The Fishery and Settlement Patterns in Newfoundland and Labrador by mifei

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                The Fishery and Settlement Patterns in
                        Newfoundland and Labrador:
         17th -18th Century Trinity Bay Internal Migration

Lesson Overview
In this lesson, students will be exposed to two case studies from Trinity Bay in
Newfoundland and Labrador that illustrate internal migration during the mid-1700s to
1950s. Through an examination of a variety of materials, various push and pull factors will
be explored. These factors encouraged early fishermen and their families to continue their
movement after their arrival from England and Ireland. Students will be required to produce
a map to trace the migration routes taken by these early settlers. Teachers should
encourage students to research and apply similar information to other regions of Atlantic

Grade Level
Grades 9-12 (secondary school)
Grades 6-8 (middle school)

Time Required
Teachers should be able to conduct the lesson in two classes.

Curriculum Connection (Province/Territory and course)
Atlantic Provinces Curriculum for Social Studies: Council of Atlantic Ministers of Education
and Training (CAMET): Newfoundland and Labrador Curriculum Outcomes (Can be
adapted for any province)

Newfoundland and Labrador                      Other Atlantic Provinces
Intermediate social studies program            Intermediate Social Studies
Canadian Geography 1202                        Senior High Social Studies
World Geography 3200
World Geography 3202

Link to the Canadian Atlas Online (CAOL)
The Canadian Atlas online can be used to help students construct their maps of internal
migration in Trinity Bay. Using the link, locate “Explore
the maps”. Then click on “How to use the map”. Zoom in on Trinity Bay to 27kms to
54kms. Students can print a copy of this map and use it to show the migration routes taken
by these three families.
Contextual information can be found under:
      Themes: History and Heritage – The Fishery

  Additional Resources, Materials and Equipment Required
  Computer and Internet access
  Sample copies of maps showing “Migration Routes in Trinity Bay” (not attached)
  Student information sheet Internal Migration for Trinity Bay (attached)
  Group copies of 3 Case Studies: #1: The Greens, #2: The Veys, #3: The Spurrells
  Student worksheet Internal Migration (attached)
  Assessment rubric (attached)

  Main Objective
  The primary objective of this lesson is to allow students to become familiar with internal
  migration and to identify the push and pull factors. This will be achieved through two case
  studies of families who arrived in Trinity Bay in the mid-1700s. These families continued to
  move until they found a permanent location to settle. Students will use mapping skills to
  show these migration routes. Teachers should challenge students to apply concepts to
  model their local areas for migration patterns.

  Learning Outcomes
  By the end of the lesson, students will be able to:
            •   Define internal migration
            •   Suggest possible push and pull factors that cause migration
            •   Apply migration factors to their own extended family history
            •   Construct maps showing internal migration
            •   Be familiar with historical maps showing early 16th and 17th century fishing in
            •   Become familiar with the importance of the Newfoundland fishery to England,
                Ireland and France.
            •   Appreciate early settlement in the town of Trinity, in Trinity Bay,
                Newfoundland and Labrador.

  The Lesson
                    Teacher Activity                             Student Activity
Introduction    Open lesson with by introducing Plates 23    Use online Historical Atlas of
                and 24 from Volume 1, Historical Atlas       Canada to examine early
                of Canada. Initiate discussions centred      migration routes taken by
                on regions that supplied early immigrants    immigrants from Ireland and
                to Newfoundland from England and             England shown in Plates 23 and
                Ireland by asking the following questions:   24.

                “Where did the largest early migrant         Suggest possible reason for this
                groups to eastern Canada settle?”            migration.

                “Why do you think they came to

                  “What factors might have caused them to        Encourage students to discuss
                  settle in Trinity Bay, Newfoundland?”          possible migration patterns within
                                                                 their families and communities.
Lesson            Separate class into several groups of four.    Assemble in groups of four with
Development       Hand out Student Worksheet: Internal           assigned case study. Read and
                  Migration and have students complete.          discuss the case study.
                  Distribute case studies evenly among           Complete the worksheet Internal
                  groups. Encourage students to complete         Migration for the assigned case
                  the map using Canadian Atlas Online:           studies.
                  Note: Students should also be shown one
                  template map to help them understand the
                  type of map to be constructed for their case
Conclusion        Gather students in large group for             Each group will briefly
                  presentation and discussion of their           discuss/describe their case study
                  findings.                                      to the class and show the map of
                                                                 internal migration for their
                                                                 assigned case study.

  Lesson Extension
  Students should be encouraged to examine their local areas and family history for evidence
  of migration patterns that exist in their community. Teachers could encourage local
  historians, church leaders, and local genealogists to speak on local settlement patterns. A
  homework assignment similar to this lesson could be given.

  Assessment of Student Learning

  Further Reading

  Link to Canadian National Standards for Geography

  Essential Element #1:                  The World in Spatial Terms
              •   Maps and atlas used to observe the migration patterns in Eastern Canada
              •   Identify settlement patterns in Trinity Bay, Newfoundland and other possible
                  locations in eastern Canada.
  Essential Element #2:                  Places and Regions
              •   Regional analysis of geographic issues and questions related to migration and
                  settlement patterns.
              •   Issues and problems of a region related to suitable settlement and

Essential Element #3:              Physical Systems
         •   Components of Earth’s physical system
         •   World patterns of extreme events
         •   World climate regions
Essential Element #4:              Human Systems
         •   Impact of human migration
         •   Human population distribution
         •   Human settlement patterns…rural versus urban Canada
Essential Element #5:              Environment and Society
         •   Distribution and utilization of local resources.
         •   Use and sustainability of natural resources
Geographic Skills #1:              Asking Geographic Questions
         •   Plan and organize a geographic project on internal migration
         •   Research and answer questions
         •   Identify internal migration as an issue facing early rural Canada
Geographic Skills #2:              Acquiring Geographic Information
         •   Use various websites to locate information
         •   Use a variety of research skills to locate and collect information
Geographic Skills #3:              Organizing Geographic Information
         •   Use a variety of media to develop and organize geographic information
Geographic Skills #4:              Analyzing Geographic Information
         •   Use the processes of analysis, synthesis, evaluation, and explanation to
             interpret geographic information from a variety of sources
Geographic Skills #5:              Answering Geographic Questions
         •   Communicate clearly and effectively
         •   Formulate valid generalizations based on information collected and analyzed

   Student Information: Internal Migration at Trinity Bay

   As the Island of Newfoundland became more and more populated by Western
   Europeans, popular locations like Trinity, Bay de Verde, Grates Cove, and Scilly
   Cove (now Winterton) in Trinity Bay became overcrowded. Settlers searched for other
   favourable locations that could support their growing families and provide sheltered
   harbours and rich fishing grounds. It was a common practice in Newfoundland for
   migrants to travel about 20 kilometres to temporary winter homes to obtain food, wood
   supplies, and building materials at the bottom of harbours and inlets. Residents of
   Grates Cove and Scilly Cove often crossed Trinity Bay to cut timbers for boat building
   at Random Sound. Some families in Trinity looked to areas like Heart’s Ease and
   Random as being good fishing grounds with an abundance of wood supplies. The
   Newfoundland Directory, 1871, describes Random as being “…very fertile, but is almost
   unoccupied. The inhabitants are engaged in lumbering, farming, and salmon fishing in
   conjunction with cod fishing…” This alone explains why a number of the residents of Bay
   de Verde, Grates Cove and Scilly Cove eventually migrated from the north side of Trinity
   Bay to the Southwest Arm area. Family names like Vey, Green, Hiscock, Martin, Shaw,
   Avery, Jacobs, Drodge, King, Benson, and Frost can be traced to Grates Cove, Bay de
   Verde and Winterton. Families like the Spurrells, Pitcher, Dodge, Langer, and Baker also
   moved from the Trinity area to seek out new opportunities and prosperities for their
   expanding families. Below you will find three surnames that came to the shores of
   Trinity Bay and became internal migrants.

                                 Case Study 1: The Greens

The Greens arrived in Trinity in the 1700’s. Early St. Paul’s Church records state that John
and Agnes Green had two young sons who died there in 1761. A son John Green married
Mary Dewey of Bonavista in 1775. John and Mary settled in Trinity and made a living
building and operating a metal forge to supply the demands of a growing fishing industry.
John and Agnes had several other children and one of them, Daniel, married Jane Bailey in
1794. Jane had three children from a previous relationship. These were adopted and
baptized into the Green surname at Scilly Cove (now Winterton). The population of
Trinity was expanding rapidly and it appears that Daniel and Jane moved from Trinity to
seek a new life for their family at Scilly Cove, a smaller fishing community on the opposite
side of Trinity Bay. Here the children grew and eventually entered into the fishery. Daniel
and Jane had a Grandson Levi, who married Rachael Adey in 1854. They had several
children, all of whom were born in Scilly Cove. Levi and his cousin, John, often crossed
Trinity Bay to harvest the forest for materials that could be used in construction of boats,
homes, wharves, and stages back home in Scilly Cove. In addition, St. Jones Without
offered good shelter, fishing grounds, and fertile soil. Around the 1870s, Levi and John
moved their families permanently to start a new community that was recorded in the 1870s
census as St. James but quickly became known as St. Jones Without. The move allowed
their families to have easy access to the natural resources. The community of St. Jones
remained an active fishing community from the 1870s until 1950s. Due to its isolation,
however, the community lacked medical and educational facilities. To receive emergency
help during stormy weather, a person had to walk to the nearest community of Little
Heart’s Ease. The surrounding hills limited communication and mail was often sporadic.
With the beginning of roads in Newfoundland, the community was deemed impossible to
reach by road. The families voluntarily left the inlet by the early 1950s. The great-grandson
of Levi, William and his young wife, Olive moved their growing family to her hometown of
Little Heart’s Ease. Here, William continued to fish in the waters of Southwest Arm,
Trinity Bay. He often returned to the abandoned community of St. Jones Without to fish
during the summer months.

                                 Case Study 2: The Veys

The Veys of Trinity Bay were a family from New Ross, Ireland, which left that country
under unusual circumstances. In New Ross, the family surname was Rice. Michael Rice and
his wife, Sarah, had several children and times were very hard. Sarah had just given birth
to Catherine, with the assistance of a mid-wife, Mary Browne. Mary and Michael Browne
were friends of Sarah and Mick.
During an early summer’s evening in 1836, the family received a loud knock upon the door.
A gang of men demanded to see Michael Browne. Because the gang members were bearing
arms, Mick quickly grabbed a weapon and, along with Michael, confronted the local men.
Both Michael and Mick were forced down the road and into the river. Here they both were
killed. Fearing for their lives the women quickly gathered underneath the house and
developed a plan to escape their husbands’ killers.
Sarah Rice, sons James, John and youngest daughter, Catherine, and their friend Mary
Browne fled to England. Once in England they arranged passage on a ship traveling to
Newfoundland. Before crossing the Atlantic, all of them reached a decision to change
their names. It was agreed that the surname would become Vye and that their religion
should be changed to Protestant. Mary would also become known as Granny Elizabeth. With
their new identities in place it was vowed that no one would reveal the family secret. Sarah
would locate her two oldest daughters who were living at Grates Cove upon their arrival in
Newfoundland. However, while crossing the Atlantic, Sarah passed away and her infant,
Catherine, died before reaching Newfoundland.
Upon their arrival in Newfoundland, the remaining three slowly made their way up the
Conception Bay shoreline until they reached Grates Cove. Here James and John
established themselves in the fishing industry and married local women from Grates Cove.
James married Lavina Stoyles, while John married Margaret Benson. James, along with his
two older sons, started to cross Trinity Bay and established a sawmill at Long Beach to
supply materials to Grates Cove and Trinity. During this time period, Grates Cove population
continued to grow and land for houses, stages, wharves and fishing were become more
difficult to obtain. Families had already started to move to the Southwest Arm area. In the
summer of 1865, James and Lavinia moved their family, along with Granny Elizabeth, to
Long Beach. Here James felt his family had everything - an abundance of land, forest,
fertile soil, and rich fishing grounds. In 1868, John, who had remained in Grates Cove,
drowned at sea hunting seals. His death was about one year after his brother James.
Granny Elizabeth had outlived her four Rice allies who had left Ireland with her. On October
22, 1874, Granny Elizabeth passed away at the age of one hundred and two years. Her only
request before her death was that she be buried at Grates Cove. Her body had to be
“salted-in” until fair weather would allow its removal to Grates Cove for burial. The fear of
reprisal did not end with their deaths, however. The family secret had been so well kept that
it lasted another four generations before it was finally divulged.

                               Case Study 3: The Spurrells

The earliest records indicate that a John Spurrell from Bath, Somerset married a Mary
Cutler from Taunton, Somerset in 1747. They traveled from England to Newfoundland
around 1748 to likely serve as servants to John Masters of Poole and Michael Ballard of
Ireland. John and Mary’s grandson Moses was born in Trinity in 1803. It was Moses’s
marriage to Honour Sexton in 1828 and the resulting family, most of who were born in
Trinity, which prompted his movement to search for a new place to raise his family. The
family’s first movement was to a location close to Trinity called Sooley’s Cove in 1840.
However, by 1845, he heard of the rich fishing grounds at Little Heart’s Ease. He likely
visited this area with his older sons in 1844 and witnessed the excellent fishing grounds but
there was little land available at the community of Little Heart’s Ease. This likely caused him
to build a summer’s tilt at Butter Cove where there were no settlers. This location was at a
greater distance from the fishing grounds than Little Heart’s Ease and nearby Gooseberry
Cove but it offered lots of land for his family. Church records indicate that he likely moved
permanently to Butter Cove in the spring of 1845. It was not until the birth of his youngest
child, Joshua, that the community was officially listed as Butter Cove.

                                    Student Worksheet:
                                     Internal Migration

To become familiar with internal migration that occurred in Trinity Bay between 17th and
18th centuries.

Student Information: Internal Migration at Trinity Bay
Case study
Map of Trinity Bay or (students can be directed to produce their own at Canadian Atlas
Directions for Worksheet
   •   Read the assigned case study and complete the questions.
   •   Locate and label the place names in Trinity Bay in your case study.
   •   Produce a group map of Trinity Bay outlining the migration route taken by the family.
**It is suggested that students divide the responsibilities into student presenter, students to
answer questions, and students to produce the map.

   1. What is meant by the term migration? How is this different from internal migration?
   2. What were some of the push and pull factors identified in your assigned family case
      study for internal migration at Trinity Bay?
   3. Why did the settlers in your case study move from Europe to the Trinity Bay area?
   4. Look at a current map of Trinity Bay. Are all the place names still there? Why might
      they have disappeared? (If you can’t find them, do a Google search.)
Using Plate 26, Volume 1, Historical Atlas of Canada,
   5. What were some of the imports and exports for Trinity?
   6. What were the ethnic origins of people from Europe?
   7. Using a print or online atlas, see if you can locate the places in England and Ireland
      from which the settlers of Trinity Bay originated.

                                 Assessment Rubric: Trinity Bay Internal Migration

                                                                          POINT VALUES

   CATEGORY                      5                         4                        3                        2                    1

                                                 Most items completed.    Most items completed.
COMPLETENESS           Everything completed.                                                         Missing 3-5 items       Incomplete
                                                        Missing 1              Missing 1-3

  ACCURACY:                                       All migration routes
                       Everything completed                                Two migration routes     One migration route      Incomplete
 Migration routes                                      completed

   NEATNESS:                Exceptional                  Good                    Average
                                                 Colour/Orderly/Legible                                 Satisfactory         Incomplete
                       Colour/Orderly/Legible                             Colour/Orderly/Legible   Colour/Orderly/Legible     No colour
Attention to Detail/
                                                                                                                            No horizontal
       Map                                                                                                                      labels
                           Routes easily         Routes identified and     Routes identified but   Routes not identified
                       identified and labelled                                 not labelled                                   No labels

 Push and Pull             4 push factors            3 push factors           2 push factors           1 push factor         No push or
  factors for                                                                                                                pull factors
   migration               4 pull factors            3 pull factors           2 pull factors            1 pull factor         identified

                                                                                                                 SCORE:       ___/20

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