Docstoc

New Communities in Greenwich

Document Sample
New Communities in Greenwich Powered By Docstoc
					New Communities in Greenwich

May 2007




Social Inclusion & Justice Division
Chief Executives Dept
Riverside House
Woolwich High St
SE18 6BY

Tel: 020 8921 6058
Fax: 020 8921 5104
Textphone: 020 8921 5690

email: sij.policy@greenwich.gov.uk
Contents



1   Introduction .................................................................................................... 4

2   Key findings ................................................................................................... 4
      Demographic ............................................................................................. 4
      Community Needs ..................................................................................... 5

3   What do we mean by a „new community‟ ...................................................... 5

4   The growth of new communities in Greenwich .............................................. 6

5   The current profile ......................................................................................... 7
      The school population ............................................................................... 7

6   Projected changes ......................................................................................... 8

7   New Ethnic Communities .............................................................................. 9
      African ....................................................................................................... 9
            Overview ........................................................................................... 9
            The Nigerian Community .................................................................. 9
            The Ghanaian community ............................................................... 10
            The Somali Community ................................................................... 10
            Other African Communities ............................................................. 11
      Asian ....................................................................................................... 11
            Overview ......................................................................................... 11
            The Indian Community .................................................................... 11
            The Chinese Community ................................................................ 12
            The Vietnamese Community ........................................................... 12
            The Pakistani Community ............................................................... 13
            The Sri Lankan Community............................................................. 13
            The Bangladeshi Community .......................................................... 13
            The Nepalese Community .............................................................. 13
            Other Asian Communities ............................................................... 14
      European ................................................................................................. 14
            Overview ......................................................................................... 14
            EU (excluding accession countries) ................................................ 14
            EU accession countries .................................................................. 14
            Europe (Non EU countries) ............................................................. 15
      Middle Eastern ........................................................................................ 15
      Caribbean ................................................................................................ 16
      Other communities .................................................................................. 16

8   Needs and views of new ethnic communities in Greenwich ........................ 16
      Community facilities ................................................................................ 17
      Language barriers ................................................................................... 17
      Children‟s Education ............................................................................... 18
      Youth services ......................................................................................... 18


                                                                                                                     2
               Housing ................................................................................................... 19
               Older people ............................................................................................ 20
               Health ...................................................................................................... 20
               Leisure services ...................................................................................... 20
               Employment and training ......................................................................... 21
               Access to Grants from the Council .......................................................... 21
               Community safety .................................................................................... 21
               Community cohesion and integration ...................................................... 22

APPENDICES .......................................................................................................... 23
       Community groups consulted .................................................................. 23
       Further information .................................................................................. 23




                                                                                                                             3
1   Introduction
    This report provides a demographic profile of the new ethnic communities in
    Greenwich and summarises some of the key issues identified by the
    communities themselves as being important.

    The report is based on information from the following sources:

    1)       Desk research using demographic data from:
              National Census (1991 and 2001)
              Greenwich Schools Census (2001-2007)
              DWP National Insurance No Allocations (2002-2006)
              Worker Registration Scheme (2004-2006)
              Greenwich Electoral Register (2005 – 2007)
              ONS Register of Births (2001-2005)
              GLA Ethnic Group Population Projections (2001-2026)

    2)       Discussions with officers providing Council services to new
             communities including housing and education.

    3)       Discussions with external organisations including Greenwich Primary
             Care Trust, Greenwich Community College, Metropolitan Police,
             Jobcentre Plus, local housing associations, employment agencies,
             shops and cafes, and London-wide community organisations.

    4)       Interviews carried out in 2006 with representatives and individuals from
             the following communities: Nigerian, Ghanaian, Sierra Leonean,
             Ugandan, Congolese, Zambian, Zimbabwean, Mauritian, Vietnamese,
             Sri Lankan, Chinese, Nepalese, Albanian, Kosovan, Turkish.

    5)       Focus group meetings involving participants from the Somali, Polish,
             Lithuanian, Czech, and Slovak communities.

2   Key findings
    Demographic

            The total ethnic minority population of Greenwich in 2006 was
             estimated to be between 75,000 and 80,000 (approximately 33% of the
             total population). This represents an increase of between 21% and
             27% over the 2001 census figure of 63,112.
            The largest ethnic group after White British is Black African. In 2006,
             the Black African community was estimated to be 26,000 (11% of the
             total population). The largest communities are Nigerian, Somali and
             Ghanaian.
            The total Asian community was estimated in 2006 to be between
             19,000 and 21,0000 (8-9% of the total population). Approximately half



                                                                                    4
           are of Indian origin. Greenwich has among the largest Vietnamese and
           Nepalese communities in London.
          The borough has seen a rapid increase in the number of migrant
           workers from Eastern Europe especially from Poland and Lithuania but
           the total numbers are lower than in many other London boroughs.
          The GLA estimates that the total non-white population of Greenwich
           will increase by 137% between 2001 and 2026, with the largest
           increases being in the Black African and Asian Other groups and the
           smallest increases being in the India and Black Caribbean groups.

    Community Needs

          There are very wide differences between communities and within some
           ethnic groups on indicators of need such as unemployment, housing
           tenure, knowledge of English and educational attainment. Recently
           arrived refugee communities including Somalis and Kosovans tend to
           have to the highest levels of need.

       Key concerns raised by the communities included:

          The need for facilities and accommodation from which the community
           can provide its own organisation and support
          The importance of learning English and having access to ESOL
           classes
          Problems faced by children in settling at school, especially if they are
           from a country which has little formal education; and the need for extra
           support
          The need for more youth activities to divert young people away from
           crime
          Problems of overcrowding and gaining access to suitable housing
          Isolation faced by older people
          Health issues for refugees and people with HIV/AIDS.
          Restricted access to leisure services resulting from cultural and
           religious differences
          Access to employment which matched their level of skills and
           experience
          Access to Council grants
          Concerns about community safety and racism

3   What do we mean by a ‘new community’
    By a new community we mean a group of people which shares common
    national or ethnic origins and which is currently growing either as a result of
    new births or because of inward migration from other areas of the country or
    from abroad. It does not necessarily imply that people in that group have
    anything else in common or have a shared sense of identify or would choose
    to identify with that group.




                                                                                      5
    We recognise that ethnic, racial, cultural and national identity in Britain is
    becoming increasingly complex and fluid. The data for this report is drawn
    from official statistics which do not fully reflect this complexity.

4   The growth of new communities in Greenwich
    The growth of new communities in Greenwich has largely mirrored national
    and international population movements beginning with economic migration
    from new commonwealth countries in Asia and the Caribbean in the 1950s
    and 60s.

    Key events which have had an impact on the borough have been the
    expulsion of Asians from East Africa in the 1970s, the conflict in Cyprus in the
    1960s and 70s, the dispersal of Vietnamese refugees from Hong Kong in the
    1970s, and refugee movements following the outbreak of war in Sri Lanka in
    1983, Somalia 1991, and from Kosovo in 1999. The borough also welcomed
    substantial numbers from Ireland in the 1970s and 80s and from a wide range
    of African countries from the 1980s to the present day. Most recently the
    borough has seen an inflow of migrant workers from Europe following the
    expansion of the EU in 2004.

    However, patterns of settlement vary widely across London. Compared with
    some other London boroughs, Greenwich has relatively small communities
    from the Middle East, South America and Eastern Europe. The borough also
    has a very small Jewish population.

    Between 1981 and 2001 the number of Greenwich residents born outside the
    UK increased from 19,932 (9.5%) to 38,738 (18%).

    In 2001, 63,112 people (29% of the Greenwich population) were from ethnic
    minority communities (other than White British). The borough had the sixth
    highest percentage of Sikhs, eighth highest percentage of Black Africans and
    the tenth highest percentage of Indians in London.

    Census migration data for the year preceding the census shows that there
    was a net outflow of White residents from the borough with a high number
    moving to Bexley. There was a net inflow of Black African, Pakistani, Chinese
    and other Asian residents.

    In 2005, 48% of births to Greenwich residents were to mothers born outside
    the UK. This compares to 51% for the whole of London.

    Some of the more established communities are now experiencing low growth,
    stabilisation or decline in numbers (Indian, Irish, Vietnamese, Caribbean)
    while others are growing rapidly as a result of new migration and high birth
    rates in existing communities. The groups increasing rapidly at the moment
    are some Black African, European and Asian communities.




                                                                                     6
    The increase in privately rented accommodation in the new housing
    development areas is likely to have created new opportunities for migrants to
    settle in Greenwich.

5   The current profile
    The total ethnic minority population in 2006 was estimated to be in the region
    of 75,000 to 80,000, an increase of approximately 23% over the 2001 census
    figure. This represents between 32-34% of the total population (estimated by
    the GLA to be 234,034 in 2006).

    The table below is a best guess estimate based on recent evidence from the
    Worker Registration Scheme and the DWP National Insurance Number
    allocations.

    Region of origin           Total population estimate
    Africa                     26,000
    Asia                       20,000
    Europe (EU)                11,000
    Caribbean                  7,000
    Europe (2004 Accession)    4,500
    Middle East                2,500
    Europe (non EU)            2,000
    Oceania                    2,000
    C & S America              1,500
    N America                  1,500

    Communities of over 500 people which are thought to be increasing are:

    African: Nigerian, Ghanaian, Somali, South African, Zimbabwean, Ugandan
    Sierra Leonean

    Asian: Indian, Chinese, Pakistani, Sri Lankan, Nepalese, Bangladeshi

    European and other: Polish, Lithuanian, Cypriot, Turkish

    Communities of over 500 people which are thought to be stable or reducing
    are:

    Irish, Vietnamese, Caribbean

    The school population
    In September 2006, children from ethnic minority communities made up
    approximately 52% of pupils in Greenwich schools. Between 2001 and 2006
    the number of ethnic minority pupils increased by 32%, while the total number
    of pupils remained almost unchanged.

    The groups of pupils which showed the largest increases between 2003 and
    2006 were Nigerian (+70%), Ghanaian (+63%), Asian Other (+58%), Somali



                                                                                     7
    (+50%), Other (+50%) and White European (+42%). The groups which fell in
    numbers included White Irish (-28%), White Other (-23%), Indian (-15%),
    White British (-10%), Caribbean (-5%) and Vietnamese (-4%).

    Provisional data from the January 2007 schools census suggests that a third
    of all school pupils are from families where a language other than English is
    spoken at home, with well over 100 different languages being spoken.

    Ethnic minority children represent over 80% of pupils in 8 primary schools
    including two schools which have over 90%.

    Children of Black African heritage now make up more than a quarter of the
    pupils in 25 primary schools and 50% or more in 4 primary schools.

    The number of children of mixed ethnic or national heritage is growing rapidly
    and is now over 2,800, 8% of the school population (almost three times larger
    than the number of Somali children, and only slightly fewer than the number of
    Nigerian children). At the census 5,860 people were of mixed ethnic heritage.

6   Projected changes
    In 2006, the GLA released population projections for the London boroughs for
    the period 2001 to 2026. These are based on migration patterns in the year
    before the Census and use aggregated ethnic groups (e.g. it is not possible to
    distinguish between White British and White European). They do not take into
    account the growth in migration from Europe following expansion of the EU in
    2004, or the evidence on international migration from the DWP National
    Insurance data. It is also the case that international migration is often
    unpredictable and unforeseen. For these reasons, the projections must be
    used with extreme caution.

    The GLA estimates that the Greenwich population will increase by 35.5%
    between 2001 and 2026 from 217,460 to 294,718. The increases in each
    ethnic group are shown below:

                                                                                             %
                                                                                        change
     Greenwich        2001     %       2006     %       2016     %       2026     %    2001-26
     White         167,602   77.1   166,114   71.0   176,088   63.7   176,452   59.9        5.3
     Black
     African        15,579    7.2    24,667   10.5    40,253   14.6    48,884   16.6     213.8
     Indian          9,535    4.4    10,789    4.6    13,440    4.9    15,114    5.1      58.5
     Black
     Caribbean       6,842    3.1     7,651    3.3     9,288    3.4    10,049    3.4      46.9
     Black Other     4,908    2.3     6,355    2.7     9,043    3.3    10,465    3.6     113.3
     Other           3,805    1.7     5,367    2.3     8,234    3.0     9,643    3.3     153.5
     Other Asian     3,421    1.6     5,246    2.2     8,440    3.1    10,080    3.4     194.6
     Chinese         2,584    1.2     3,596    1.5     5,350    1.9     6,339    2.2     145.3
     Pakistani       1,938    0.9     2,666    1.1     4,114    1.5     5,141    1.7     165.3
     Bangladeshi     1,246    0.6     1,582    0.7     2,182    0.8     2,550    0.9     104.6
     Total         217,460   100    234,034   100    276,430   100    294,718   100       35.5




                                                                                        8
    Key points to note:
        The Black African community has the largest numerical and
          percentage increase between 2001 and 2026. By 2026 it is projected
          that the community will have grown by over 200% and will be nearly
          17% of the total population, making it by far the largest ethnic minority
          group
        As the third largest ethnic group, the Indian community is projected to
          grow at a much slower rate
        Other groups projected to increase rapidly are Other Asian, Pakistani,
          Other and Chinese
        The lowest growth rates are among the White, Caribbean and Indian
          communities.

7   New Ethnic Communities
    The sections below provide estimates of the larger communities in the
    borough, and summarise information on economic status, educational
    attainment, religion and geographical location, where known. For some of the
    communities, London data is presented where Greenwich data is not
    available

    African

    Overview
    The community of African origin grew nearly four-fold between 1991 and
    2001. A further three-fold increase from 15,579 to 48,884 is projected by the
    GLA between 2001 and 2026. The population in 2006 was estimated to be in
    the region of 25-30,000 (11-13% of the borough population). It is one of the
    largest African communities in the UK. In 2001 Greenwich had the 8th highest
    percentage of Black African residents. The three largest communities are
    Nigerian, Somali and Ghanaian.

    There are wide differences in the social and economic positions of the
    different communities. Generally those communities which have arrived in
    recent years as refugees such as Somalis, Rwandans and Congolese have
    fared less well than those from West African countries with more urban
    populations. The two largest West African communities in Greenwich –
    Nigerians and Ghanaians are more likely to be fluent in English, have higher
    level qualifications and a high employment rate.

    The majority of the African communities are Christian. Communities with a
    majority of Muslims include Somalis, Moroccans and Algerians.

    The Nigerian Community
    The Nigerian community is estimated to number between 10-12,000 (4-5% of
    the total population) and is the largest community after White British. The
    Nigerian community is continuing to grow - the Electoral Register showed an
    increase of 38% between 2005 and 2006, and the school census shows an
    increase of 70% between 2003 and 2006. The number of Nigerians
    registering for National Insurance numbers increased by 60% between 2002



                                                                                      9
and 2006 and in 2005/6 Greenwich had a higher number of registrations to
Nigerians than any other local authority.

The largest communities live in the north and north east of the borough
especially Thamesmead, Abbey Wood, Glyndon and Woolwich.

84% of Greenwich residents born in Nigeria were Christian.

In London, most people born in Nigeria (55%) were living in social rented
accommodation, with 32% in owner occupied accommodation.

Nigerian children in Greenwich achieved above average GCSE results in
2005.

The Ghanaian community
The Ghanaian community is thought to number between 2-3,000. It is also a
community which is growing, with a 22% increase in numbers on the Electoral
Register between 2005-6, and a 63% increase in the number of school pupils
between 2003 and 2006.

The majority of Ghanaians live in Thamesmead, Abbey Wood, Woolwich
Riverside, Woolwich Common and Glyndon.

90% of Greenwich residents born in Ghana were Christian.

In London, most people born in Ghana (57%) were living in social rented
accommodation, with 30% in owner occupied accommodation.

Ghanaian children in Greenwich achieved above average GCSE results in
2005.

The Somali Community
The Somali community probably numbers 3-4,000, making it the second
largest African community. In February 2006 there were 985 Somali pupils -
an increase of 50% over 2003. Although the number of children has grown
rapidly, there has been a relatively small and declining number of National
Insurance registrations to Somali migrants. This suggests that the population
is increasing mainly through births to existing residents rather than as a result
of new migration. The census showed that Greenwich had an average
number of people born in Somalia compared with other London boroughs.

Most Somalis live in the Woolwich Common, Woolwich Riverside and
Glyndon areas. There are also communities in Plumstead, Ferrier Estate,
Charlton and Abbey Wood.

The community is predominantly Muslim (88%) and refugee in origin.

The Somali community differs in many ways from the West African Nigerian
and Ghanaian communities. In London, people born in Somalia had the



                                                                               10
lowest employment rate of any migrant community. There is a high proportion
of lone mother households.

Somali children achieved well below average GCSE results in 2005.

In London, 63% of Somalis were living in social rented accommodation, with
18% in privately rented accommodation.

Other African Communities
The South African and Zimbabwean communities have increased quite rapidly
in Greenwich and London since 2001. There are approximately 1,000 of each
(around 0.4% of the total population). At the time of the census most people
born in South Africa living in Greenwich were White. It is assumed that the
recent increases are likely to be of Black Africans with a number of
Zimbabweans seeking asylum in the UK.

The two next largest African communities are those from Uganda and Sierra
Leone (around 1,000 each), both of which are likely to include people who
have sought refuge in the UK. Over 60% of Greenwich residents born in these
two countries were Christians.

Among the other African communities with numbers thought to be between
250 and 500 are people from Tanzania, Zambia, Gambia, Cameroon, and
Ivory Coast. Since 2002 the numbers of people applying for National
Insurance numbers in Greenwich from the Congo, Cameroon and the Ivory
Coast have doubled.

There are a number of communities from other African countries where the
total population is likely to be less than two hundred. These include Ethiopia,
Eritrea, Angola, Rwanda, Algeria and Morocco.

Most of these African communities live in the Woolwich, Glyndon and
Thamesmead areas.

Children from other Black African communities achieved below average
GCSE results in 2005.

Asian

Overview
The total population of Asian origin is likely to be in the region of 19-21,000 (8-
9% of the total population). By far the largest community is from India,
followed by China, Vietnam and Pakistani. Other substantial communities are
from Sri Lanka and Bangladesh.

The Indian Community
The Indian community is made up of around 10,000 people (4% of the total
population). Many families were originally from Uganda, Kenya and Tanzania
and are now well established and settled with an ageing population. There are
just over 1,000 children from Indian families in Greenwich schools (2.7% of


                                                                                11
the total). However the number of school pupils of Indian origin fell by 15%
between 2003 and 2006. Over 1,000 Indian nationals registered for National
Insurance numbers over the past four years, indicating a small growth in the
Indian community due to an inflow of migrant workers.

The community remains centred around the Plumstead area, although Indian
families are also now widely settled across the borough.

Approximately one third are Sikh and one third Hindu. Christians are 17% and
Muslims 4%.

Over 80% of the Indian community in Greenwich live in owner occupied
homes.

Indians have a high employment rate.

Indian children in Greenwich achieved well above average GCSE results in
2005.

The Chinese Community
There are probably around 3-4,000 people of Chinese origin in the borough
(1.5% of the total population) with very diverse roots including people born in
Vietnam, China, Hong Kong, Singapore and Malaysia. The community is
continuing to grow as a result of new migration with 590 people registering for
National Insurance numbers between 2002 and 2006.

Chinese people were more likely to say they have no religion (67%) than any
other group.

Chinese children in Greenwich achieved well above average GCSE results in
2005.

44% of Chinese residents in Greenwich live in owner occupied
accommodation with 36% in social rented accommodation.

The Vietnamese Community
The Vietnamese community is likely to be 2-3,000 (1% of the population). In
2006 there were 555 Vietnamese school pupils, a fall of 3% since 2003.

Around half of people born in Vietnam are Buddhists.

In London, the majority of people born in Vietnam (62%) were living in social
rented accommodation, and 22% were living in owner occupied
accommodation.

Vietnamese children in Greenwich achieved above average GCSE results in
2005.




                                                                              12
The Pakistani Community
At the Census, nearly 2,000 people gave their ethnic group as Pakistani (just
under 1% of the total population). There were 475 Pakistani children in
Greenwich schools, an increase of 14% over 2003. The total population is
now likely to be between 2,000 and 3,000.

The Pakistani community is centred around the Plumstead area.

87% of Pakistanis are Muslim.

67% of Pakistanis in Greenwich live in owner occupied accommodation.

Pakistani children in Greenwich achieved above average GCSE results in
2005.

The Sri Lankan Community
The Sri Lankan community is estimated to be between 1-2,000. At the census
there were 821 people born in Sri Lanka and 845 people gave their ethnic
group as Sri Lankan.

53% of Greenwich residents born in Sri Lanka were Hindus, 19% were
Christians and 5% were Buddhists. This suggest that the majority of Sri
Lankans in Greenwich are of Tamil origin.

In London, most people born in Sri Lanka (58%) were living in owner occupied
accommodation, with 28% living in privately rented accommodation.

The Bangladeshi Community
The Bangladeshi community is also thought to be between 1,000 and 2,000.
At the census, 1,225 people were identified as Bangladeshi with 631 born in
Bangladesh. In 2006, there were 327 Bangladeshi school pupils, an increase
of 12% since 2003.

87% of Bangladeshis are Muslim.

Bangladeshi children in Greenwich achieved average GCSE results in 2005.

50% of Bangladeshis in Greenwich live in owner occupied accommodation
with 39% in social rented accommodation.

The Nepalese Community
Greenwich is thought to have one of the largest Nepalese communities in the
UK with 500-1,000 people. 530 Nepalese people registered for work in
Greenwich between 2002 and 2006. This is understood to be related to the
historical presence of Gurkha soldiers based in the borough rather than an
inflow of refugees from the civil war in Nepal.

78% of Greenwich residents born in Nepal were Hindus.




                                                                            13
In London, most people born in Nepal lived in owner occupied (43%) or
privately rented (42%) accommodation.

Other Asian Communities
Asian communities with up to 500 people include Malaysians, Philippinos,
Afghans, Japanese, Thais and Burmese.

European

Overview
The total population of European origin is likely to be 15-20,000 (7-9% of the
borough population). The largest group (10-12,000) is from EU countries
excluding the 2004 accession countries. There are likely to be 4-5,000
residents from the accession countries with a further 2-3,000 from non-EU
countries. There were 1,191 White European school pupils in 2006, an
increase of 42% since 2003. Provisional data from the 2007 schools census
suggests that there were 119 children whose families spoke Albanian at
home, 76 Polish, 52 Lithuanian and 40 Russian.

EU (excluding accession countries)
The largest and most established community is from the Irish Republic
(approx 5,000 – just over 2% of the total population). The age profile
resembles that of the White British with an older population and declining
numbers of school age. In 2006 there were 304 Irish school pupils, a fall of
28% since 2003.

Communities of between 1 and 2 thousand people include Germans and
French, with the remaining communities from other Western European
communities such as Italy, and the Netherlands likely to be less than 1,000.
All these communities have grown since 2002 as a result of new migrants
registering for work. It is quite possible that some of the new migrants will be
refugees from Africa and Asia who have been granted nationality status in
other West European countries.

EU accession countries
Since 2002, over 2,000 workers from these countries have registered for work
in Greenwich. Since 2004 it has been the most rapidly increasing group of
migrant workers but the numbers are relatively small in comparison to many
other London boroughs. Ealing, for example, had more than 10 times as many
Polish migrant workers. Greenwich is unusual in having approximately the
same number of Lithuanian migrants as Poles. Nationally, Poles make up
over 70% of the accession migrants. National figures also show that the vast
majority were young and single with 82% aged between 18 and 34 and only
4% having dependants under the age of 17.

The total number of residents from these countries is estimated to be around
4,500 as there were approximately 1,500 residents recorded in 2001 Census,
and it is likely that many migrant workers have not formally registered for
work.



                                                                               14
Most EU migrants are believed to be living in privately rented accommodation
or staying with relatives.

790 Lithuanians registered for work between 2002 and 2006. The Lithuanian
community is mainly settled in the Glyndon, Woolwich Riverside and
Woolwich Common area.

Over the same period, 770 Poles registered. Poles are more widely settled
across the borough including a number in West Greenwich.

There were fewer than 200 registrations of people from Latvia, and the Czech
and Slovak Republics.

Analysis of the Workers Registration Scheme indicates that 41% of EU
Accession country migrants working in Greenwich are in factory/warehouse
jobs; 19% in hotel/catering; 14% in cleaning; and between 3 – 5% work in
childcare/residential care; admin/secretarial; construction/building; arts and
leisure; and retail. Only 1% work in teaching or professional/managerial
occupations.

Europe (Non EU countries)
In 2001, the two largest communities by country of birth were people from
Kosovo (225) and Russia (119). There have been relatively few migrants
registering for work from non EU countries since 2002, the largest being
Yugoslavia, including the Former Yugoslavian Republic (180), Bulgaria; (150)
and Romania (100). The official data therefore suggests that the overall
numbers are quite small at between 1-2,000.

Middle Eastern

The borough is home to a relatively small number of people (around 2,000)
with roots in the Middle East. The communities from Turkey, Iran and Iraq
have all grown in recent years as a result of new migrants registering for work.

The largest group is from Turkey and is likely to include a number of Kurds.
The schools census identifies 571 children as being of Turkish or Turkish
Cypriot origin. These children achieved well below average GCSE results in
2005. The number of pupils has remained fairly static since 2003. 877 people
gave their ethnic group as Turkish at the census. 180 migrants from Turkey
registered for work between 2002-6.

The census records that there were 250 residents born in Iraq. There have
been 110 work registrations since 2002.

There were 169 people born in Iran with 50 people registering for work since
2002.

Among the communities where there are likely to be fewer than 100 people
are Lebanese, Israelis and Saudi Arabians.



                                                                                 15
    Caribbean

    The total population of Caribbean origin is likely to be around 7,000 (3% of the
    total population), much as it was at the time of the Census. In 2006, there
    were 1,376 Caribbean school pupils (3.8% of the total). This represents a fall
    of 4.5% since 2003.

    500 Caribbean nationals were granted national insurance numbers between
    2002 and 2006.

    Country of birth and DWP data shows that most Caribbean residents have
    roots in Jamaica (71%), with smaller numbers from Trinidad and Tobago
    (11%), Barbados (9%), and St Lucia (5%).

    Caribbean children in Greenwich schools achieved slightly below average
    GCSE results in 2005 although there was a marked difference in achievement
    between boys and girls.

    Other communities

    Residents born in North America (principally the USA and Canada) number
    around 1,500. Just over 1,000 were born in Central and South America. The
    largest groups are from Guyana, Columbia and Brazil. There has been a
    growth in the last two communities as a result of migrants registering for work
    but the overall numbers remain small at less than 500.

    There are approximately 2,000 residents born in Australia and New Zealand.


8   Needs and views of new ethnic communities in Greenwich
    This section summarises the needs and views expressed by representatives
    from a wide range of new communities. Discussions were held with ethnic
    community groups, organisations that worked with particular ethnic
    communities and individuals from ethnic communities where community
    groups or networks did not exist. Focus groups were undertaken with people
    from four Eastern European countries. Information from previous consultation
    initiatives has also been included.

    The term “community representative” or “communities” is used within the
    report as short hand to describe the individuals and groups met. It should be
    noted that their views are unlikely to represent the views of all members of
    that community.

    Many communities were satisfied with aspects of their lives, with the Council
    and with living in Greenwich. Not surprisingly, refugee communities
    experienced the highest levels of need.

    Many communities lacked knowledge about services and how to access
    them.


                                                                                 16
Community facilities
The need for community facilities or premises where people can meet to
organise and provide self help services, youth services and social events, was
the need most commonly expressed by many of the communities interviewed
– particularly by refugee communities. The community itself is the first place
where newly arrived community members go for support and advice on how
to access services. The community plays an important role in helping new
arrivals to successfully settle in the UK. Many felt that the Council could
assist by providing their community with accommodation or grant aid to
enable them to rent accommodation.

Language barriers
Lack of English was identified as a key barrier to accessing services and
employment for communities where English is not commonly spoken in their
county of origin.

For some communities language was a particular problem for women rather
than for men and their inability to communicate contributed to feelings of
isolation.

Although many younger people in the Chinese and Vietnamese communities
now speak English, older people are often unable to communicate in English.
This is supported by a recent survey of UK elders that found that English
language skills were significantly poorer among Chinese and Vietnamese
elders than among any other ethnic group.

Learning English was seen as vital for all communities. Eastern European
communities were strongly motivated to attend ESOL classes and this is seen
as key to accessing jobs and improving job prospects. (Over 60% of ESOL
evening classes provided by Greenwich Community College are attended by
Eastern Europeans).

However a number of concerns were raised in respect of ESOL classes:
   Difficulties accessing classes owing to their oversubscription. Some
     people from Eastern European communities reported having to wait up
     to two years to get a place in an ESOL class.
   Classes were not sufficiently tailored to the needs of different
     communities, some of which had very diverse levels of literacy in their
     own language as well as in English.
   Arranging child care in order to attend classes proved difficult for those
     communities with high numbers of lone parents
   Eastern Europeans who tended to work during the day could only
     attend classes in the evening.

In some West African communities, where English is spoken widely, it was
said that some people find it hard to communicate and be understood
because of their accents and that this can reduce their employment prospects
and hinders their full integration.



                                                                             17
Children’s Education
Representatives from many refugee communities expressed concerns about
the education of their children including:
    Children struggling to compete with others in their age group
    Insufficient support in settling into school
    Perceptions that there is less support for children from newer ethnic
      communities than for those from some of the more established groups
    Insufficient bi-lingual teachers or teaching support staff
    Difficulties parents had in communicating with the school and
      understanding the curriculum and teaching methods

Some refugee communities raised the problem of being unable to
communicate effectively with their own children. Many children soon find it
easier to speak English than their parent‟s mother tongue. This can cause
communication problems within families.

Suggestions to improve the difficulties experienced by children in schools
included, dedicated support in schools for children who do not speak English
and in particular for those who come from a country were there is no
established educational system e.g. Somalia; increased bi-lingual support in
schools so that children can effectively understand and learn, and in order to
improve communication between the school and parents; and initial separate
or supplementary classes in the child‟s own language to bring them up to
speed with their UK peers.

Many communities, particularly refugee communities and those from Nepal
felt that the provision of dedicated after school or supplementary school
provision, particularly in English and Maths, was in part a solution to the
difficulties faced by their children.

Other educational problems raised by individual communities included:
    Vietnamese children were felt to be losing out on their education
      because they are frequently taken out of school to help with
      interpreting for parents or grandparents when attending GP, hospital or
      other service appointments.
    Lithuanians reported difficulties in finding a school place for older
      children. They were also concerned at the British approach to
      schooling, which they felt gave too much emphasis on play.

Youth services
The majority of new ethnic communities raised the need for youth activities
such as youth clubs, sports and arts activities.

Refugee communities were concerned that their children and young people
may get involved in drugs and crime and wanted to see more activities to
divert young people from these activities. For some, mainstream youth clubs
were seen as places of exclusion rather than integration. Young people from
recently arrived communities experienced problems attending mainstream
youth provision because of language difficulties. Recommendations included:



                                                                              18
      The provision of culturally specific youth activities for particular ethnic
       communities. Almost all refugee communities made this
       recommendation.
      Increased support and encouragement to young people to take part in
       mainstream youth activities
      Youth leaders to better reflect the diversity of the community –
       including the newer ethnic communities
      Increased schemes to help young refugees find training and work

Vietnamese and Albanian representatives were concerned about
unaccompanied minors from their countries who are placed in a variety of
families and may find themselves isolated from other children in similar
circumstances.

Housing
The majority of African refugee communities and the Turkish community
reported that they experience problems with overcrowding. This is partly due
to family size, and family and friends from elsewhere in the country joining
existing families in order to find employment and seek support. They were
concerned that the Council‟s stock of larger properties may be insufficient to
meet demand.

Refugee communities raised difficulties about applying for Council housing. A
number of communities said that they did not understand the Council‟s
choice-based letting scheme and some perceived the Council‟s allocations
policy to be unfair. Others felt that the policy did not take into account the
desire for people to live close to others in their community.

Communities with older members were concerned at waiting times for
sheltered housing. Vietnamese older people explained that they found it
difficult to report housing problems such as repairs, due to language barriers
and lack of knowledge about who to report to.

Many communities were concerned at the cost of housing in the private sector
and some felt that high private rents were a disincentive to finding work, as
the low wages they would receive would not make up for the loss in housing
benefits.

Eastern Europeans were unsure of the rights and responsibilities of tenants,
landlords and letting agencies. Problems experienced included
accommodation agencies retaining deposits at the end of a contract; high and
in some cases illegal agency fees; and poor conditions with landlords refusing
to undertake repairs. Subletting was common amongst these communities.

Many of the Eastern Europeans who attended focus groups expressed an
interest in applying for social housing, but were unsure whether they had a
right to apply.




                                                                                 19
Older people
Communities with a growing number of older people highlighted the isolation
of older people as a key concern. Many suggested that culturally specific day
centre provision for their elders would be of assistance.

Health
Eastern European, African refugee and Turkish community representatives
said that health services function differently in the UK to their home country
and that they found medical services here of comparatively poor standard.
Many communities from Africa felt that GPs were only interested in an
individual‟s “presenting” symptoms and did not undertake a full medical
examination. This has led to a loss of confidence in prescribed treatment.

The Turkish representative said that women are reluctant to go to GPs about
a medical problem and are more likely to ask someone in the community for
advice. This is in part due to language barriers.

Eastern Europeans reported that they would seek a second opinion from a
doctor or friend in their home country and avoid using GP services unless
absolutely necessary. The majority of people in the focus groups said that
they do not use UK dentists owing to the costs, and that they would prefer to
travel home. They also found prescriptions costly and many buy medication
from home.

Refugee communities raised a number of health problems:
    African refugee communities were concerned that HIV and AIDs may
      go undetected within their and other Africans communities due to
      under-testing. Many young girls were said to only discover they have
      been infected when they attend hospital for pre-natal care.
    Young people lacked knowledge of sexual health and available
      services and that this may lead to unwanted teenage pregnancies.
    Depression and mental health problems were said to be particularly
      prevalent amongst the African communities who have fled civil war.
      The Sierra Leone representative explained that some unaccompanied
      minors were previously child soldiers.
    Some African refugees arrive with malaria and typhoid.
    Obesity and lack of sporting and physical activity
    Access to health services for those communities where English
      language is a barrier.

Leisure services
Many women from African/Muslim refugee communities are reluctant to use
public leisure services because of cultural and religious issues. For example,
women felt uncomfortable at using public baths and attending public aerobics
classes. Some people said they had difficulties understanding instructors in
organised classes because of language barriers. Some communities with high
prevalence of HIV/AIDS were uncertain whether they had rights to use public
leisure services.




                                                                                 20
Employment and training
All of the communities interviewed expressed a strong motivation to find
employment and to improve job prospects.

West African, Nepalese and Tamil communities explained that they often
accept low skilled and low paid jobs as their qualifications and experience in
their country of origin were not acknowledged in the UK.

Unemployment and finding work was the key problem for many African
refugee communities. Reasons varied from lack of understanding about how
to find a job, lack of contacts, lack of work experience in Britain, low self
esteem and confidence, poor interview techniques and perceived
discrimination in recruitment practices.

Language was mentioned as a key barrier to work for the Vietnamese,
Chinese, Turkish and Eastern European communities.

Lack of childcare was a significant barrier for some communities – particularly
those with high percentage of lone parents.

Some communities experienced difficulties in using local job centres such as:
   Having to see a different person each time they visited
   Language barriers
   Too much emphasis placed on training, only to be offered a job that did
     not require many skills.

Lithuanians who frequently used employment agencies as a key way of
finding work were concerned that agencies exploited their lack of knowledge
of employment rights. Many explained that they were paid very low wages,
worked long hours, without overtime. Some said that wages had been
withheld on the grounds that they had not worked hard enough.

Some communities felt that the Council‟s workforce was not representative of
their communities.

Access to Grants from the Council
Some communities said that they did not know how to apply for Council
grants. Others voiced concerns as to the transparency and perceived fairness
of the Council‟s grant funding allocation and application process, with some
perceiving that more established Asian ethnic communities were given
preference. Other communities were concerned that the new system of open
bidding for grant funding may mean that their community will lose out because
they had received grant assistance in the past.

Community safety
Racism was a key concern for Sri Lankan, Nepalese, Chinese and Somali
communities. The Nepalese community felt that their community in the
Plumstead area was being targeted and sited a number of recent racial
incidents. The Chinese community representatives said owners and
employees in Chinese restaurants suffer racial abuse on a regular basis. The


                                                                                 21
Turkish community reported that Kurdish women wearing headscarves are
frequently harassed.

Many refugee communities were concerned about media portrayals of
refugees as “scroungers” and similar comments made by national public
figures.

Concerns were voiced by African communities about rivalry between Somali
youth and West/North African youth gangs – and felt that the youth and
diversionary activities was answer.

Some communities perceived that the police targeted young people in their
community and were “high handed”. (Somali, Nigerian, Zimbabwean].

Some residents from Eastern Europe said that they had experienced or
feared attacks from young people and criticised a lack of police presence.
However, others said that they felt safe in Greenwich and that this was one of
the things they most liked about living here.

Community cohesion and integration
Many communities interviewed saw themselves remaining in Greenwich for
some time. Most were keen to integrate with the wider community. The picture
was more varied among people from Eastern European countries with many
people saying they only intended to stay in Britain for a short while or that they
had not yet decided on their future.

More recently arrived refugee communities expressed a strong view that they
need to meet and socialise as a community in order to provide mutual support
as a stepping stone to integrating with the wider community. For some the
provision of self help groups, single ethnic community and youth facilities was
essential for building the capacity of their communities and for ensuring that
their children learnt traditional values.

Nigerian and Ghanaian communities were evidently integrating with the wider
community particularly when at school, college or work. There were some
concerns that children did not socialise with children of other ethnicities
outside of the school environment.

Polish, Czech and Slovak communities felt that they had developed good
relations with their English (white) neighbours and work colleagues.
Lithuanians however said that they preferred to socialise within their own
community, in part due to language barriers.

.




                                                                               22
APPENDICES

Community groups consulted

Advice and Career Development for the Somali Community
AHEAD
Association for Relief and Medical Aid
Association of Chinese Women
Besa
Chinese Community School
Chinese-Vietnamese Elderly Group
Ghana Greenwich Association
Greenwich & Lewisham Young Peoples Theatre
Greenwich Ajoda Association
Greenwich Vietnam Community
Harmonian Albanian group
Mama Afrika
Meridian Womens Group
Nepal Forum
New Wine Church
Order of 12
SIMBA
Somali Healthcare and Advocacy Services
Somali Womens Training and Development Organisation
South London Turkish Cultural Society
Tamil Action Committee
Tamil Community Housing Association
Vietnamese Mental Health Service
Voice of Mauritius


Further information

Census and other statistics can be requested from the Council‟s Strategic
Development Information Unit. Contact: statistics@greenwich.gov.uk Tel: 020 8921
6341

More detailed information sheets on most of the larger communities referred to in
this report can be requested from the Council‟s Social Inclusion and Justice Division.
Contact: sij.policy@greenwich.gov.uk Tel: 020 8921 6058.




                                                                                    23

				
DOCUMENT INFO