Geological hazards at coastal zones modelling based on by ltx81750

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									 Geological hazards at coastal zones modelling based on Remote Sensing
  Data for Intelligent Environmental Emergency & Risk Management
                            Systems Toolbox

                                        Tatyana Sobchuk
                   Environmental Geoscience Institute, Russian Academy of Sciences
                                101000, Ulansky per., 13, building 2,
                         Telephone (7-095) 207-4726; fax (7-095) 923-1886
                                     E-mail: tsobchuk@mail.ru




Abstract
Developing of a basic, universal, Geological Hazards EE & RM Model, for management and
forecasting the state of geological environment and processes at the areas influenced by sea-
level changes, as well as for forecasting of geological hazards and emergency, and estima-
tion of geo-environmental risk on the base of risk modeling. The methodology will help to
detect developing of negative geological processes, not only for test-sites selected, but for
general use at coastal areas, based on universal simulation models, with remotely sensed
data as input.

1. Objectives of the project

In general, Environmental Emergency and Risk Management systems (mathematical mod-
els) – EE & RM systems - are based on as well as using environmental ground truth data,
obtained from time consuming and extremely expensive in situ measurements, (marine) en-
vironmental monitoring (time series), and often in combination with data from laboratory
researches.

The quality, effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of the EE & RM systems (models), can be
significant enlarged, through application of remote sensing data. These data are covering
large geographical areas of interest; offer possibilities for fast time series (repeated surveys)
and processing of a large amount of data received. Moreover, remote sensing data are very
important for the calibration and validation of mathematical, hydrodynamic and environmen-
tal models and systems. Application of Remote Sensing methods will reduce the results of
environmental hazards, as well as improve the evaluation of these.

However, the main problem that prevents from effective utilization of remote sensing data
for environmental research and modeling are

   - Lack for universal technologies, allowing to integrate information from different sources
     (specialized satellite data acquisition and processing centers) with maximum automa
     tion

   - Not being available of basic, general applicable, EE & RM systems (models), based on
     remote sensing data



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Scheme 1 Development scheme EE & RM system/model

As one of the main European environmental issues of interest can be considered:

2. Geological Hazards at Coastal Zones

Changes of water level of oceans, seas and large water reservoirs cause more or less signifi-
cant consequences for environment of the very vast areas adjacent. It concerns first of all low
lands with recent tendency of tectonic subsidence although the other areas are also influ-
enced. These consequences are in great degree of geological nature.

The geological structures (both tectonical and lithological), tectonic movements (regional
and local ones), general planetary jointing and geomorphological features direct the pro-
cesses caused by sea-level changes, including negative and dangerous ones. They can be
sinking of the land surface, subsidence, karst phenomena, backwater, uprising of the under-
ground water, flooding, silting, swamping, salting of grounds and soils, deflation, etc.

Development of mathematical methods for revealing, study, monitoring and forecasting of
the state of geological environment and processes at the areas influenced by sea-level changes
on the base of remote sensing data, are very effective and correspond to the large sizes of the
areas under consideration.


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Some features, corresponding to negative geological processes, as well as patterns composed
by them are manifested quite well at remote sensing images. With these images it is possible
to receive detail data on the development (changes) of geological forms, large and small ones
as well (faults, local uplifts, salt domes etc.). They can influence the running of negative
processes.

3. Specific Scientific and Technological Objectives

Regarding geo-environmental issues described above, the following specific objectives can
be mentioned within the new EU project - Intelligent environmental management, risk and
emergency systems (EMRES):

  - To develop a system of universal interfaces to data catalogues (meta-data) of various
    data acquisition and processing centers, which could be easily integrated into different
    application management information systems.

  - To develop basic, universal technologies to enable existing satellite data storage and
    processing systems, to serve automatically user requests, issued in user convenient for
    mats.

  - To develop, test and implement existing and new, innovative technology for automatic
    assimilation of satellite data and processing results into the specialized EE & RS sys
    tems, as mentioned before.

  - To create working applications (prototypes), using existing and new, innovative infor
    mation technologies, to be developed within EMRES, and on basis of existing, mainly
    Russian data archives from satellites for Geological hazards: application for respec
    tively Caspian Sea, Gdansk Gulf (Poland) and Black Sea.

  - To develop Internet technologies to allow automated access to geographically distrib
    uted satellite data storage systems through the WWW.

  - Deploying of a telematics solution for implementing of integrated marine environmen
    tal management, describing which (mainly Russian) satellite data are available at what
    location and providing IT systems (Internet techniques) with automated procedures to
    access the actual information.

  - To develop the capability for the implementation of different types of satellite data
    through the use of a Central Meta Directory, as central element of the system, consider
    ing the guidelines of the Catalogue of Data Sources of the European Environment Agency.
    The CMD describes what information is available at what location and will be installed
    as a World Wide Web Server (WWW), and will be supported by applications based on
    a Geographical Information System (GIS) for geographical interfacing.

4. Innovative aspects

The innovative aspects of the Project are regarding respectively the coupling of remote sens-
ing techniques, mathematical modelling and GIS-technologies:

  - Development of basic, universal image processing procedures/software, directed to mod
    elling hazardous geological processes on coastal geo-environments: especially devel




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      opment of algorithms and modules (software) for texture analysis, based on the use of
      natural process models, which are reflecting the coastal zones view, and based on the
      theory of random processes

   - Development of basic, universal procedures for remotely sensed coastal geo-environ
     ment data interpretation, using simulation models of geological processes and math
     ematical models of landscape morphology

   - Development of basic, universal 3D-dynamic model for geological hazards at coastal
     zones, to be used for assessment of dynamics on spatial and temporal variability of the
     geological hazards and sea level rising

The objective is to provide the Community and the Member States with:

   - Objective, reliable and comparable information at European level, enabling to take the
     requisite measures to protect the (marine) environment, to assess the results of such
     measures and to ensure that the public is properly informed about the state of the envi
     ronment.

To that end, the necessary technical and scientific support

Although there is not at present any EU Policy specifically for coastal zones, in view of the
urgent need to halt the degradation of coastal and marine resources, the ecosystems of the Euro-
pean coastal zones are identified for priority action under the 5th Environmental Action Program.

The results of the EMRES Project help to develop a multi-disciplinary knowledge base and
integrated solutions, by means of basic and universal EE & RM systems/models, applicable
for each (marine) region within Europe, and providing reliable and comparable information
to minimize the environmental, human and economic damages, caused by geological hazards
at the European coastal zones.

The required technical and scientific support, will be (freely) made available through the EE
& RM Toolbox on the Internet, including downloadable basic/universal EE & RM systems/
models and remote access to databases containing satellite data.

5. Researching Methodology for Geological Hazards at Coastal Zones Module

5.1. Data sources

For the Geological Hazards Module, the following input satellite data will be applied and
processed:

   - From COSMOS series satellites by Topographic Camera TK-350 with resolution 10 m
     (half tone films)

   - From COSMOS series satellites by High resolution Camera KVR-1000 with resolution
     2 m (half tone films)

   - Scanner images “MSU-E” (???-?) from “Resurs-01” satellite with resolution 35 m (3
     spectral zones)




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  - MR-4 with resolution 18-20 m (4 spectral zones) from “Resurs-f” satellite

  - Multispectral images KFA-1000 with resolution 5-8m from “Resurs-f”satellite.

5.2. Methodology:

The planned research will be based on the coupling of remote sensing techniques, math-
ematical modeling and GIS-technologies. In the field of space image analysis a set of image
processing procedures will be developed, that will be directed to modeling hazardous geo-
logical processes in coastal geo-environment:

  a) Special attention will be given to development of software for image texture analysis.
  Texture analysis is still one of the least developed fields of image analysis. The system
  supposes development of algorithms and modules of texture analysis that are based on the
  use of natural process models, particularly those reflecting the coastal zones view. These
  algorithms will be based on the theory of random processes (Markov processes, diffusion
  processes, characteristic function theory).

  b) Simultaneously, in the course of work information completeness of images in different
  spectral bands, as well as of different scales will be evaluated using the procedures of
  factor analysis. As a result the optimal group of remote sensing data for coastal geo-envi
  ronment modeling will be chosen.

  c) Integrated analysis of heterogeneous data: in particular, methods and software tools for
  combined analysis of raster (remotely sensed data) and vector data (ground-based point
  data) will be developed in order to get better information completeness. The development
  will be the based on the methods of factor analysis and image recognition theory.

  d) Developing procedures for remotely sensed coastal geo-environment data interpreta
  tion, using simulation models of geological processes and mathematical models of land
  scape morphology. Recently developed Russian methods and tools of image structure analy
  sis (models of landscape mathematical morphology) will be applied and tested.

  e) In the field of cartography, information analysis methods will be developed, to define
  uniform areas on the point database as a part of GIS. Methods of cartographic data analy
  sis (quantitative and qualitative) will be used to find the rules for ranging coastal territo
  ries and to control the efficiency of remote sensing methods statistically.

The Geological Hazards at coastal zones model will be validated and tested out for the fol-
lowing European Regions: Caspian Sea, Bulgarian/Romanian part of the Black Sea and the
Gdansk Gulf, as part of the Baltic Sea.




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6. Schematisation of Geological Hazards Model (Scheme_2)




7. Conclusions

Within new project described above (EMRES), mathematical methods for management and
forecasting the state of geological environment and processes will be developed, for areas
influenced by sea-level changes, as well as for forecasting of geological hazards and emer-
gency, and estimation of geo-environmental risk on the base of risk modeling. This will result
in detection of developed negative geological processes, and contribute to the development
of hereto-related remediation measures and management strategies for preserving and en-
hancing of the marine environment of the European coastal zones.




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