Ancient India Ancient India The “In’s and Out’s” Presentation I The by mifei

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									Ancient India

The “In’s and Out’s”
   Presentation
I. The Indus River Valley
Civilization
 Over 2,000 years old!
 2,500 BC developed on the banks of the
  Indus River Valley
 Referred to as Harappan civilization
  – After one of its major cities
  – Lasted until approx. 1,700 BC
  – Near present-day Pakistan
 Borders stretch from present-day
  Kabul, Afghanistan to Delhi, India
 Indus Valley
I. The Indus River Valley
Civilization
Hundreds of towns and two major
 cities:
  – Harappa
  – Mohenjo-Daro
    • Large city
    • Well-built homes
    • Public buildings
    • Canals
    • City walls
    • Mohenjodaro 1
I. The Indus River Valley
Civilization
 – Mohenjo-Daro (inset, pg. 592)
   • Craft workers used clay for beautiful figurines
     and communication
   • Streets in a grid design
   • Wall around the city
   • Houses had brick/stone foundations
      – Several rooms, toilets, wells, drainage system with
        brick lined sewers in the streets
   • Ditches and canals for irrigation
   • Public bathhouse
   • Buildings for storing grain and holding meetings
   • Major trade partners???
II. The Aryan Influence on
South Asia
 1,700 BC—Aryans came to South Asia
   – Migrated through Russia and passes in the Hindu Kush
     mountains
 Suggests that Aryans played a role in the end of the
  Harappan civilization
 No one knows why the civilization ended around 1,700
  BC
 Possible theories:
   – Climate change?
   – Conquered?
   – Destroyed?

 Aryan people and Indus River valley civilization
  eventually blended into one culture
 This culture was concentrated in both the Indus River
  valley and the Ganges River valley
II. The Aryan Influence on
South Asia
A New People, a New Civilization
  – Aryans were very different from the
    Indus River valley people
    • Spoke the language of Sanskrit
    • Nomads and herders (never lived in
      cities)
    • Food and clothes came from animals
      they raised
    • Wealth was measured in number of cattle
      a person owned
II. The Aryan Influence on
South Asia
New Technology
 – After 1,000 BC Aryans discovered
   iron ore in the Ganges River valley
   • Improved agriculture
   • Allowed them to discover how to grow
     rice (already a local custom)
   • Began to settle in towns
II. The Aryan Influence on
South Asia
New Technology, cont.
    •Developed new iron weapons
      – Stronger than the Harappan people’s
        weapons
      – Improved weapons and introduction
        of horses allowed Aryans to rule the
        whole area of northern India.
III. Hinduism—A Way of Life
Major Religion developed in
 ancient India
  – Based on Aryan practices
  – Priests chant hymns and praises to
    Gods
  – Hymns passed down through Oral
    Traditions
III. Hinduism—A Way of Life
 – Hymns were later written down in a
   book referred to as Vedas
   • Vedas—Books of Knowledge
   • Contain writings on prayers, hymns,
     religious rituals and philosophies
   • Equivalent to what???
III. Hinduism—A Way of Life
Karma and Reincarnation
  – Central ideas of Hinduism
  – Karma: the idea that a person’s
    actions will determine what happens
    to them after their death
    • (think ―What goes around comes around,‖
      or ―You get what you deserve.‖)
III. Hinduism—A Way of Life
Karma and Reincarnation, cont.
  – Reincarnation: idea that after death a
    person’s soul is reborn into a
    different body
  – Believe cycle of birth, death and
    rebirth occurs over and over again
  – Status in life is then determined by
    actions in a previous life
III. Hinduism—A Way of Life
The Caste System
  – Main characteristic of India that sets
    it apart from other civilizations!
  – Caste: Inherited social class
    • Once born into a class, cannot leave for
      entire life…no matter what!
    • Influenced by the Aryan tribal system
    • Tribal system based on organizational
      belief that people are NOT equal
III. Hinduism—A Way of Life
 The Caste System, cont.
  –   Four Major Classes (Varnas)
      1. Brahmans—highest class; priests and
         scholars, (because daily life was based
         on religion and rituals)
      2. Kshatriyas—ruling class; warriors,
         princes and nobles
      3. Vaisyas—merchants and farmers
      4. Sudras—laborer or commoners
III. Hinduism—A Way of Life
The Caste System, cont.
  – There was a fifth class, considered to
    be the lowest of the low (this still
    holds true today)
    • The Untouchables:
       – Did work no one else wanted to do
          • Ex: cleaned up after cremating the dead,
            executed criminals, tanned animal hides,
            did jobs seen as unclean
III. Hinduism—A Way of Life
The Caste System, cont.
    •The Untouchables, cont.:
      – Shunned/discriminated against in
        society
          • Ex: eat out of out broken bowls,
            wear clothes taken from the dead,
            sound wooden clappers to warn
            they were coming
      – Higher classes could be shunned for
        either being seen with an untouchable
        or being near his or her shadow
IV. The Maurya and Gupta
Dynasties
What is a dynasty?
  – A family of rulers that controls power
    of a civilization through generations
Two major dynasties of ancient
 India
  – Maurya
  – Gupta
There contributions still affect our
 lives today!
IV. The Maurya and Gupta
Dynasties
The Mauryan Empire
 – First Indian empire
 – Approx. from 324-185 BC
 – Founded by descendents of the
   Aryans who moved east from the
   Indus River valley
 – One emperor, Ashoka (most famous),
   created a unified government
 – Mauryan’s were known for fine
   sculptures and sandstone carvings
IV. The Maurya and Gupta
Dynasties
The Golden Age and the Gupta
 Dynasty
  – Approx. 320-500 AD
  – During India’s ―Golden Age‖ of
    science, art and literature
  – Most rulers were Hindu
  – Buddhism was also introduced at this
    time
  – Hindu and Buddhism were major
    religions at this time
IV. The Maurya and Gupta
Dynasties
 – Hindu and Buddhism inspired art
   • Created sculptures and paintings of
     Hindu gods and goddesses
   • Many temples built containing
     images of Hindu mythology
   • Mountainside cliffs were hollowed
     out for Buddhist temples
IV. The Maurya and Gupta
Dynasties
Literature
  – Sanskrit became more frequent
    during the Gupta dynasty
  – Kalidasa—
    • Great poet and playwright during 5th
      century AD (400’s)
    • Plays taught moral principles through
      creativity and mystery
IV. The Maurya and Gupta
Dynasties
 Mathematics
  – Gupta mathematicians
    • Developed “zero concept” and numerals
      we use today
        – numbers have a place system, with
          zero as a place holder
    • Called this system Arabic (we still call it
      this today)

								
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