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TWO COLUMN NOTES - Suffolk Public Schools

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					 Colonization Study Guide                    Colonization Answers:

1. What were the two main              1. religious freedom and economic
   reasons why Europeans came to          opportunity
   the New World?
2. What large group of immigrants      2. Africans
   to the New World came
   involuntarily?
3. What was another name for the       3. the Church of England
   Anglican Church?
4. Define the term Puritans.           4. people who wanted to purify or
                                          reform (change it for the better) the
                                          Church of England
5. Define the term Separatist.         5. people who wanted to separate
                                          completely from or leave the
                                          Church of England
6. What was the basic difference       6. the Puritans simply wanted to
   between the Puritans and the           change to the Church of England,
   Separatists?                           while the Separatists wanted to
                                          leave the Church entirely (start their
                                          own church)
7. Where did the Separatists or        7. Plymouth, Massachusetts
   Pilgrims settle?
8. What is a covenant?                 8. a promise or agreement
9. What was the Mayflower              9. an agreement signed by the male
   Compact?                                passengers aboard the Mayflower to
                                           respect laws agreed upon for the
                                           general good of the colony
10. Who founded the Massachusetts      10. the Puritans
    Bay Colony?
11. What was the basic unit of         11. the town, settled by a church
    settlement in the Massachusetts        congregation
    Bay Colony?
12. What is the historical             12. practiced direct democracy
    significance of the Puritan town
    meetings?
13. What European groups chiefly       13. English, Dutch, and German-
    settled the Middle Atlantic            speaking immigrants
    region (New York, New Jersey,
    Pennsylvania, and Delaware)?
14. Why did European immigrants        14. religious freedom and economic
    settle in the Middle Atlantic          opportunity
    region (New York, New Jersey,
    Pennsylvania, and Delaware)?
15. What served as the major reason    15. economic opportunity
    for the settlement of Virginia
    and the other Southern
    colonies?
16. Who were the Virginia             16. English nobility who received large
    “cavaliers”?                          land grants in eastern Virginia from
                                          the King of England
17. What were the occupations of      17. small farmers or artisans; they
    many poor English immigrants,         settled in the Shenandoah Valley or
    and where did they settle?            western Virginia

18. Define the term “indentured       18. a person who agreed to work for
    servant.”                             someone else for a period of time (5
                                          to 7 years) in exchange for payment
                                          of their passage to America
19. Who were these indentured         19. poor people from England,
    servants and from where did           Scotland, and Ireland
    they often come?
20. What was the first permanent      20. Jamestown, 1607
    English settlement in North
    America, and when was it
    settled?
21. What was the Virginia House of    21. the first elected assembly in the
    Burgesses, and why was it             New World; made laws for the
    important?                            colony, established precedent of
                                          self-government
22. What regions of the Western       22. the Caribbean, Central America,
    Hemisphere did the Spanish            and South America
    establish explore and settle?
23. How did European colonization     23. violent conflicts between Europeans
    affect the American Indians?          and Indians; Indians lost their land
                                          and died from European diseases
24. What region of the Western        24. Canada
    Hemisphere did the French
    explore?
25. Did French exploration lead to    25. No
    large-scale immigration?
26. How did French relations with     26. French relations with native peoples
    Native Americans differ from          were often more cooperative than
    those of the British?                 those of British settlers
27. What institution was introduced   27. African slavery
    into the New World as a result
    of the agricultural economy
    which developed in the
    Southern colonies and the
    Caribbean Sea?
28. What formed the economic          28. subsistence farming, shipbuilding,
    basis of colonial New England?        fishing, lumbering, eventually
                                          manufacturing
29. Define subsistence farming.       29. raising only enough food to feed
                                          one’s family
30. What formed the basis of the      30. shipbuilding, small-scale farming,
    middle colonies’ economy?             and trading; ADD bread basket of
                                          colonies
31. What are Virginia’s eastern       31. Tidewater
    coastal lowlands called?
32. What formed the economic          32. plantation agriculture; raised the
    basis of Virginia and the other       cash crops of tobacco, rice, and
    Southern colonies?                    indigo
33. What was the cash crop of         33. tobacco
    colonial Virginia?
34. What were the cash crops of       34. rice and indigo
    colonial South Carolina?
35. What formed the basis of the      35. subsistence farming, hunting, and
    economy of the Southern               trading
    colonies in the mountains and
    valleys of the Appalachian
    foothills?
36. ied the labor needs of the        36. indentured servants and later
    plantation economy which              African slaves
    developed in the Southern
    colonies?
37. What is believed to have been     37. indentured servants; earliest
    the legal status of the first         Africans usually gained their
    Africans brought to the New           freedom, but by the early 1660s in
    World? How did the status of          Virginia Africans were held as
    Africans change over time?            “servants for life” or slaves; House
                                          of Burgesses recognized African
                                          slavery as a legal institution
38. According to this reading, what   38. West Indies, Africa, New England
    three places were involved in         colonies*
    the triangle trade?                   *triangular trades = name for a
                                          number of three-legged routes that
                                          were part of the sugar-slave trade of
                                          the 1600s and 1700s
39. Define the term Middle            39. Middle Passage = passage across
    Passage.                              the Atlantic Ocean from West
                                          Africa to the Americas that was the
                                          route of the African-American slave
                                          trade
40. Eventually what war was           40. Civil War
    caused by the development of a
    slavery-based agricultural
    economy in the Southern
    colonies?
41. What served as the basis of        41. Religion
    society in colonial New
    England?
42. What was the Puritans’ attitude    42. were intolerant; kicked them out
    towards religious dissenters?          intolerant = prejudiced, bigoted
43. Define the term religious          43. people who disagree with the
    dissenters.                            dominant religion
44. Who founded the colony of          44. dissenters who fled persecution by
    Rhode Island, and why did they         Puritans in Massachusetts
    found a new colony?
45. What religious group settled in    45. Quakers
    Pennsylvania?
46. What religious group settled in    46. Roman Catholics
    Maryland?
47. What two groups generally          47. Quakers and Roman Catholics
    believed in religious tolerance?
48. What socio-economic class          48. middle class; artisans or craftsmen,
    developed in the middle                businessmen, farmers
    colonies, and in what ways did
    members of this class earn their
    living?
49. Define the term entrepreneur.      49. business owners
50. What formed the basis of the       50. family status and land ownership
    social structure in the Southern
    colonies?
51. Who dominated the colonial         51. Tidewater’s large landowners
    government and society in the
    Southern colonies?
52. What was the most important        52. Anglican Church or Church of
    church in Virginia and the             England (now the Episcopal
    Southern colonies?                     church)
53. Who made up society in the         53. small subsistence farmers, hunters,
    mountains and valleys of the           and traders of Scotch-Irish and
    inland South?                          English descent
54. What was the “Great                54. a religious movement in the
    Awakening”?                            colonies around 1740 that
                                           emphasized emotional spirituality
55. Who were two leaders of the        55. Jonathan Edwards and George
    “Great Awakening”?                     Whitefield
56. What two Protestant                56. Methodists and Baptists
    denominations experienced
    rapid growth as a result of the
    “Great Awakening”?
57. How did the “Great                 57. Since it challenged the established
    Awakening” relate to the               religious and governmental order, it
American Revolution?   laid one of the social foundations of
                       the American Revolution.

				
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