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Cross-Cultural Work-Family Interfaces Dual Career Couples

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					Cross-Cultural Work-Family
       Interfaces:
   Dual Career Couples

        Jaymee Froyalde
            Sam Lam
        Hisayo Murayoshi
          Steve Nguyen
         Kenneth Trinh
Countries of Comparison
       USA & Japan
Topics

• USA Dual Careers Households
• US Expatriates
• Japanese Dual Career Households
• Comparison
• Implications on International Human
 Resource Management
Definition


• Dual Career Households: a household in
 which the couple each has a career path
 of their very own.
USA Topics of Discussion


• Overview of USA
• Overview of Dual Career Couples in the
  USA
• Current USA Expatriate System and
  Trends
USA Overview

• Land Mass 9,161,923 sq km
• Government: Constitution-based federal
  republic, strong democratic tradition
• Population: 293,027,571
• Diversity: white 77.1%, black 12.9%,
  Asian 4.2%, Amerindian and Alaska native
  1.5%, native Hawaiian and other Pacific
  islander 0.3%, other 4% (2000)
USA Economy

• GDP: $10.99 trillion

• most technologically powerful economy

• Labor Force 146.5 million

• per capita GDP: $37,800
US Dual Career Statistics


• Represents 54% of married couples in the
 USA

• Represents 45% of US labor force
Benefits of Dual Career
• Extra Income

• Flexibility of Leaving, Transition Through,
 or Re-Entering Labor Force

• More Equality

• Happier Spouses
Disadvantages of Dual Career
Households
• Reduction of Job Mobility for Spouses

• Work-Family Conflicts

• Household Responsibilities/Allocation
Issues in Perspective

• Working and Well-Being
• Working-Family Conflict
• Work-Family Spillover and Cross Over
• Division of Labor
• Prioritizing Careers
Spillover Effects
                           Positive               Negative
                      Positive                Disagreemen
     Family-          relationships           ts leads to
     Work             energize and            poor
                      improve work            performance
                      Experience              Workload
     Work-            makes one               leads to
     Family           more                    distraction
                      interesting             and
                                              irritability
 http://www.bc.edu/bc_org/avp/wfnetwork/rft/wfpedia/wfpDECent.html
US Dual Career Expatriates


• Definition: an employee, with a spouse
 who has a career of their own, that is sent
 to another country for an assignment
 abroad.
US Dual Career Expatriate Data


• 70% of expatriates has a partner/spouse
  that has a career of his/her own.
• 91% of married female expatriates are in
  category of “dual-career couples” vs. only
  50% of males
Current Trends of US based
Companies

• More females are considered for oversees
    assignments (80% of women don’t turn down
    assignments.)
•   Short-term expatriate assignments are on the
    rise
•   Companies are still slow to address dual-career
    couple issues
Problems with Current System

• Concerns about spousal/dual career issues
  - #1 reason for rejecting assignment
• Pay systems aren’t “dual-career” oriented
• Women expatriates still aren’t taken
  seriously despite what research shows –
  that they possess valuable talent in IA’s
Overview of Japan
• Location: Eastern Asia, island chain between the North
  Pacific Ocean and the Sea of Japan,
  east of the Korean Peninsula
• Population:127,330,002
               (July, 2004)
• GDP: $3.582 trillion (2003 est.)
Time Use of Workers by Working
Hours
                       Men       Women
Housework            0.37     3.57
Child Care           0.03     0.18
Work                 6.85     4.20
Tertiary Activities 6.15      5.42
Primary Activities 10.60     10.62
Total               24.00          24.00
Gender impact of
work-family measures

• Reduction of working hours
• Non-core tracks in corporations
• The child-care leave system
Financial compensation

• The child allowance
• Deduction for dependents
• Child rearing allowance
Recommendations the Japanese
government policy
• Increased efforts towards further reduction of working
    hours.
•   Rapid elimination of the wage gap between men and
    women.
•   Quick resolution of various issues concerning part-time
    workers.
•   Efforts to heighten public awareness of work-family
    policies.
•   Comprehensive measures to assist economically
    disadvantaged families.
•   Spurring on economic growth with a view to lowering
    the unemployment rate.
Japan Vs. United States
Dual Career Couples

• Housework Allocation
• Childcare
• Family Support Policies
  – Japan
  – United States
Housework Allocation

• Determinants of the amount of housework:
  – Earnings
  – Hours worked
  – Children
Child Care


• Who takes care of the children?

• Children’s education
Family Support Policies in Japan

• Child Care Leave
• Family Care Leave
• Night Work
• Overtime
• Part-Time Work Law
Family Support Policies in United
States


• Family and Medical Act Leave

• Individual employers offer family policies
 to support dual earner couples
What This Means

• US lacks family support policies; therefore,
 IHRM must take the initiative

• There is a certain need for family support
 policy to dual career Japanese expatriates
          Summary-United States
• We all have our assumptions on the cultural differences between Japan and
  America but the truth is that both are similar in many cultural aspects of
  societal roles between men and women.
• Regardless of the changing societal norms, the process of expatriations
  brings forth a universal challenge of co-existence of ethnic values and
  beliefs for Americans who settle in an Eastern culture.
• Several factors can lead to an array of conclusions on Japanese and
  American culture but more importantly, the social skill of communication is
  the very reason in which a transition from a comfortable place to a foreign
  place is successful for a dual career family. American companies need to
  emphasize more on the linguistic part of the expatriation process
                    Summary-Japan
• In many instances the value of compensation plays a big role in regards to
  the welfare of the family for them to consider the move to a new world.
• And for others, its all about the support for their family and extended family
  that will help them make that leap of faith towards expatriation.
• Thus, the support has to be consistent and reliable enough where the
  simplest issues like schools, malls, and leisure is simplified enough for them
  to take the job.
• The government also needs to play a bigger role in changing its view of
  women in the workforce and the way they are compensated.

				
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