Your Federal Quarterly Tax Payments are due April 15th Get Help Now >>

Land Use Planning and Environmental Protection by mifei


									                                                                           Unit I, Lesson 3
                                                  Watershed Education Manual, Land & Water
                                                                           September 2004
              Land Use Planning and Environmental Protection
             (Unit I: History of Land View & Land Use Lesson 3)

Title: European Arrival: Cultural Conflict and Land View Differences


Review/finish exercise/lecture/overheads/discussion/group exercise/homework
assignment/optional speaker                                             (40 minutes)

I. Lesson 3 Overview: In lesson 3 the educator will go over the homework in order to
review concepts from lesson 2 and finish exercise (Lesson 1). The lecture portion of 3
will involve comparing and contrasting the Lenape and European cultures, and
particularly their ideas about land ownership and natural resource consumption.

       A. Materials For Lesson 3: Overhead 2, Cultural Timeline, Overhead 3, Land
          view differences (See Appendix, Unit I), The Indians of Lenapehoking (1991,
          Herbert C. Kraft & John T. Kraft). Note: Materials may be obtained from the
          Delaware Canal State Park Land & Water Loan Box Program.

       B. Alternatives to Lesson 3: Combine Lessons 2 & 3 by inviting a guest
          speaker. Provide the speaker with guiding questions from Lessons 2 & 3
          before his/her class presentation. Another idea is to use guiding questions as a
          short introduction and complete the in-class and homework assignments from
          Lessons 2 & 3 during one class session. Note: A list of speakers may be
          obtained from staff at the Delaware Canal State Park.

II. Lesson 3 Plan (Step-By-Step):

       A. Review of Lesson 2 Concepts: The educator/students will review concepts
          from Lesson 2 via the homework assignment. Generating some discussion
          about responses (Focus on questions #8 and #9) should set the stage for the
          next historic period-the arrival of the European explorers/colonists.

       B. What Happens When Different Cultures/Philosophies Conflict?
          Guiding Questions ~ What happens when different cultures come together in
          one area? Identify some current national and international conflicts resulting
          from cultural differences?

         Ask the students if they can provide examples of what can happen if two very
         different cultures are competing rather than cooperating to obtain natural
         resources (Answers: peaceful resolution, lack of dialogue, inability to get
         things accomplished, fighting, violence, war, genocide).
Delaware Canal State Park/HDCIC/Heinz Foundation Funding
Forbes Environmental & Land Use Planning
                                                                           Unit I, Lesson 3
                                                  Watershed Education Manual, Land & Water
                                                                           September 2004

           See if your students are able to provide examples of recent international
           conflicts (Answers: WWI, WWII, Viet Nam War, Dessert Storm, Middle East:
           Palestine & Israel, USA & Iraq/Afghanistan), examples of conflicts in the
           United States (Answers: the civil war, civil rights movement, Republicans vs.
           Democrats), and examples of local conflict (Answers:                     strikes,
           demonstrations, violence). Ask them to link a conflict with the reasons that
           created the conflict (Answers: Recent War In Iraq: religious differences,
           struggle for resources, retaliation for wrongs committed on all sides etc.)

           Explain that throughout history we have witnessed that there are drastic, often
           violent results when two very different cultures collide. Often these conflicts
           are the result of countries or much smaller groups being unable or unwilling to
           resolve religious differences, political disparity, or the need for another’s
           resources (e.g., land, money, natural resources).

       C. A Major Conflict in the Delaware River Valley:
          Guiding Question ~ What caused the conflicts between the Lenape and the
          European traders and settlers in our region?

           Share with the students that one of the first cultural conflicts in our region was
           one resulting between the Dutch, Swedish, and English explorers and the
           Native Americans (Lenape) in the area. Ask the students if they know
           anything about this conflict.

           Explain that some historic accounts focus upon the friendly, almost communal
           relationship between Native Americans and the Europeans (e.g., the first
           Thanksgiving). Other historic accounts illustrate how Native American culture
           was quickly damaged and later destroyed in a very short period of time (e.g.,
           the first reservation in New Jersey, failed treaties, the Walking Purchase),
           because the two cultures were so drastically different and peaceful resolution
           to the conflicts were not successful. Tell the students that there is a vast
           amount of information about this historic period, from the perspective of the
           Native Americans. Explain that it is always worthwhile for students and adults
           to learn that there are plenty of examples from every civilization when one
           group persecutes another due to philosophical/cultural differences that lead to
           violence rather than peaceful resolution.

       D. Cultural Differences Between the Lenape & the Europeans:
          Guiding Questions ~ What were the specific differences between Europeans
          and the Lenape? Why were the Europeans and the Lenape so different?

         Explain that the European view of the land differed drastically from Lenape
         beliefs regarding their land. Share that the dominant Europeans religion had
         its’ roots in the Judeo-Christian tradition. The creation story, the religious
         ceremonies, the European philosophy toward land and natural resources were
Delaware Canal State Park/HDCIC/Heinz Foundation Funding
Forbes Environmental & Land Use Planning
                                                                           Unit I, Lesson 3
                                                  Watershed Education Manual, Land & Water
                                                                           September 2004
           very different than what we have learned thus far about the Lenape cultural
           tradition. Explain also that the Eastern Hemisphere had evolved throughout
           many thousands of years, but the major events in their world history were very
           different from events experienced by the Lenape in the Western Hemisphere.

           Show the timeline overhead (Appendix, Overhead 2, Culture Timeline), and
           ask students to state some of the differences they see between Western and
           Eastern civilizations (Answers: Humans in the Eastern Hemisphere societies
           may have started to farm earlier, experienced technological changes earlier,
           had a written language sooner, and started exploring other countries by the
           time the Lenape began farming and living in permanent villages). Remember
           to explain that this timeline is based on one accepted theory, and that one
           civilization is no better than another. They are just different.

       E. Reasons Europeans Arrived Here:
          Guiding Questions ~ Why did the Europeans flee their native land? Did the
          Europeans settle right away? What were some of the first actions taken by the
          Europeans upon arrival?

           Share that the early European explorers arrived in search of profitable natural
           resources for European trade. The colonists arriving later were more
           interested in survival, a better life than what they left behind, and the quickest
           methods for transforming “wilderness” to productive farmland.

       F. Differences in Land Use and Natural Resources Consumption:
          Guiding Question ~ What are some of the specific differences between the
          Lenape and Europeans views toward land ownership and natural resources

           The colonist’s view of the land around them and their methods of
           manipulating the land were very different than the Native Lenape people.
           Show the overhead (Appendix, Overhead 3, Land View Differences)
           containing the two passages. Ask your students to share their ideas about the
           two different views toward the land.     (Answers: The students and the
           educator should touch on the following ideas regarding the different land

                  The Native Americans did not view land ownership like the Europeans.
                  The Creator provided the resources around them as a gift.
                  Natural resources were to be shared equally by animals and humans.
                  All individuals in Native American culture shared the resources rather
                   than kept them from others for their own families.
                  The European explorers and colonists viewed the landscape in terms
                   of their own cultural experience, and that meant that land was to be
                   “owned” and “worked” by the individual owning it.

Delaware Canal State Park/HDCIC/Heinz Foundation Funding
Forbes Environmental & Land Use Planning
                                                                           Unit I, Lesson 3
                                                  Watershed Education Manual, Land & Water
                                                                           September 2004
                  Europeans emphasized natural resources as commodities to be utilized
                   for survival and profit.
                  The colonists wanted a better life, which included the opportunity to
                   own land and to have access to more natural resources than they had
                   in the European landscape they left behind.

       G. When Cultures Collide:
          Guided Question ~ Did the relationship between the Lenape and Europeans
          disintegrate immediately?

           In conclusion, share with your students that the relationship between the
           Lenape and the early explorers was tolerable to the Europeans at first. Violent
           conflicts later took place as more permanent European settlements dotted the
           region’s landscape, cultural differences became more apparent. The European
           idea of enhancing the land around them included: cleared fields, pastures,
           buildings, and fences. These differences led to increased hostilities and
           conflicts between the Lenape and the European settlers.

           From the European perspective, the Native Americans were “getting in the
           way of progress” and from the Native American perspective the Europeans
           were doing great damage to the land and this would eventually lead to their

       H. Concluding Remarks:
          Guided Question: Who is one of the most famous Quakers to settle in our
          region in the mid 1600’s?

           Explain that the English became the dominant Colonial culture in the
           Delaware Valley in the mid 1600’s. Ask the students if anyone has ever heard
           of William Penn. Most will have heard of this famous, local, Quaker founder
           of Pennsylvania. However, some will not know that Penn was the governor of
           Pennsylvania, and is also remembered for his fair treatment of the Lenape.
           However, Penn was also determined as the to expand English land holdings in
           the area, and his sons (John and Thomas Penn) were described as quite
           different from their father.

       I. Homework: Collect the publication entitled “The Indians of Lenapahoking”
          by Kraft and Kraft. Assign a short research project for homework. Ask the
          students to research what is known locally as The Walking Purchase and to
          write a 3-paragraph overview of that local historic event. See appendices for
          the written assignment and discussion points.

Delaware Canal State Park/HDCIC/Heinz Foundation Funding
Forbes Environmental & Land Use Planning

To top