Colonization Study Guide Colonization Answers: 1. What were the two main 1. religious freedom and economic reasons why Europeans came to opportunity the New World? 2. What large group of immigrants 2. Africans to the New World came involuntarily? 3. What was another name for the 3. the Church of England Anglican Church? 4. Define the term Puritans. 4. people who wanted to purify or reform (change it for the better) the Church of England 5. Define the term Separatist. 5. people who wanted to separate completely from or leave the Church of England 6. What was the basic difference 6. the Puritans simply wanted to between the Puritans and the change to the Church of England, Separatists? while the Separatists wanted to leave the Church entirely (start their own church) 7. Where did the Separatists or 7. Plymouth, Massachusetts Pilgrims settle? 8. What is a covenant? 8. a promise or agreement 9. What was the Mayflower 9. an agreement signed by the male Compact? passengers aboard the Mayflower to respect laws agreed upon for the general good of the colony 10. Who founded the Massachusetts 10. the Puritans Bay Colony? 11. What was the basic unit of 11. the town, settled by a church settlement in the Massachusetts congregation Bay Colony? 12. What is the historical 12. practiced direct democracy significance of the Puritan town meetings? 13. What European groups chiefly 13. English, Dutch, and German- settled the Middle Atlantic speaking immigrants region (New York, New Jersey, Pennsylvania, and Delaware)? 14. Why did European immigrants 14. religious freedom and economic settle in the Middle Atlantic opportunity region (New York, New Jersey, Pennsylvania, and Delaware)? 15. What served as the major reason 15. economic opportunity for the settlement of Virginia and the other Southern colonies? 16. Who were the Virginia 16. English nobility who received large “cavaliers”? land grants in eastern Virginia from the King of England 17. What were the occupations of 17. small farmers or artisans; they many poor English immigrants, settled in the Shenandoah Valley or and where did they settle? western Virginia 18. Define the term “indentured 18. a person who agreed to work for servant.” someone else for a period of time (5 to 7 years) in exchange for payment of their passage to America 19. Who were these indentured 19. poor people from England, servants and from where did Scotland, and Ireland they often come? 20. What was the first permanent 20. Jamestown, 1607 English settlement in North America, and when was it settled? 21. What was the Virginia House of 21. the first elected assembly in the Burgesses, and why was it New World; made laws for the important? colony, established precedent of self-government 22. What regions of the Western 22. the Caribbean, Central America, Hemisphere did the Spanish and South America establish explore and settle? 23. How did European colonization 23. violent conflicts between Europeans affect the American Indians? and Indians; Indians lost their land and died from European diseases 24. What region of the Western 24. Canada Hemisphere did the French explore? 25. Did French exploration lead to 25. No large-scale immigration? 26. How did French relations with 26. French relations with native peoples Native Americans differ from were often more cooperative than those of the British? those of British settlers 27. What institution was introduced 27. African slavery into the New World as a result of the agricultural economy which developed in the Southern colonies and the Caribbean Sea? 28. What formed the economic 28. subsistence farming, shipbuilding, basis of colonial New England? fishing, lumbering, eventually manufacturing 29. Define subsistence farming. 29. raising only enough food to feed one’s family 30. What formed the basis of the 30. shipbuilding, small-scale farming, middle colonies’ economy? and trading; ADD bread basket of colonies 31. What are Virginia’s eastern 31. Tidewater coastal lowlands called? 32. What formed the economic 32. plantation agriculture; raised the basis of Virginia and the other cash crops of tobacco, rice, and Southern colonies? indigo 33. What was the cash crop of 33. tobacco colonial Virginia? 34. What were the cash crops of 34. rice and indigo colonial South Carolina? 35. What formed the basis of the 35. subsistence farming, hunting, and economy of the Southern trading colonies in the mountains and valleys of the Appalachian foothills? 36. ied the labor needs of the 36. indentured servants and later plantation economy which African slaves developed in the Southern colonies? 37. What is believed to have been 37. indentured servants; earliest the legal status of the first Africans usually gained their Africans brought to the New freedom, but by the early 1660s in World? How did the status of Virginia Africans were held as Africans change over time? “servants for life” or slaves; House of Burgesses recognized African slavery as a legal institution 38. According to this reading, what 38. West Indies, Africa, New England three places were involved in colonies* the triangle trade? *triangular trades = name for a number of three-legged routes that were part of the sugar-slave trade of the 1600s and 1700s 39. Define the term Middle 39. Middle Passage = passage across Passage. the Atlantic Ocean from West Africa to the Americas that was the route of the African-American slave trade 40. Eventually what war was 40. Civil War caused by the development of a slavery-based agricultural economy in the Southern colonies? 41. What served as the basis of 41. Religion society in colonial New England? 42. What was the Puritans’ attitude 42. were intolerant; kicked them out towards religious dissenters? intolerant = prejudiced, bigoted 43. Define the term religious 43. people who disagree with the dissenters. dominant religion 44. Who founded the colony of 44. dissenters who fled persecution by Rhode Island, and why did they Puritans in Massachusetts found a new colony? 45. What religious group settled in 45. Quakers Pennsylvania? 46. What religious group settled in 46. Roman Catholics Maryland? 47. What two groups generally 47. Quakers and Roman Catholics believed in religious tolerance? 48. What socio-economic class 48. middle class; artisans or craftsmen, developed in the middle businessmen, farmers colonies, and in what ways did members of this class earn their living? 49. Define the term entrepreneur. 49. business owners 50. What formed the basis of the 50. family status and land ownership social structure in the Southern colonies? 51. Who dominated the colonial 51. Tidewater’s large landowners government and society in the Southern colonies? 52. What was the most important 52. Anglican Church or Church of church in Virginia and the England (now the Episcopal Southern colonies? church) 53. Who made up society in the 53. small subsistence farmers, hunters, mountains and valleys of the and traders of Scotch-Irish and inland South? English descent 54. What was the “Great 54. a religious movement in the Awakening”? colonies around 1740 that emphasized emotional spirituality 55. Who were two leaders of the 55. Jonathan Edwards and George “Great Awakening”? Whitefield 56. What two Protestant 56. Methodists and Baptists denominations experienced rapid growth as a result of the “Great Awakening”? 57. How did the “Great 57. Since it challenged the established Awakening” relate to the religious and governmental order, it American Revolution? laid one of the social foundations of the American Revolution.