                                                         Have/has + S + Verb III Kalimat Verbal
       my book                bentuk III                  III
I have been here since
                         S + have/has + been   S + have/has + not + been   Have/has + S +been   Kalimat Verbal
       morning

Tanda Waktu :
Once, twice, just, already, so far, never, ever, many time, this week, for an hour, several times, at
last, since



                 PRESENT PERFECT CONTONUOUS TENSE
Present perfect continuos tense digunakan untuk menunjukan suatu kejadian atau
 peristiwa yang terjadi pada waktu lampau, masih berlangsung sampai sekarang
           dan masih akan berlangsung padawaktu yang akan datang.

I‟ve been living here for three years.
Jenny has been studying English for ten months.
Present perfect continuos tense juga digunakan untuk menanyakan atau menyatakan sudah berapa
lama berlangsungnya suatu kejadian atau peristiwa.

How long has he been studying IT?
Have you been waiting for me long?

Present perfect continuos tense juga digunakan dengan ”how long, since atau for” untuk
menunjukan suatau kegiatan atau peristiwa berulang-ulang.

Jack has been playing football since he was ten years old.
My father has been smoking for twenty years.

Pattern

      Kalimat           Affirmative (+)             Negative (-)              Interrogative (?)        Keterangan
    I have been
                  S + have/has + been + Verb S + have/has + not + been Have/has + S + been + Verb I +
 learning English                                                                                     Kalimat Verbal
                           I + (ing)              + Verb I + (ing)                   (ing
     for a year

Tanda Waktu :
For, since, long, for over two years, the whole day, since , all morning, the whole night



                                    Verb Tense Exercise 1
                              Simple Present / Present Continuous
1. Every Monday, Sally (drive) ________ her kids to football practice.

2. Usually, I (work) _________ as a secretary at ABT, but this summer I (study)________ French at
a language school in Paris. That is why I am in Paris.

3. Shhhhh! Be quiet! John (sleep) __________ .

4. Don't forget to take your umbrella. It (rain)__________ .

5. I hate living in Seattle because it (rain, always)________ .

6. I'm sorry I can't hear what you (say) ________ because everybody (talk) ___________ so loudly.

7. Justin (write, currently) __________ a book about his adventures in Tibet. I hope he can find a
good publisher when he is finished.

8. Jim: Do you want to come over for dinner tonight?
Denise: Oh, I'm sorry, I can't. I (go)_______ to a movie tonight with some friends.

9. The business cards (be, normally ) ___________ printed by a company in New York. Their
prices (be) _________ inexpensive, yet the quality of their work is quite good.

10. This delicious chocolate (be) _________ made by a small chocolatier in Zurich, Switzerland.
                                   Verb Tense Exercise 2
                             Simple Present / Present Continuous
A Trekking Journal

November 12, 1997

Today (be) ______ the second day of my trek around Mount Annapurna. I am exhausted and my
legs (shake) ________; I just hope I am able to complete the trek. My feet (kill, really)________ me
and my toes (bleed)_______ , but I (want, still)_______ to continue.

Nepal is a fascinating country, but I have a great deal to learn. Everything (be) _______ so
different, and I (try) ______ to adapt to the new way of life here. I (learn) ______ a little bit of the
language to make communication easier; unfortunately, I (learn, not) ________ foreign languages
quickly. Although I (understand, not) ________ much yet, I believe that I (improve, gradually)
___________.

I (travel, currently) _________ with Liam, a student from Leeds University in England. He (be)
_________ a nice guy, but impatient. He (walk, always) _________ ahead of me and (complain)
__________ that I am too slow. I (do) ________ my best to keep up with him, but he is younger
and stronger than I am. Maybe, I am just feeling sorry for myself because I am getting old.

Right now, Liam (sit) ________ with the owner of the inn. They (discuss) ________ the differences
between life in England and life in Nepal. I (know, not) ________ the real name of the owner, but
everybody (call, just) ________ him Tam. Tam (speak) ________ English very well and he (try)
________ to teach Liam some words in Nepali. Every time Tam (say) ________a new word, Liam
(try) ________ to repeat it. Unfortunately, Liam (seem, also) ________ to have difficulty learning
foreign languages. I just hope we don't get lost and have to ask for directions.



                                      SIMPLE PAST TENSE


  Simple past tense digunakan untuk menunjukan suatu peristiwa, kejadian, atau
                      kedaan yang terjadi pada waktu lampau

I met my music teacher yesterday.
My mother bought a new carpet last Sunday.
Rendy closed the window five minutes ago.
The students presented their project work this morning.


Kata kerja beraturan (regular verb) dibentuk dengan menambahkan akhiran “d/ed” pada kata kerja
pertama (infinitive). Jika kata kerja berkakhiran huruf ”d” atau ”y” akhiran ”ed” diucapkan ”id”.


I wanted to see the Personal Manager yesterday.
He decided to return to Bali.
Kata kerja yang tidak beraturan (irregular verb) tidak dibentuk dengan menmabahkan akhiran
“d/ed” pad akata kerja. Kata kerja tidak beraturan mempunyai bentuk tersendiri.


I bought this map last week
She went to Indonesia six weeks ago

Pattern

      Kalimat       Affirmative (+)              Negative (-)              Interrogative (?)         Keterangan
I bought a book
                   S + Verb bentuk II       S + did + not + Verb I         Did + S + Verb I
two days ago                                                                                       Kalimat Verbal
Amy could come
                        S + Aux          S + Aux (could, might, must) Aux (could, might, must) +
to my office                                                                                         Kata bantu
                  (could, might, must)              + not                         S
yesterday
I was a student
                  S + To be (was/were)   S + To be (was/were) + not     To be (was/were) + S       Kalimat Nominal
last year

Tanda Waktu :
Yesterday, last Monday, an hour ago, the day before yesterday, last year, last night, in 1945, the
other day



                                         PAST CONTINUOUS


Past continuous tense digunakan untuk menunjukan suatu kejadian atau peristiwa
          yang sedang terjadi pada suatu saat tertentu di waktu lampau

We were watching TV at 09.00 o‟clock last night
I was doing my homework at 2 p.m yesterday

Past continuous tense digunakan untuk menunjukan suatu kejadian atau peristiwa yang sedang
terjadi pada waktu lampau, kemudian kejadian lain menyusul

When my father came home last night, my little sister was watching TV
Jack were waiting for a bus whe I met him yesterday afternoon

Past continuous tense digunakan untuk menunjukan dua kejadian atau peristiwa yang sedang
berlangsung pada saat yang sama di waktu lampau

While father was reading an book, the children were watching TV
We were discussing the lesson while professor was speaking to his guest.

Patern

         Kalimat               Affirmative (+)              Negative (-)       Interrogative (?)   Keterangan
He was reading a book      S + To be (was/were) +     S + To be (was/were) + To be (was/were) + S Kalimat Verbal
when father watched TV      Verb bentuk I + (ing)       not + Verb I + (ing)   + Verb I + (ing)
Tanda Waktu :
When, while, the whole day last Sunday, all morning yesterday



                                      PAST PERFECT TENSE


   Past perfect tense digunakan untuk menunjukan suatu kejadian atau peristiwa
   yang telah terjadi pada masa lampu, kemudian kejadian itu lainnya menyusul

I had got a permanent job when I decided to marry Jane
After John had got a job, his father passed away

Past perfect tense digunakan dalam indirect speech jika reporting verb dalam simple past

Direct : Robert said, “ I have read the novel twice‟”.
Indirect : Robert said that he had read the novel twice

Past perfect tense digunakan dalam bentuk kalimat tanya bisa digunakan untuk menunjukan suatu
past unreak dalamconditionl type III

If I had known you that you were threre, we would have come to yuor house
If I had found the right buyer, I would have sold the car

Pattern

         Kalimat            Affirmative (+)        Negative (-)        Interrogative (?)  Keterangan
I had been at school when   S + had + been     S + had + not + been     Had + S +been      Kalimat
you went to Jakarta                                                                        Nominal
She had slept when I        S + had + Verb    S + had + not + Verb III Had + S + Verb III  Kalimat
came last night                bentuk III                                                   Verbal

Tanda Waktu :
Before, after, until, as soon as



                                       Verb Tense Exercise 1
                                      Simple Past / Past Perfect
I can't believe I (get) _______ that apartment. I (submit) _______ my application last week, but I
didn't think I had a chance of actually getting it. When I (show) _______ up to take a look around,
there were at least twenty other people who (arrive) _______ before me. Most of them (fill, already)
_______ out their applications and were already leaving. The landlord said I could still apply, so I
did.

I (try) _______ to fill out the form, but I couldn't answer half of the questions. They (want)
_______ me to include references, but I didn't want to list my previous landlord because I (have)
_______ some problems with him in the past and I knew he wouldn't recommend me. I (end)
_______ up listing my father as a reference.
It was total luck that he (decide) _______ to give me the apartment. It turns out that the landlord
and my father (go) _______ to high school together. He decided that I could have the apartment
before he (look) _______ at my credit report. I really lucked out!



                                  Verb Tense Exercise 2
                           Past Perfect / Past Perfect Continuous
I'm sorry I left without you last night, but I told you to meet me early because the show started at
8:00. I (try) ________ to get tickets for that play for months, and I didn't want to miss it. By the
time I finally left the coffee shop where we were supposed to meet, I (have) ________ five cups of
coffee and I (wait) ________ over an hour. I had to leave because I (arrange) ________ to meet
Kathy in front of the theater.

When I arrived at the theater, Kathy (pick, already) ________ up the tickets and she was waiting for
us near the entrance. She was really angry because she (wait) ________ for more than half an hour.
She said she (give, almost) ________ up and (go) ________ into the theater without us.

Kathy told me you (be) ________ late several times in the past and that she would not make plans
with you again in the future. She mentioned that she (miss) ________ several movies because of
your late arrivals. I think you owe her an apology. And in the future, I suggest you be on time!



                         SIMPLE FUTURE TENSE SHALL/WILL

Simple Future tense digunakan untuk menunjukan suatu kejadian atau peristiwa yang akan terjadi
atau dilakukan pada waktu yang akan dating. Untuk menunjukan suatu rencana, “will” digunakan
untuk semua kata ganti

Shall dan will digunakan untuk orang pertama tunggal dan orang pertama jamak, Dalam British
English, shall lebih sering digunakan untuk I dan We. Namun will untuk semua kata ganti.


I shall/will probably see them next week
We shal//will probably see them next week

Namun dalam bahasa lisan biasanya digunakan bentuk singkatan yatou I‟ll dan We‟ll

I‟ll probably see them next week
We „ll probably see them next week

Will digunakan ketika kita memutuskan akan berbuat sesuatu ketika kit sedang bicara

A: What do you want to drink?
B: I‟ll have some coffee, please

Will digunakan untuk menawarkan atau untuk berbuat sesuatu

A : This suitcase is very heavy
B : I will help you to bring it
Will juga sering digunakan dengan kata-kata expect, probably, sure dan think


I expect taht she willcome back tonight
I will probably come late tomorrow morning
I am sure they will enjoy staying with us for a few days.
I think she will win the game

Will digunakan untuk menujukan suatu ramalan

It will rain hard tonight
Who will win the game ?

Will you digunakan untuk menunjukan suatu permintaan atau undangan

Will you hold the door open,please?
Will you lend me the novel,please ?

Shall I…..atau Shall we…….(dalam bentuk pertanyaan) digunakan untuk menyarankan atau
menawarkan sesuatu

Shall I pick him up tomorrow ?
Where shall have lunch today ?



                         SIMPLE FUTURE TENSE BE GOING TO


      Be going to digunakan untuk menunjukan apabila kita memutuskan akan
    melakukan atau berbuat sesuatu di masa yang akan datang dan apa yang kita
     lakukan itu memang telah kita rencanakan atau kita putuskan sebelumnya

Pada suatu pagi Mr.Allen berkata pada anaknya, Jcak
Mr.Allen : The table in the dinning room is broken. Can you repair it?
Jcak : Yes, father.I am still tired. I will repair it after having lunch

Satu jam kemudian Mrs.Allen berkata pada Jcak.
Mr.Allen : The table in the dinning room is broken. Can you repair it?
Jcak : Yes, father.has just told. I am still tired and I am going to repair it after having lunch

Be going to juga digunakan untuk menunjukan suatu kejadian atau peristiwa yang akan terjadi pada
waktu yang akan datang berdasarkan suatu pertanda yang ada pada waktu sekarang.

I‟m feeling not so well.I‟m going to be sick
Look at those black clouds.It going to rain heavily tonight.

Pattern

        Kalimat           Affirmative (+)           Negative (-)        Interrogative (?)      Keterangan
I shall be a doctor     S +Shall/Will + Be     S + Shall/Will + Be +   Shall/Will + S + Be   Kalimat Nominal
                                                        not
They will help me       S + Shall/Will + Verb bentuk S + Shall/Will + not + Shall/Will + S + Verb I Kalimat Verbal
                                      I                     Verb I
The train is going to   S + To be + GoingTo + Verb S + To be + not + To be + S + Going To + Kalimat Verbal
arrive at the station             bentuk I             Going To + Verb I           Verb I

Tanda Waktu :
Tomorrow, to night, next week, soon, till, this afternoon, if, when, until




                                   FUTURE CONTINUOUS TENSE


  Future continuous digunakan untuk menunjukan suatu kejadian atau peristiwa
yang segera akan berlangsung pada suatu saat tertentu di waktu yang akan datang,
       khusunya apabila kita membayangkan bahwa kita sendiri yang akan
  melakukannya. Future continuous sering menggunakan kata : work, learn, live,
               rain, sit, wait, yang biasanya menujukan kontinuitas.

         They will be working on the new project by next week.
          By this time next week, I will be returning the book to the library.

Future continuous tense digunakan untuk menunjukan suatu yang telah direncanakan atau
diputuskan sebelumnya. Dalam hal ini, future continuous tense sama dengan present continuous.

         I will be spending the winter in Switzerland.
          Atau
          I am spending the winter in Switzerland.

Pattern

         Kalimat             Affirmative (+)           Negative (-)              Interrogative (?)     Keterangan
They will be playing      S + Shall/Will + be + S + Shall/Will + not + be + Shall/Will + S +be + Verb Kalimat Verbal
foot ball next week       Verb bentuk I + (ing)       Verb I + (ing)                 I + (ing)




                           FUTURE PERFECT TENSE
 Future perfect tense sering menggunakan “by” dan “not…till/until”. Digunakan
 untuk menunjukan bahwa suatu kejadian atau peristiwa sudah akan terjadi atau
       berlangsung sebelum suatu saat tertentu diwaktu yang akan datang.

Father will have retiredby the year 2003
Our contractor will have completed the building by the end of this month
Pattern

       Kalimat                    Affirmative (+)            Negative (-)                              Interrogative (?)               Keterangan
Rany will have been            S + Shall/Will + have S + Shall/Will + not + have +                  Shall/Will + S + have +             Kalimat
at market                             + been                    been                                         been                       Nominal
She will have brought a book    S + Shall/Will + have +    S + Shall/Will + not + have + Verb III   Shall/Will + S + have + Verb III   Kalimat Verba
                                    Verb bentuk III




                                                          Verb Tense Exercise 1
                                                           Will / Be Going To
1. A: Why are you holding a piece of paper?
B: I (write) _______ a letter to my friends back home in Texas.

__________________________________________________

2. A: I'm about to fall asleep. I need to wake up!
B: I (get) _______ you a cup of coffee. That will wake you up.

__________________________________________________

3. A: I can't hear the television!
B: I (turn) _______ it up so you can hear it.

__________________________________________________

4. We are so excited about our trip next month to France. We (visit) _______ Paris, Nice and
Grenoble.

__________________________________________________

5. Sarah (come) _______ to the party. Oliver (be) _______ there as well.

__________________________________________________

6. Ted: It is so hot in here!
Sarah: I (turn) _______ the air-conditioning on.

__________________________________________________

7. I think he (be) _______ the next President of the United States.

__________________________________________________

8. After I graduate, I (attend) _______ medical school and become a doctor. I have wanted to be a
doctor all my life.

__________________________________________________
9. A: Excuse me, I need to talk to someone about our hotel room. I am afraid it is simply too small
for four people.
B: That man at the service counter (help) _______ you.

__________________________________________________

10. As soon as the weather clears up, we (walk) _______ down to the beach and go swimming.



                                     Verb Tense Exercise 2
                                      Will / Be Going To
1.
Mark: What are you doing with those scissors?
Beth: I (cut) _______ that picture of the ocean out of the travel magazine.
Mark: What (you, do) _______ with it?
Beth: I (paint) _______ a watercolor of the ocean for my art class, and I thought I could use this
photograph as a model.

2.
Mark: (you, do) _______ me a favor, Sam?
Sam: Sure, what do you want me to do?
Mark: I (change) _______ the broken light bulb in the lamp above the dining room table. I need
someone to hold the ladder for me while I am up there.
Sam: No problem, I (hold) _______ it for you.

3.
Gina: Where are you going?
Ted: I (go) _______ to the store to pick up some groceries.
Gina: What (you, get) _______ ?
Ted: I (buy) _______ some milk, some bread, and some coffee.

4.
John: Wow, it's freezing out there.
Jane: I (make) _______ some coffee to warm us up. Do you want a piece of pie as well?
John: Coffee sounds great! But I (have) _______ dinner with some friends later, so I'd better skip
the pie.
Jane: I (go) _______ to dinner tonight too, but I'm having a piece of pie anyway.

5.
Frank: I heard you're taking a Spanish class at the community college.
Tom: Yeah, I (go) _______ to Guatemala next spring and I thought knowing a little Spanish would
make the trip easier.
Frank: I (visit) _______ my brother in Marseilles next year. Maybe I should take a French class.
Tom: I have a course catalog in the other room. I (go) _______ get it, and we can see whether or not
they're offering a French course next semester.



                                   CAN/COULD
      Can dan could artinya dan diikuti bare infinitive (infinitive tanpa to).Jika
subjeknya kalimat orang ketiga tunggal (he,she,it) kata kerja tidak boleh ditambah
                                  „s‟ atau „es‟.

Salah : I can to come to your house tonight.
Benar : I can come to your house tonight
Salah : He can helps me tomorrow morning
Benar : He can help me tomorrow morning.

Penggunaan “Can”

a.Permission/Izin

You can stay here if you like
She can borrow my dictionary

b.”Can I” digunakan secara informal untuk minta izin khusunya jika kita bicara dengan seorang
yang telah kita kenal.

Can I borrow your English dictionary?
Can I sit next to you ?

c.Possibility/Kemungkinan

He can apply for the job if he has a good qualification
We can occupy the house next week

d.Ability/Kemampuan

He can lift that heavy case easily
He can wal without seeing.

e.Have an opportunity

While you are in France you can learn French.
I like to play tennis but I can‟t play today as I am very busy.

Penggunaan “Could”


a.Possibility/Kemampuan di waktu yang lampau

When he was still young he could ran very fast
He could lift the box when he was twenty years old

b.Past Permission/Izin di waktu lampau

He could datay here for three days
They could use my dictionary last week

c.”Could I” digunakan untuk menunjukan suatu permintaan yang sopan dan mempunyai arti present
atau future
Could I borrow you‟re the next week?
Whw could you pick us up?

d.”Could + have + past participle” digunakan untuk menunjukan suatu kemungkinan diwaktu
lampau.

A: I wonder why John didn‟t answer the doorbell when I came last night?
B: Well, I suppose he could have left for his village



                                 MAY/MIGHT
 May dan might artinya boleh dan bisa digunakan untuk semua subject pronoun
     atau noun.May dan might diikuti bare infinitive (infinitive tanpa to).Jika
subjeknya kalimat orang ketiga tunggal (he,she,it) kata kerja tidak boleh ditambah
                                  „s‟ atau „es‟.

Salah : They may to sleep here if they want
Benar : They may sleep here if they want
Salah : Merry may studies in this room tonight
Benar : Merry may study in this room tonight

a.Minta atau memberi izin
Untuk minta izin,”may I” lebih sopan dari “can I”

May I see you in the office tomorrow tonight?
You may leave come if you have time

b.May/might + infinitive menunjukan suatu kemungkinan

John may come tomorrow evening
They might return tomorrow afternoon

c.May/might + have + past participle digunakan untuk menunjukan suatu kemungkinan diwaktu
lampau

A: I wonder why John didn‟t answer the doorbell when I came last night?
B: Well, I suppose he may have left for his village



                                                MUST

Must artinya harus dan bisa digunakan untuk semua subject pronoun atau noun.Must diikuti bare
infinitive (infinitive tanpa to).Jika subjeknya kalimat orang ketiga tunggal (he,she,it) kata kerja
tidak boleh ditambah „s‟ atau „es‟.

Salah : You must to study hard if you want to be successful
Benar : You must study hard if you want to be successful
Salah : He must studies hard if he wants to get good marks
Benar : He must study hard if he wants to get good marks
Negative obligation
Must not digunakan untuk menunjukan larangan, baik dalam present maupun future dan
menunjukan suatu kewenangan dari pembicara

Atasan kepada bawahan : You must not leave the office befor I got back.
Pemberitahuan : Visitors must not feed these animal

Must tidak mempunyai bentuk past.Namun, jika yang kita maksudkan adalah suatu
kesimpulan,bentuk lampau dari must adalah must + have + past participle yang digunakan untuk
menunjukan kepastian di masa lampau

The lady must have frightened. She is still shaking




                                     Modal Verbs Exercise 1

                                 can could have to must might should


1. Ted's flight from Amsterdam took more than 11 hours. He ________ be exhausted after such a
long flight. He ________ prefer to stay in tonight and get some rest.

2. If you want to get a better feeling for how the city is laid out, you ________ walk downtown and
explore the waterfront.

3. Hiking the trail to the peak ________ be dangerous if you are not well prepared for dramatic
weather changes. You ________ research the route a little more before you attempt the ascent.

4. When you have a small child in the house, you ________ leave small objects lying around. Such
objects ________ be swallowed, causing serious injury or even death.

5. Dave: ________ You hold your breath for more than a minute?
Nathan: No, I can't.

6. Jenny's engagement ring is enormous! It ________ have cost a fortune.

7. Please make sure to water my plants while I am gone. If they don't get enough water, they
________ die.

8. I ________ speak Arabic fluently when I was a child and we lived in Egypt. But after we moved
back to Canada, I had very little exposure to the language and forgot almost everything I knew as a
child. Now, I ________ just say a few things in the language.

9. The book is optional. My professor said we ________ read it if we needed extra credit. But we
________ read it if we don't want to.

10. Leo: Where is the spatula? It ________ be in this drawer but it's not here.
Nancy: I just did a load of dishes last night and they're still in the dish washer. It ________ be in
there. That's the only other place it ________ be.
11. You ________ take your umbrella along with you today. The weatherman on the news said
there's a storm north of here and it ________ rain later on this afternoon.

12.________ we pull over at the next rest stop? I really ________ use the bathroom and I don't
know if I ________ hold it until we get to Chicago.

13. Oh no! Frank's wallet is lying on the coffee table. He ________ have left it here last night.

14. Ned:________ I borrow your lighter for a minute?
Stephen: Sure, no problem. Actually, you ________ keep it if you want to. I've given up smoking.

15. I ________ believe she said that to Megan! She ________ insult her cooking in front of
everyone at the party last night. She ________ have just said she was full or had some salad if she
didn't like the meal.

16. Do you ________ chew with your mouth open like that? Geez, it's making me sick watching
you eat that piece of pizza.

17. Mrs. Scarlett's body was found in the lounge just moments ago, and it's still warm! Nobody has
left the mansion this evening, so the killer ________ be someone in this room. It ________ be any
one of us!!!

18. Ted: I don't know why Denise starting crying when I mentioned the wedding.
Pamela: It ________ have been what you said about her brother. Or, perhaps she is just nervous.
After all, the big day is tomorrow.

19. ________ you always say the first thing that pops into your head? ________ you think once in
awhile before you speak?

20. I was reading the book last night before I went to bed. I never took it out of this room. It
________ be lying around here somewhere. Where ________ it be? be swallowed, causing serious
injury or even death.

                                  Verb Tense Final Test
                               Cumulative Verb Tense Review
1. When Carol (call) ______ last night, I (watch) ______ my favorite show on television.

2. I (work) ______ for this company for more than thirty years, and I intend to stay here until I
retire!

3. Sharon (love) ______ to travel. She (go) ______ abroad almost every summer. Next year, she
plans to go to Peru.

4. Thomas is an author. He (write) ______ mystery novels and travel memoirs. He (write) ______
since he was twenty-eight. Altogether, he (write) ______ seven novels, three collections of short
stories and a book of poetry.

5. We were late because we had some car problems. By the time we (get) ______ to the train
station, Susan (wait) ______ for us for more than two hours.

6. Sam (try) ______ to change a light bulb when he (slip) ______ and (fell) ______ .
7. Everyday I (wake) ______ up at 6 o'clock, (eat) ______ breakfast at 7 o'clock and (leave) ______
for work at 8 o'clock. However, this morning I (get) ______ up at 6:30, (skip) ______ breakfast and
(leave) ______ for work late because I (forget) ______ to set my alarm.

8. Right now, Jim (read) ______ the newspaper and Kathy (make) ______ dinner. Last night at this
time, they (do) ______ the same thing. She (cook) ______ and he (read) ______ the newspaper.
Tomorrow at this time, they (do, also) the same thing. She (prepare) ______ dinner and he (read)
______ . They are very predictable people!

9. By this time next summer, you (complete) ______ your studies and (find) ______ a job. I, on the
other hand, (accomplish, not) ______ anything. I (study, still) ______ and you (work) ______ in
some new high paying job.

10. The students (be, usually) ______ taught by Mrs. Monty. However, this week they (teach)
______taught by Mr. Tanzer.

************

11.
Jane talks on the phone.
Bob has been talking on the phone for an hour.
Mary is talking on the phone.

Who is not necessarily on the phone now? ______

12.
I'm going to make dinner for Frank.
I'm making dinner for Judy.
I'll make dinner for Mary.
I make dinner for Ted.
I will be making dinner for Tony.

Who are you offering to make dinner for? ______

13.
Jane left when Tim arrived.
Bob left when Tim had arrived.
Tim arrived when Mary was leaving.
John had left when Tim arrived.
After Tim arrived, Frank left.

Who did not run into Tim? ______

14.
Jane is talking in class.
Bob always talks in class.
Mary is always talking in class.

Whose action bothers you? ______
15.
Jane never left Jamestown.
Bob has never left Jamestown.

Who is still alive? ______




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