TOYOTA and LEXUS HYBRID BRAKE INTEGRATION PAUL M. WILLIAMSEN

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TOYOTA and LEXUS HYBRID BRAKE INTEGRATION PAUL M. WILLIAMSEN Powered By Docstoc
					TOYOTA & LEXUS HYBRID BRAKE INTEGRATION



                             PAUL M. WILLIAMSEN

                            NATIONAL MANAGER
                                LEXUS COLLEGE
      LEXUS DIVISION OF TOYOTA MOTORS SALES, USA, INC.
                  HYBRID = TWO SOURCES of POWER


                          Electromagnet
                                             Field Magnets




Gasoline Engine             Electric Motor
HYBRID EXAMPLES
1967 S800 GASOLINE TURBINE HYBRID
                      1967 S800 GAS TURBINE HYBRID



        Gas Turbine                             Battery

 Electricity
Control Unit
 (Chopper)




                                 Transmission
                              Motor

 Generator
                             Starter
                     1967 S800 GAS TURBINE HYBRID


                                                         Wheel


             Electricity
            Control Unit                  Differential
             (Chopper)                       Gear
   Gas
  Turbine
                   Motor             Transmission



                           Battery
Generator
                                      TOYOTA & LEXUS HYBRID DRIVE


              Power Split        Power Inverter       Rear-Mounted
                Device                               Motor Generator
                                                         (MGR)
Internal
Combustion
Engine


   Hybrid                                              High-Voltage Hybrid
   Electronic                                                Battery
   Control Unit
   (Hybrid ECU)

                                                    Motor Generator
                                                        (MG2)
                  Motor Generator 1
                       (MG1)
                                         POWER SPLIT DEVICE

                             Generator
                    Engine

                                          Motor


          Sun Gear              Pinion
         (Generator)            Gear
                                                Ring Gear
                                            (Motor/Power Shaft)



Planetary Carrier
    (Engine)
                                          Planetary Gear
                       EFFICIENCY OPPORTUNITIES



During deceleration, braking and when stopped, the
engine is turned off
The energy of the vehicle coasting or braking is
recaptured by turning the front and rear electric motors
into generators to produce electricity
Regenerated electricity stored in the high-voltage
battery pack supplements acceleration power
High-voltage subsystems: AC & EPS
 REGENERATIVE BRAKING

 Conventional brakes use mechanical
 friction to slow the vehicle.
 Kinetic energy is lost as heat.




Regenerative braking uses the motor as
a generator to slow the vehicle.
 Kinetic energy of the decelerating vehicle
 is recovered into the hybrid battery.
Regenerative braking uses the motor as
a generator to slow the vehicle. Kinetic
energy of the decelerating vehicle is
recovered into the hybrid battery.
                              REGENERATIVE BRAKING

Toyota Hybrid System




                       Time
                                     BRAKE FORCE PROPORTIONING


          High
                                 Driver’s Demand
                                                     Hydraulic
                                                   Braking Force




Braking
 Force
                                                                     Battery
                                                                   Acceptance
                                                                    Capacity
                 Regenerative
                 Braking Force

             0                                                 High
                                 Vehicle Speed
                                    HYBRID SYSTEM BRAKE CONTROL

                                                                       Brake Actuator

       Speed Sensors                           Solenoid Relay          ABS Solenoid Valves

     Combination Meter
                                                                    Switching Solenoid Valve
        Speedometer
                                                                      Linear Solenoid Valve


     ABS Warning Light

        Brake System                                                      Master Cylinder
        Warning Light                                                     Pressure Sensor
                                                                        Regulator Pressure
                                                                             Sensor
    Brake Warning Buzzer           Brake ECU                               Front Wheel
                                                                          Pressure Sensor
                                                                            Rear Wheel
                                                                          Pressure Sensor
      Stop Light Switch


               ECM
                                                                Hydraulic Brake Booster
                                                Motor Relay            Pump Motor

          HV ECU                                                   High Pressure Switch

                                                                   Low Pressure Switch

    Inverter         Battery ECU                                  Reservoir Level Switch


(1997-2003)
  HYBRID SYSTEMS
MOTOR / GENERATOR
          CONTROL
                                                    MOTOR CONTROL



        Toyota Hybrid Drive (1st-gen)
        — Battery voltage powers the drive motors
                                                           274 V
Motor            Generator              Battery




        — DC motors are driven with 3-phase AC
                             HYBRID DRIVE POWER CONTROL


    Direct Current                   Alternating Current
         (DC)                               (AC)




 Direction of Current Flow          Direction of Current Flow
Does Not Reverse, Although            Reverses Frequently
Current Level May Change
                                    POWER CONTROL


             AC Power from DC




     Close-Up




              TL x Vi = TS x Vd
               L         S
        Vi



TL
             Sine Wave AC Voltage
                                    POWER CONTROL


             AC Power from DC




     Close-Up




              TL x Vi = TS x Vd          Vd
               L         S
        Vi



TL                                  TS
             Sine Wave AC Voltage
                                  POWER CONTROL


     AC Power from DC
     AC Power from DC




Pulse-Width Modulated Sine Wave
                                                    MOTOR CONTROL



        Toyota Hybrid Drive (1st-gen)
        — Battery voltage powers the drive motors
                                                           274 V
Motor            Generator              Battery




(1997-2003)
                          HIGH-VOLTAGE MOTOR CONTROL



        Toyota & Lexus Hybrid Drive (2nd-gen)
        — Battery voltage powers the drive motor
                                                                 288 V
Motor            Generator              Battery


        Hybrid Drive System - II
        — Voltage to electric drive motor may be increased
          above battery voltage

                                      High-Voltage
                                      High-Voltage
Motor             Generator            Converter             Battery
                                       Converter

(2004-CURRENT)
                          HIGH-VOLTAGE MOTOR CONTROL



        Toyota & Lexus Hybrid Drive (2nd-gen)
        — Battery voltage powers the drive motor
                                                                 650 V
Motor            Generator              Battery


        Hybrid Drive System - II
        — Voltage to electric drive motor may be increased
          above battery voltage

                                      High-Voltage
                                      High-Voltage
Motor             Generator            Converter             Battery
                                       Converter

(2004-CURRENT)
                       2nd-GEN HYBRID SYSTEM BRAKE CONTROL
                        nd


                                                                                         Brake Pedal
                                                                                         Brake Pedal
   Brake Fluid Level
   Brake Fluid Level                                                                    Stroke Sensor
                                                                                        Stroke Sensor
   Warning Switch
    Warning Switch

                                                               Brake Stroke              Stop Light
                                                                                         Stop Light
                                                               Simulator
                                                                                          Switch
                                                                                           Switch
                                                                                                                          Wheel Speed
                                                                                                                          Wheel Speed
   Wheel Speed
   Wheel Speed                                                      Brake                                                  Sensors
                                                                                                                            Sensors
    Sensors
     Sensors                                                       Actuator




                                          Pump Motor Relay 1
                                                                                             Combination Meter
                        Battery (12 V)




                                         Pump Motor Relay 2                                       Speedometer
                                                                                              Multi-information Display
                                          Main Relay 1
                                                                                               ABS Warning Light
                                          Main Relay 2
                                                                                               Slip Indicator Light
                                                                         Skid Control
                       Power Source Backup Unit                              ECU             Brake System Warning Light

                         Parking Brake Switch                                                  ECB Warning Light
                                                                                                Master Warning Light
                         VSC Warning Buzzer


                                         DLC3
                                                                                                 Gateway ECU

                          Yaw Rate Sensor
                       Deceleration Rate Sensor                                               Steering Angle Sensor


                                             EPS ECU                                            THS ECU
(2004-CURRENT)
ELECTRONICALLY CONTROLLED BRAKING




                                 2004 to Present:
                             Electronic Brake Actuator
           1997–2003:          with Stroke Simulator
         Hydraulic Boosted
          Master Cylinder
                ELECTRONICALLY CONTROLLED BRAKING

Toyota Hybrid System
ELECTRONICALLY CONTROLLED BRAKING
                                                 WELL-TO-WHEEL EFFICIENCY

                                                                          Other

Fuel Efficiency (%) x Vehicle Efficiency (%) = Overall Efficiency (%)
                                                 Engine       Regeneration


                                                           Transaxle
                     Fuel
                                   Vehicle
                                                        Overall Efficiency %
                                                          (Well-to-Wheel) Energy
                Efficiency %
                                 Efficiency %
                 (Well-to-
                               (Tank-to-Wheel)
                    Tank)                             Electrical          Efficiency
                                                                         Improvement
PZEV Camry        88                16               14%
                                                           Accessories
 1997 Prius
   (Japan)                         28                              25%
                                                                                  Control
 2000 Prius
   (US)           88               32                                    28%


 2004 Prius
  (Global)                         37                                          32%


Toyota FCHV
                  58               50                                    29%
                Natural Gas-
                    H2

FCHV (Target)     70               60                                                       42%
                                                 WELL-TO-WHEEL EFFICIENCY

                                                                         Other

Fuel Efficiency (%) x Vehicle Efficiency (%) = Overall Efficiency (%)
                                                 Engine       Regeneration


                                                          Transaxle
                     Fuel
                                   Vehicle
                                                          Overall Efficiency %
                                                            (Well-to-Wheel) Energy
                Efficiency %
                                 Efficiency %
                 (Well-to-
                               (Tank-to-Wheel)
                    Tank)                               Electrical          Efficiency
                                                   Peak: ≈ 2.5KW Improvement
                                                   Peak: ≈ 2.5KW
PZEV Camry        88                16              over 8-10 sec.
                                                   over14% sec.
                                                         8-10
                                                          Accessories
 1997 Prius
   (Japan)                         28                              25%
                                                                                 Control
 2000 Prius
   (US)           88               32                                   28%


 2004 Prius
  (Global)                         37                                         32%


Toyota FCHV
                  58               50                                    29%
                Natural Gas-
                    H2

FCHV (Target)     70               60                                                      42%
HYBRID DRIVING
                                                                      SCOPE OF HYBRID SYSTEMS

                                             Hybrid System Characteristics

             450                                                                                                            35

             400                                                                               Max Power
                                                                                                                            30
                                                                                               Electric Power Ratio (%)
             350
                                                                                               Electric Power-Weight
                                                                                                                            25




                                                                                                                                 EV POWER (W / LB)
             300
POWER (KW)




             250                                                                                                            20

             200
                                          STRONG
                                                                                                                            15

             150
                                          HYBRIDS
                                                                                                                            10
             100

             50                                                                         MODER-                              5

                                                                                           ATE               MILD
              0                                                                                                             0
                   Toyota   Toyota Toyota / Lexus Ford   Nissan    Lexus     Lexus      HYBRIDS
                                                                                       Honda  Honda      HYBRIDS
                                                                                                        Saturn   Chevy
                   Camry     Prius  Hybrid SUV Escape    Altima   GS 450h   LS 600hL   Civic   Accord    Vue    Silverado
            HYBRID SYSTEMS
              TOYOTA & LEXUS
ELECTRONIC STABILITY CONTROLS
                                                    TIRE TRACTION AND STEERING


                                                             ABS Slip Tolerance
Slip Ratio % =
Slip Ratio % =


100 x Vehicle Speed — Wheel Speed
      Vehicle Speed — Wheel Speed
             Vehicle Speed
              Vehicle Speed
                                                                          Dry Concrete




                                                                                                 Cornering Force
                                    Braking Force
                                                                            Wet Asphalt

                                                                Dry Concrete

                                                             Wet Asphalt
                                                                                          Ice

                                                                    Ice

                                        0               20      40        60         80        100
                                    Wheel Turns                   Slip Ratio (%)             Wheel Is
                                      Freely                                                Locked Up
                                                                      CONTROLLING WHEEL SPIN


                                                  Wheel Speed: Start-Up on low-μ surface
                                        100
Speed (mph) / Accelerator Pedal Angle




                                        80



                                        60



                                        40



                                        20



                                         0
                                              1    2      3     4      5         6   7     8   9   10
                                                                     Time (sec.)
                 VEHICLE STABILITY CONTROL

 Cornering        Driving
 (VSC)            (TRAC)

                             Vehicle Control Areas
Vehicle
                             • Each function has its own control area
                             • Each operates independently


                 Cornering
Braking          (VSC)
(ABS with EBD)
                                VIRTUAL REALITY SIMULATOR



Power control calibration
bench for hybrid vehicles and
stability controls
4-wheel drive calibration
Transitions between ICE
and HV operation
Integration of stability
controls
Efficiency improvements
                    BASICS OF ESC


Z (vertical) Axis
     = yaw
                       X (lateral) Axis
                            = pitch




                    Y (longitudinal) Axis
                            = roll
                                                 KEY MEASURES

Driver Inputs
— Brake application
— Throttle angle
— Steering angle and rate-of-change
Vehicle-to-road interface
— Individual wheel speeds v. diagonal reference speed
— Rate-of-change in wheel-speed
— Relative wheel speed comparisons
Calculated values
— Theoretical curve : friction coefficient v. slip rate
— D : brake torque v. available contact-patch torque
Vehicle conditions
— Yaw sensor
— Decel sensor
                                TRACTION CONTROL SYSTEMS


                   Slippery Surface            Slippery Surface




                                                            Brake
                                                           Actuator
                                             ECM
                                                           with Skid
                                                          Control ECU
Without                      Regulating
TRAC                         the throttle
System     With             to control the                   Braking
          TRAC              engine output                  the slipping
          System                                           drivewheel
                           STABILITY CONTROLS



             ABS and TRAC help maintain
             traction during braking and
Understeer   acceleration.
             VSC adds the ability to maintain
             lateral (sideways) traction.
             Loss of lateral traction can occur
             in two different ways:
             — Understeer
Oversteer
               Oversteer
                           UNDERSTEER (FRONT WHEEL SKID)


 Without VSC                                   With VSC

Actual Yaw Rate

                                    Braking Force
                                                         Control Moment
                  Target Yaw Rate




                                               Braking Force

                                         Making a Right Turn

				
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