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					The History of Immigration To
          America:
  The Past to the Present
      by: Jeff Bernadt
            The Causes of Immigration
• America was built by Immigrants!
   * Colonial Immigration, Ellis Island, Today
Why Immigrants come to United States
   1. Religious persecution
  2. Economic Reasons
   3. Political Turmoil
1880s: Americans needed immigrants to fill a growing number of factory
   jobs.
Change in European society also affects immigration:
   1. Population Increase
   2. Spread of commercial agriculture
   3. Factory System
 Immigrants and Urban Settlements
• Although many immigrants settled in rural America, a great majority
settled in cities.
• Largest Immigrant Cities of the Time:
        ** New York, Boston, Pittsburgh, and Chicago
• Five out of every six Irish and Russian Immigrants lived in cities
• Three out of four Italian and Hungarian Immigrants lived in cities
• Seven out of 10 English Immigrants came to cities
  Why did European Immigrants Settle in
                Cities?
• Many European Immigrants came with little money to buy farms or
expensive farming equipment
• Farming was far different than in Europe
• Living in Cities gave Italians and Jewish people a chance to worship
with others without persecution.
• Irish Immigrants lived In cities because farming reminded them of
working the land at home ( English landlords kept Irish in oppression)
• Cities gave immigrants a chance to create their own mini-communities
(Education, religion, community, and Education)
    Reactions of European Immigration

• Natives: In this context refers not to Indian tribes, but
rather to Americans who, although their ancestors had been
immigrants just generations before
• Initially Big Business was pro-immigration because it gave
them a larger pool of workers.
• Eventually the workers would organize into unions and there
would be instability in the workforce.
                              Eugenics
• Claimed that cultural and social patterns were a result of heredity, and
hence controllable through selective breeding.
• Americans seized upon eugenics as a means of rationalizing their racism
“scientifically”
• Eugenics could claim using science as evidence that some humans had
inferior traits, thus causing our social problems
• At the time many believed that Eastern Europeans, African-Americans,
Jews, Asians, Middle Eastern, and Indians were inferior and Eugenics
gave them the proof.
                               Ellis Island
1. Countries of Origin:
   * England, Ireland, Germany, Italy, Sweden, Austria, Hungary, Armenia, Poland,
   Turkey, Romania, Russia, Greece, Caribbean
2. We were competing with other countries for Immigrants- Canadians, Australians,
    Brazilians, Argentineans, South Africans
3. American Businesses literally advertised for Immigrants
   * Everybody is rich, streets of gold, and even the maids have maids
   * America would win the battle for immigrants due to higher wages and a desirable
   political system
Towards the end of the 1890s there would be a need to slow immigration
   * Steam Boat companies now had to screen people they brought over
                     Why Ellis Island?
• Prior to the Ellis Island years immigration was controlled by individual
states.
• 1840-1860s: First large wave of immigration to U.S
        * New York Population from 400,000 to 1 million in 20 years
        * Castle Garden: New York’s idea for an immigration station to
        control strong influx of immigration.
        * 1882: U.S. government took control of Immigration
• They were worried we would become the world’s hospital or poor house.
There needed to be immigration control.
•Ellis Island opens January 1, 1892
                           Ellis Island

1. Ellis Island has been called the “Isle of hope and tears.”
2. It was the place that many “dreamers, seekers, and escapees” started a
   new life.
3. 1892-1954: Ellis Island was the United States main principle
   immigration station.
   ** During this 62 year period 12 million passed through the doors of
   Ellis Island (75% of total immigration)
   ** 4 out of every 10 Americans can trace ancestry through Ellis Island
Images of Ellis Island
       Images of Ellis Island
• US Inspectors       •Air View From Ellis Island
  examining eyes of
  Immigrants
History of U.S. Immigration
           Policy
   Statue of Liberty Inscription
 “Give me your tired, your poor, Your huddled
 Masses yearning to breather free. The
 Wretched refuse of your teeming shore, Send
 these, the homeless, the tempest-tost to me, I lift
 my lamp beside the golden door!”

Emma Lazarus
1886
A Historical Look at Immigration
• 1820-Today: 65 Million immigrants have entered the country.
• 1820-1880: Most from Great Britain, Ireland, and Germany.
• 1880-1890: 40% or 26 million. (Italy, Russia, A.H., Poland)
• 1980s: 9.5 Million
• 1990s: 13 Million
• 2001: More than 1 million immigrants entered the country
• Today the U.S population is reaching 290 Million People.
   – Many argue that we should no longer accept immigrants
   – Others point out that we need the energy and skills of
     newcomers.
   – What about the terrorist attacks of 9/11/01

      ** Immigrants have always been met with apprehension, but we
      have always had jobs to fill.

      ** People are seeking jobs and a better life.
    Why has the U.S been attractive
           to newcomers?
•   There has always been land to settle and jobs to fill.

    - Europe during the Industrial Revolution
        * Shift from agriculture
        * Rising Population
        * Diseases

    - U.S.
         * Needed people to fill factory jobs
         * Expanding West
         * Railroad Workers

•    Today: Hispanic Immigrants are the largest immigrant group
    - Poor economy in many of these countries of origin
    - Immigrants seek employment and a better life.
            What types of Work?
•    Historically immigrants have competed for jobs with lower wages
    and more difficult working conditions.
    - Many labor unions agree that new immigrant groups lower wages
    and prevent working conditions from improving.
    - This sentiment is reflected in the attitudes of blue-collar workers
    throughout history.
          * 1860s: Railroad workers (1882 Chinese Exclusion Act)
          * Present Day: Labor intensive and some trade positions
                   - Meat Packing Plants
                   - Factory Positions
                   - Construction (Could include specific trades)

         * Who favors immigration:
                 - Big Business
                 - Large Farmers
            What types of Work?
•    Historically immigrants have competed for jobs with lower wages
    and more difficult working conditions.
    - Many labor unions agree that new immigrant groups lower wages
    and prevent working conditions from improving.
    - This sentiment is reflected in the attitudes of blue-collar workers
    throughout history.
          * 1860s: Railroad workers (1882 Chinese Exclusion Act)
          * Present Day: Labor intensive and some trade positions
                   - Meat Packing Plants
                   - Factory Positions
                   - Construction (Could include specific trades)

         * Who favors immigration:
                 - Big Business
                 - Large Farmers
              The Resistance to
                Immigration
•  The Demand for Immigrants determined by:
  - Economy
  - War
• 14th Amendment: Established citizenship based on birth in the
  United States (Including African Americans)
• Since we have had several requirements:
  - Literacy Tests
  - Eugenics
  - Exclusion Acts (Chinese)
  - Removal (1930s: Mexican Americans)
  - Quotes: The number of immigrants per year
  - Today: If new immigrants want to become citizens they must fulfill
  the requirements of naturalization.
            What types of Work?
•    Historically immigrants have competed for jobs with lower wages
    and more difficult working conditions.
    - Many labor unions agree that new immigrant groups lower wages
    and prevent working conditions from improving.
    - This sentiment is reflected in the attitudes of blue-collar workers
    throughout history.
          * 1860s: Railroad workers (1882 Chinese Exclusion Act)
          * Present Day: Labor intensive and some trade positions
                   - Meat Packing Plants
                   - Factory Positions
                   - Construction (Could include specific trades)

         * Who favors immigration:
                 - Big Business
                 - Large Farmers
             Steps to Naturalization
•    Step 1: File a Declaration of Intention
    - Can be done anytime after entering the U.S
    - States that the immigrant intends to become a U.S citizen
    - Most will wait 5 years to take the next step.
    - During this time they may take classes to prepare

•    Step 2: File an application for Naturalization
    - Must be at least 18 years old
    - INS will review this application, this process takes several months

•    Step 3: If application is approved, there is an appointment to meet with an
    immigration examiner
    - Examiner decides if immigrant is qualified
    - Asks the immigrant questions, in English

•   Step 4: Brief Court Appearance
    -Take oath of loyalty to U.S
    - Now they are a citizen
    - If the immigrant has children under 18, those children are automatically citizens
               Immigration Today
•    Today: Most immigration from the South
    - -11% of the U.S population of is foreign born
    - Poor Mexican Economy
    - Political Oppression
    - Sub-standard living conditions
** U.S. is assisting Mexico with economy by trading goods and services

•   Issues with Immigration:
    - Health Care
    - Welfare (Illegal Immigrants are 40% of California’s public assistance
    budget)
    - Crime
    - Education: 1982 Supreme Court ruled that U.S must educated illegal
    aliens
          * 350,000 illegal immigrants per year
    (40% in California, Texas, New York, Florida, and Illinois)
    ** Not all illegal immigrants sneak into the country, many are students,
    business people, and workers who stay longer than expected.
  Both Sides of the Argument
Pro Immigration:              Con Immigration:
+ Business Leaders            - 1/3 do not have a high
+ Big Farmers                   school diploma. This is
+ 12% of immigrants earn        more than twice as much
  graduate degrees v. 8%        as native born.
  of native born population   - Unskilled workers bring
+ Bring new energy and          down wages (Unions)
  vigor to cities and         - U.S. is robbing other
  business                      countries of their talented
                                people.
    Recent Immigration Laws
• 1986: Immigration Reform and Control Act
  - Penalties on employers for knowingly hiring
  illegal workers (Not Effective)
  - Granted citizenship to those illegals currently in
  the country
  - Ronald Reagan thought this would curb illegal
  immigration, but it only would increase.
  - New immigrants flooded the country hoping to
  be granted citizenship
      Recent Immigration Laws
Immigrant Act of 1990:
  - Raised quote from 290,000 (1965) to 675,000
  immigrants.
What type of people were allowed into the country?
  1. Family Members of legal residents or citizens (71%)
  2. Well trained workers (21%)
  3. Immigrants from under represented countries (8%)
1996: Illegal Immigration Reform:
  - Reduction in the number of immigrants into the country.
  - This law would also crack down on the number of
  illegal immigrants into the country.
  - Gave INS more power for deportation (Deportation
  doubled)