"Mapping Environmental sensitivity index of the Niger delta to"
Paper Reference No.: MAF08 PN 44 Title of the paper: Mapping Environmental sensitivity index of the Niger delta to oil spill; the policy, procedures and politics of oil spill response in Nigeria Name of the Presenter : Oluseyi Fabiyi (PhD) Author (s) Affiliation : GIS Laboratory, Department of Geography, University of Ibadan. Nigeria Mailing Address : Department of Geography, University of Ibadan. P.O.Box 21402 Univ of Ibadan Post office. Ibadan. Nigeria Email Address : email@example.com Telephone number (s) : +234-8034085463 Fax number (s) : Author(s) Photograph Brief Biography (100 words) Oluseyi Fabiyi was educated at both Obafemi Awolowo University - Ile Ife and Federal University of Technology, Minna both in Nigeria. He completed his doctoral programme in Geography in 1999, and his doctoral thesis titled ‘Analysis of Urban Decay in Ibadan metropolis using GIS. He currently lectures at the Department of Geography, University of Ibadan. He teaches courses on urban geography, urban planning, GIS, remote sensing, resources managements, techniques in geographical research and spatial decision support systems. His research works have focused on use, and management of environment as well as environmental democracy and justice. He has publications in both national and international journals. 1 Mapping Environmental sensitivity index of the Niger delta to oil spill; The policy, procedures and politics of oil spill response in Nigeria Abstract ESI mapping is the cartographic presentation of selected environmental attributes (physical, geomorphic, biological and socio-economic features) of a given area. These attributes are usually classified and ranked in terms of sensitivity to stress factors such as oil and chemical spill. In the case of this study the stress factor is the oil spill. It is also colour coded to distinguish environment types or class. ESI maps contain features to assist spill response in deciding suitable and effective positions in placing booms and skimmers. The map is thus a veritable instrument for spill response contingency planning. In Nigeria oil exploration is concentrated in the Niger delta ,which is one of the country most sensitive environment in terms of its rich biodiversity. The paper uses GIS and remote sensing data to map the environmental sensitivity of 50 kilometers inland from the continental shelf of the Nigerian coast. Using data extracted from the SPOT V images and a combination of soil, and biodiversity information of the area sensitivity ranking was applied to all the habitats captured from the images through an integrated approach in GIS platform. The paper further examined the prevailing policies and procedures for oil spill contingency planning in Nigeria and identifies problems associated with the response action to oil spill incidents in the Niger delta region. It finally enumerates the political, cultural and social dimensions of oil spill responses in Nigeria. The paper suggests the need for paradigm shift in response action and contingency planning in oil spill response in Nigeria using the technology of GIS and remote sensing. Key words: ESI map, GIS, Remote Sensing, Oil Spill, Contingency Planning. 1.0 Introduction The problems of oil spill in the Niger delta and the aftermath has reached international dimensions, attracting the attention of the stakeholders of different sorts including; Environmentalist activists, Professionals and international communities. The criminality dimension to the Niger delta now include kidnapping, oil bunkering, oil pipeline vandalisation and the blow up of the oil facilities. These are some of the numerous problems that trailed oil activities in the Niger delta and invariably affecting the world oil market. The Oil spill problems in the Niger delta cut across different dimensions including political economic cultural and criminality. Several attempts to resolving environmental degradation in the Niger delta obviously shows that the problems are not only intractable but multifaceted. While all these problems rages in the 2 Niger delta, the brunt of the interplay of local power and brute force is borne by environment. The need for contingency planning in oil spill clean up has been a major issue of contention especially among the operators (oil companies) , regulators (the state agencies) and the communities (the non-state stake holders) on the accuracy of maps used for the clean up operations. There are several multilayer of agencies involved in the oil spill detection response and clean up in Nigeria. There are problems such as claims and counter claims between the communities and the oil multinationals referred to as operators and the multiple government agencies referred to as regulators. This paper presents the science of preparing comprehensive environmental sensitivity index maps of the Nigerian coastline and the proposed procedures for setting up clean up oil spill response team in the Nigerian oil rich communities It presents a technology solution to political and economic problems in the volatile region of Nigeria. 1.1 Aim of the study The aim of the study is to map and rank the eco-systems of the Nigerian coastal areas on the basis of their sensitivity to oil spill using remote sensing and field data. It also attempt procedural program for efficiency spill detection and spill clean up in the study area. The specific objectives of this study were to: o determine the sensitivity of the fifty kilometres off the entire Nigerian coastal areas to oil/chemical spills from Banditry to Calibre; o classify the ecosystem in reference to its behaviour to oil spill and identify places of socio-economic importance in the sensitive ecosystems. o prepare ESI atlas showing the sensitive environmental components ranked in their order of sensitivity from 1-10; o Review the procedures of spill response in Nigeria and recommend a paradigm shift for oil spill contingency planning in the study area 1.2 Historical background of ESI mapping in Nigeria Environmental sensitivity mapping was first initiated in Nigeria in 1981. Gundlach et. al (1981) describes the ESI system of mapping and symbology and suggests the categories that could be used for Nigerian Shorelines. On the other hand later in 1988 Murday et al (1988) applied the ESI to OML 49. Over the years these shoreline categories have been accepted on a fairly universal level for example International Maritime Organization (IMO) and United Nation environmental programme as standards. The coastlines of the world have been 3 generally characterized by scientists and ranked accordingly. Since the initial attempt by Murday et al 1988, all attempt to arrive at a comprehensive standard and protocol for the ESI indices for Nigeria have been frustrated, therefore oil spill clean-up have been left to physical assessment and handling which are prone to numerous manipulation and in efficiency of clean up programmes. 1.3 Habitat ranking The coastal habitats are well defined and adequately characterized or classified in other documents that are not ESI related, but the inland habitats are still largely unclassified. In this project we classified the coastal habitats and the inland habitats separately as follows: Coastal habitats refers to areas exposed to marine, brackish or riverine process shoreline or coastal habitat extend inward from the water body to the distance that a distinct water influence is visible. Some vegetation types that are waterborne were also classified as coastal even if water is not visible in the medium resolution images used such as mangrove. Inland habitats refer to land-based areas that are defined for sensitivity based on remote sensing classification and extensive ground checks. Relatively most inland habitats have low sensitivity index since most spill that occur on land are commonly locally controlled, cleanup and replanted. The effects are relatively short-lived. However we applied a sensitivity index ranking to all the inland habitats encountered in the course of the field work. Application of sensitivity ranking encompasses known habitat/oil interactions (including oil persistence and burial, sensitivity of the biological community (including its ability to recover after an accident), and notation of particular sites having high socio-economic importance. However there are some controversies on the concept of vulnerability and sensitivity. While some scholars believe the two of them refer to the same thing others are of the opinion that vulnerability relates to exposure of a given habitat to the stress factor which is a function of distance and the length of time such habitat is exposed. Sensitivity on the other hand refers to the level of negative effects on a resource or habitat as it comes in contact with the stress factor. In this study the sensitivity index was arrived at based on the hybrid of these two terms Effective oil spill contingency planning for shoreline protection is pre-spill identification of the location and prioritization of oil-sensitive areas. Once identified, an analysis can be made as to the likelihood of oil impact and the effectiveness of equipment needed to protect and clean up these sensitive areas during a spill. ESI Mapping provides this tool because it has the ability to rapidly and visually highlight, sensitive areas deserving protection. 4 The ESI mapping process and procedures is essentially developed in response to the need to rapidly and comprehensively indicate shorelines and ecological and socio-economic resources that are sensitive to oil spill. The project benefited from literature resources and materials from USA experience including Grundlach and Hayes (1978) and similar work conducted in Nigeria such as Murday et al and Fabiyi (2001). The shoreline ranking concepts described by Grundlached and Hayes, 1978 and others, provide a scale of one to ten to indicate shoreline sensitivity and the use symbols and patterns to indicate point or polygon that are ecologically and /or socio-economically important. 1.4 The study area The Niger Delta comprises of the entire coastal areas of Niger delat. Nigeria covering a bout nine hundred and twenty kilometers along the Atllantic coast and fifty kilometers inland as shown in figure 1. The study area covers four important ecological zones: the coastal barriers islands, mangroves, and fresh water swamp forests and lowland forests whose sensitivity is greatly influenced by salinity and hydrological changes which is mainly dependent on the Atlantic Ocean and flushing of River Niger (SPDC, 1999; Raufu, 2000). Also, the coastline used in this study cuts across four states of the federation namely Rivers, Cross Rivers, Bayelsa and Akwa Ibom states with an estimated area of 3096 square km with numerous creeks, creeklets, estuaries and rivers. Further more, 5 Fig1: Location of the study area 1.4. The entire coastline of Nigeria is described as a wet tropical environment with a warm and humid climate. The number of raining days varies from 290 – 310 days. The rainfall region is generally above 3,000 mm per annum. Annual rainfall ranges from 1524 beach erosion, 2031mm in the western end of the project area around Lagos and Ogun state. The rainfall is usually above 3,000 mm per annum in the southern and eastern end of the project area. Rainfall, in the relatively dry months, ranges from 22.8 to 97.7 mm. (November to February), whilst the wet months range from 125.3 to 464.9 mm. During the wet season months, the south west winds prevail as the front moves to the north. But as from October when the front moves south wards, the northeast winds sweep in the dry season. Lagos State, however, experiences predominantly southwesterly wind and sea breezes all year round. 2.0 Methodology 2.1 Image sources:The data used for this study was acquired from medium resolution imageries belonging to SPOT V satellites. Preprocessed data were acquired and processed to reveal major land use categories. The images were ortho-rectified to ensure high geometric integrity. The analysis commenced with visual appreciation of features in the images to identify major classes or major potential habitats. The images were later subjected to unsupervised classification to break the science to twenty five 25) major feature classes. The resulting classes were used to produce base initial base maps of the study area. The base maps were produced at the scale 1:50,000 which were used as field book for ground truth and further field investigation. The field investigation was to adjust the boundaries of habitats classes and collapse habitats that are the same in reality. The filed work was conducted between April and July 2008 in a four phase field work. The activities carried out in the field work are the collection of soil and water samples in order to conform the classification of habitats earlier carried out. The results of the field data collected including Total organic content, total particles among others are used to confirm whether the vegetation type fall within mangrove soil characteristics or otherwise. The sensitivity of the habitats to potential oil spill was used to assign a rank index to the respective habitat. The resulting nine classes obtained through the unsupervised classification were vectorised in Arc View –image analysis extension environment used to classify the project area into discrete vegetal cover zones. The resulting classes include: Farmlands, Plantation, Fresh water swamp forest, mangrove forest ,strand 6 vegetation and bush fallow. Apart from the major habitat zones demarcated from the image 2.2 Assigning sensitivity index rank to habitat: The samples collected were used to model the characteristic of the field. Based on the weighting factors assigned to the environmental attributes. These attributes were considered based on the behaviors of different types of crude oil in Nigeria anon contact with the environment Where pi represents the parameters of including the feature class extracted from remote sensing satellites were classified into ten classes (1-10) and a weighting of 6 was assigned to the feature class. Therefore the feature class data covers a total of 60 % of the ranking value, fine grain sand percentage is classified into four levels (1-4) with weighting factor of 2, The surface debris is classified into four levels at the weighing factor of 2, The elevation was classified into two levels of gentle and plain ( since the entire study area is relatively plain., The vegetation diversity in terms of density of various economic and endangered species is classified into five levels with a weighing factor of 1. the wildlife diversity is also classified into four levels and a weighting factor of 1. The dept of water table is based on if water is available at the depth of 1.2 meters, and it is classified on a Boolean scale of yes and no which is with a weighting factor of 5. Each of the delineated feature class is expected to score a maximum of 100 points and it is divided by 10 to arrive at the index value thus ESI index = ESI rank/10 …………………………….. eq 1 ESI rank =( fc *6) +(fgc*3)+(sdc*2)+(elc*3)+(Vegc*1)+(wldc*1)+(gwc*5) … eq 2 Where fc = feature class, fgc = %fine grain class, sdc=surface debris class, Elc is elevation class, vegc is vegetation diversity class, wldc = wildlife diversity class and gwc is ground water class. 7 Parameters Class value weight Feature class 1-10 6 % fine grain sand 1-4 3 1-4 2 Surface debris ESI 1-2 3 RANK Elevation/slope Vegetal diversity 1-5 1 1-4 1 Wild-life diversity Depth of Ground 0-1 5 water Fig3: cartographic model of ESI ranking 8 3.0 The sensitivity ranking of Nigerian coastline to oil Spill The following are the major habitats delineated in the study area Mangrove Swamp (ESI = 10a) Niger Delta is richly endowed with mangrove habitats including the short and the tall mangrove these managrove are interspersed by marshes, mud flat and swamps. The habitats are the most productive aquatic ecosystems, essentially straddling the boundary between terrestrial and totally aquatic ecosystems. They are commonly characterized by an abundance of vegetation and wildlife, and mud-dominated organically rich sediments. In this study mangrove habitats are classified into tall and shor mangrove. The mangrove are highly degraded in the oil active area as well as where there are communities Nypa palm (10 b) Nypa palm is an exotic (non-indigenous) species that has taken over large tracts of previously mangrove habitat. The Nypa palm is common in the Calabar estuaries proceeding and rapidly displacing the mangrove habitats from the eastern coast. The incursion of Nypa palm into the mangrove has reached Eket and some coastal areas of Akwa Ibom. 9 Figure 4: Esiranks of the entire coastal area Exposed Tidal Flat ESI=7 / mud flat. Exposed tidal flats are composed of sand or mud and are exposed to river flow or wave action. Commonly they are found fronting sand beaches or mangrove areas within the rivers of the lower portions of the Niger River delta. They are visible at low tide in tidally affected areas, and during low flows within river dominated areas. Fine-Sand Beach ESI=3a Fine-sand beaches are characterized by a gentle slope, multiple low berms, few infauna, and some backshore vegetation (e.g., beach morning glory). They are found most extensively along open ocean beaches and river mouths. Many villages are commonly located along these beaches. The beach face is frequently exposed to moderate to high waves and strong currents. Accumulations of algae and other debris are common 10 Fig 5: Details of the ESI map Upland ESI classes Strand Vegetation (ESI class 1): These are usually thin strips of land that occur between mostly sand beaches and beach ridges. They are commonly associated with prograding river spits. Although they receive saltwater spray from the sea, they are generally less affected by marine river systems. Plants that creep and those that rapidly adapt to sand accretion covered this site. Farm lands(ESI rank= 2): Farmlands are typically cleared forest that is put under cultivation. Commonly cultivated crops include yam, cassava, corn fluted pumpkin and other vegetables. Oil palm trees and some other useful trees such as ogbono and oil bean tree are protected within the farmlands. BushFallow/Fallow ESI = 3,: Bushfallow/fallowland is a abandoned farmland/cleared area that is left to regenerate. The fallow period ranges between three and five years. They are 11 generally more densely vegetated habitats than farmlands. Weeds and relic crops that were left in the farm e.g. cassava typically dominate this habitat. Palm Bush/Plantation ESI = 4, This habitat type is common in eastern and southern Nigeria. It is characterized by the presence of large number of oil palm trees particularly Elaeis guineensis with sparse undergrowths. The high population density with its resultant competition for farmland leads to short fallow period. Plam bushes often times develop to secondary forests times although regular cultivation suppresses formation of secondary forest in some areas. Rain-fed Deltaic Forests ESI = 5, These are freshwater forests that occur predominantly in the coastal areas. They are found along the beach ridges immediately landward of the outer coastline and on some elevated freshwater islands within the mangrove swamps. They are not affected by tidal waters and hence maintain freshwater ecosystems. 12 Mangrove swamp Fine sand beach Fig. 6 (a &b) Examples of coastal habitat 13 Inland Habitats Rainfed deltaic Forest plantation Fig7(a&b) examples of Inland habitats 14 4.0 Prevailing policies and procedures of oil spill response in Nigeria Oil spill in Nigeria is primarily political rather than being entirely environmental. Due to total neglect of the past administrations and the stifling poverty that had bestrode the terrain of the Niger delta, oil spill agitation has become increasingly violent. The procedures for detecting oil spill and determine the extent of damage is rather cumbersome, semi-crude and environmental unfriendly. When oil spill occurs, it is expected that community reports to the oil company that owns the facilities or Nigerian national petroleum Corporation (NNPC) about the oil spill incident. The Oil Company would inform the regulators including the NOSDRA (National Oil Spill detection and Response Agency), DPR department of Petroleum Resources and the responsible State Ministry of Environment. It is expected that within twenty-four hours, a Joint Inspection Team (JIT) will be constituted which include the Operators (Oil company representatives), the regulators (DPR, NOSDRA, STMENV) and the communities and other stakeholders. The Joint Inspection tea, will ascertain the extent of spill, the volume of oil spilled into the environment, the causes of spill and the cleanup strategies to be adopted and whether it would be necessary to pay compensation. These procedures for oil spill detection and clean are characterized by delay in response and resultant high impact on the eco-system. Some of the problems associated with the current procedures are outlines as follows: • If the oil spill is within the operator’s right of ways, the oil company is not mandated to pay compensation to the community. Therefore, the community may wait until the spill get out of the right of way before they alert the responsible oil company. • When it is ascertained by the Joint Inspection Team (JIT), that the spill is as a result of human interference with the oil facilities, the company is absolved of paying any form of compensation to the community irrespective of the damages caused. Therefore the tendency is for the operators to drag foot in addressing oil spill if is as a result of the activities of the vandals. In most cases the people responsible for the pipeline blow up don usually reside within the communities. Most of the times the affected members of the community are not usually involved in the oil facilities vandalisation but they directly bear the brunt of oil spill on their environment. • There is lack of consensus on the steps to conduct clean up and remediation in the oil spill areas, most times the views of the affected 15 communities on the clean up strategies are often at par with the concern and the approach of the multinationals. • There is complexity and ambiguity on what is considered as sensitive by the community and the operators. Burial places, shrines are more sensitive in some community than farmlands of even the residential areas. Therefore it becomes difficult to identify places to protect first in case of oil spill. In nutshell the perception of the environmentalist is strangely different from the field experts on one hand and the people at risk on the other hand. (Fabiyi 2002) • The methods of clean up and reaction time are not only ineffective but often inefficient. Usually oil company assign contractors to clean up oil spills • The claims of communities as regard the damage caused by the oil spill cannot be scientifically substantiated since most times there are no resource map to quantify resource at risks and ascertain ownership of affected areas. • There are no data about communities in the Niger delta such as population of enumeration area, structure of population and certain base data that cold be used in contingency planning as well as those due for compensation in the case of oil spill. • There is no real time detection of oil spill in the entire Niger delta, therefore oil spill spread into the ecosystem before they are detected and reported. Usually there is time lapse before the Joint inspection team is constituted to inspect the spill determine the cause and the extent of damage before clean-up exercise can commence. The procedure is time wasting to the detriment of the ecosystem • There is mistrust among the stakeholders on the integrity as there are counter accusations and counter claims in oil spill management. In some cases spilled oil may spread beyond the boundary of the lease area belonging to the company where the spill occur especially at the coastal areas where spill oil is transported through creeks and water waves • Remediation procedures and activities are not usually documented and captured in a maps or GIS systems for easy retrieval in future. • There is no frame work to predict places where oil spill hazard may likely occur (Fabiyi 2001). 16 4.1 Oils spill politics and the community affairs in the oil producing areas. The problems of oil spill incidence vibrated to international crescendo in 1996 when the environmental activists headed by the playwright Ken Saro Wiwa were accused of treason and hanged. Since then especially in the last twelve years, oil exploration and production have witnessed tremendous disruption and attacks on account of oil spill. The fragile relationship between host communities and the oil companies is further strained by increased incidents of oil spill in the Niger delta region. The most common community responses to oil spill include : • Shutting down and forceful occupation of production facilities • Rig blockages and construction obstruction • Sabotage and vandilisation of equipment and oil installations • Hostage taking. (Onuoha 2004) Hostage taking has become quite common in the Niger delta region in the last five years. According to Onuoha (2004) at least 350 incidences of hostage taken occurred in 1999 alone with more than 100 hostages taken in that year. Ikporukpo( 2007) chronicled the media reports of hostage taken and the spatial pattern of the location of hostage taken. He observed that there is a clear pattern in the spatial incidence in terms of the local government areas. For instance in Bayelsa state, the incidents are concentrated in Ekeremor, Sagbama, Brass and Southern Ijaw all in the southern part of the states where there is a concentration of oil production. The location of the concentrated oil production also coincided with the coastal areas of the Niger delta where the ecosystem is most fragile and highly sensitive. However though the hostage taken and the violence in the Niger delta was initiated by the reckless abandoned of the Niger delta environment to the wimp and caprices of the oil companies, the problems have degenerated to criminality dimension to the extent that most oil spill incidences in the recent times are caused by human interference. The communities in some cases wait until the spill has reached sensitive eco-system before alerting the oil companies in order to collect fat compensation. These have not only render inefficient the contingency planning of the oil companies but also further cause tension between the communities and the oil companies. The policy of the government is that compensations should not be paid on oil spill caused by vandal and sabotage, but oil spill does not respect property or administrative boundaries. Therefore, using the present procedures for oil spill will further aggravate violence in the Niger delta. The next section include suggested recommendation of GIS based oil spill response management systems 17 5.0 Oil Spill response management systems In this section an oil spill response management systems is recommended using Environmental sensitivity index maps provided. The following are also recommended for effective oil spill detection clean up and mitigation in Nigerian up stream oil and gas sector. The involvement of multiple and multi layer agencies involved in spill detection and spill clean up is not only cumbersome but inhibitive to the environment and would further strain the fragile relationships between the oil companies and the community in the Niger delta. This paper suggest the need to harmonsie oil spill contingency programme and place the responsibility in the hand of a single agency. The agency will have operational offices in all the oil producing local government and will be responsible for oil spill detection, spill cleanup and remediation while the cost of doing the cleanup can be passed on to the responsible oil company. This will not only allow quick response to oil spill but also protect the environment and reduce loss of resources in the oil producing areas. It is also expected the agency should be armed with a well annotated and detailed Environmental sensitivity index with a robust relational geo-database that can be retrieved at will for contingency planning by the spill clean up contractor or agents. The ESI map should also be followed by a resource map as well as cadastres in order to identify those who are due for compensation The compensation should be commensurate with the loss by the community. In the cases where the community lively hood is adversely affected then the compensation should be commensurate with the their income till the remediation is complete Is important that if the spill detection is conducted by the federal agency in conjunction with the communities, the spill incidences will reduce especially those due to vandlisalstion and the environment will fair better in the Niger Delta 6.0 Conclusion A GIS based oil spill management systems for contingency planning is long over due in Nigeria. The disjointed approach where by each oil company is expected to develop oil spill contignecy plan is not only chaotic but will further result in increased environmental degradation with the consequent tension between the oil company and the host communities. 18 7.0 References NOAA. 1997 Environmnetal Sesitivity Index Guidelines, Version 2, technical Memorandum. NOS ORCA 115, available from http://response.restoration.noaa.gov/esi/1 HAZMAT 96-03.pdf Seattle, Washington. Grundlacch, E.R., M.O. Hayes and C.D Getter (1981)., “ Sensitivity of Coastla Environment to oil Spills” 1981 Seminar on the Petroleum Industry and the Nigerian Environment. Warri Murday, M., JR, Murday, W.J Sexton and C.B Powell. 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Pp10-11 NNPC 1986 Research Planning Institute. “ Environmental Baseline Studies for the Establishment of Control Criteria and STadaras Against Petroleum- Related Pollution in Nigeria” Prepared for Nigeria national Petroleum Corporation Fabiyi O.O.(2002): Integration of Remote sensing data and field models of In-situ data in a GIS for environmental sensitivity index mapping: A Nigerian 19 Example,. Symposium on Geospatial Theory, Processing and Applications. Ottawa 2002 Ikporukpo C. (2007): The Niger Delta: the geography of terrorism and the terror of geography, a lecture to mark the retirement of Profesor Micheal Olanrewaju Filani.Department of Geography, university of Ibadan. Nigeria Onuoha K.M (2004).,”Oil and Gas exploration and production in Nigeria: recent developments and challenges ahead isth postgraduate School interdisciplinary research discourse , University of Ibadan.Nigeria Acknowledgement: This project is sponsored by National Oils Spill detection and response agency (NOSDRA). Abuja. 20