Utilization of biomass charcoal briquette for tobacco flue-curing by mifei

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           Chief Science Research Specialist
      Ecosystems Research & Development Bureau
                    College, Laguna

1. To utilize abandoned biomass as charcoal
   briquettes to conserve the Philippine tropical
2. To replace fuelwood as source of fuel in curing
   tobacco in the Ilocos Region.
3. To avoid methane generation from decompo-
   sing cellulosic abandoned biomass.
4. To generate livelihood to alleviate poverty in
   urban and the countrysides at the same time
   mitigate CO2 emissions.
• Tobacco curing is a common practice in Region I (Ilocos
Region). Traditionally in the Philippines, there are two
methods of curing tobacco leaf: conventional flue-curing
and bulk curing. At present, the conventional flue-curing is
generally used.
• In flue-curing, wood is used by tobacco farmers in the
country. Due to rampant use of wood in the tobacco
industry, the forest in the region has been depleted.
•For every hectare of tobacco will require 25-28 cu.m of
fuelwood. For the 30,000 ha of tobacco farms in the region,
this will require 300,000 MT of fuelwood per cropping

• In the region, and elsewhere in the country,abandoned
biomass is abundant. When left to decompose, aside from
CO2, it will evolve methane – a more serious GHG. The
production of charcoal briquettes from abandoned biomass
will eliminate methane and produce a high heating and easy
to handle charcoal briquettes.
• The project calls for the replacement of fuelwood to
charcoal briquettes in tobacco flue-curing. This will conserve
the woodlands and forests to absorb CO2 at the same time
utilize abandoned biomass which has the potential of
producing methane in the decomposition process.

• The charcoal briquetting activity will also generate
livelihood and alleviate poverty to thousands of Filipinos
in the urban and rural areas utilizing abandoned biomass.
• For every ton of abandoned biomass charcoal briquette,
about 88 trees with a diameter of about 10 cm is saved
from fuelwood cutting and charcoal making. The
conserved trees will in turn serve as carbon sink.
• If water hyacinth briquettes is used, the farmer will have
a valuable ash residue – fertilizer.
Charcoal briquettes from abandoned/waste
cellulosic biomass will be used to replace the
fuelwood that will be used in flue-curing of tobacco
in the Ilocos Region. Converting wastes to
briquettes will not only make waste materials into
good use but will also control methane generation
from decomposing biomass by flaring it during the
carbonization process.
                PROJECT DEVELOPER
Name of the Project developer: Ecosystems
     Research and Development Bureau (ERDB)
Organizational category: Government Research &
     Development Agency under the Department of
     Environment and Natural Resources (DENR)
Other function(s) of the project developer in the
project: Intermediary and/or Technical advisor Both
Summary of the relevant experience of the project
developer : The project developer has been promoting
utilization of abandoned biomass & water hyacinth in the form
of charcoal briquettes since 1999 to reduce cutting trees, hence,
reduction in CO2 and methane emissions to the atmosphere.
Address: College, Laguna, 4031, Philippines
Contact Person: Dir. Celso P. Diaz and
                Engr. Santiago Baconguis
Tel. No./fax No. : 63-49-536-2269/
E-mail and web address, if any:
Name of the project sponsor: Department of
       Environment and Natural Resources
Organizational category:          Government
Address (include web address if any): DENR
Visayas Avenue, Diliman, Quezon City
Main Activities: Promotion in the conservation
and protection of environment & natural resources
          Summary of the Financials

      The project will generate income from the
production and sale of charcoal briquettes from
the communities, both urban and rural and at
the same time the farmers will save from using
fuelwood from the forest.
                Type of the Project
Greenhouse gases targeted: CO2/CH4
Type of activities: Abatement of CO2 and
                    CH4 Sequestration
Field activities:
a) Energy supply: Renewable energy, fuel switch
from fuelwood to charcoal briquettes from aban-
doned biomass and water hyacinth
b) Energy demand: Replacement of existing
“household equipment” /improvement of energy
efficiency of existing tobacco flue-curing facilities
c) Transport: Charcoal briquettes are
   easier to handle and readily
   transportable/utilize less space during
   transport compared to equivalent wood.
d) Waste Management: Utilization of
   abandoned cellulosic wastes and water
   hyacinth; and converting it into charcoal
e) Land Use Change and Forestry: Land
   degradation prevention by conserving
   the trees/woodlands that otherwise will
   be cut for fuelwood the tobacco flue-
   curing barns in Ilocos Region
             Location of the project
Region:     East Asia and Pacific/South Asia
Country:    Philippines
Brief description of the location of the plant:
      The region is a tobacco growing region
& forest has already been depleted to rampant
fuelwood gathering for the flue-curing of
               Expected Schedule
Earliest project start date: Year in which the
      plant will be operational, Mid-2004
Estimate of time required before becoming
operational after approval of the PIN:
Time required for financial commitments: 2 mos.
Time required for legal matters       : 2 mos.
Time required for negotiations         : 2 mos.
Time required for construction         : 4 mos.
Expected first year of CER delivery: Year 2005
Project Lifetime: 25 years
Current status or phase of the project:
      Identification and pre-selection phase/
opportunity study finished/pre-feasibility study
finished/feasibility study finished
        A charcoal briquetting plant in Region 2
(Quirino, Isabela) is existing with additional
community-based livelihood briquetting facilities
to utilize community abandoned biomass and
water hyacinth in Region 1.
Current status of the acceptance of the Host

Letter of No Objection is available or Letter
of Endorsement is under discussion
The position of the Host Country with regard to the
                  Kyoto Protocol
The Host Country
     a) signed, signed and ratified, accepted,
     approved or acceded to the Kyoto Protocol or
     b) signed and has demonstrated a clear interest in
     becoming a party in due time (e.g. countries which
     have already started or are on the verge of starting
     the national ratification, acceptance or approval
     process) or
     c) has already started or is on the verge of starting
     the national accession process
Estimate of Greenhouse Gases abated/CO2 Sequestered
(in metric tons of CO2-equivalent):


     Up to and including 2012 : 4,480,000 tCO2-
     Up to a period of 10 years: 5,650,000 tCO2-
     Up to a period of 7 years : 3,920,000 tCO2-
     Up to a period of 14 years: 7,840,000 tCO2-
Baseline scenario: CDM projects must result in GHG
emissions being lower than “business-as-usual” in the
Host Country. At the PIN stage questions to be answered
are at least:
   •What is the proposed Clean Development
   Mechanism (CDM) project displacing?
   The project will displace cutting of trees to be used in
   the tobacco flue-curing and instead will use charcoal
   briquettes out of abandoned biomass and water
   hyacinth. The charcoal briquettes will replace the
   trees that would have been cut. A ton of briquette
   would conserve about 88 trees with a diameter of at
   least 10 cm.
•What would the future look like without the proposed
CDM project?
       If there is no CDM, forest destruction for
fuelwood gathering will continue and will even become
worst because of annual felling of trees. Floods and
drought will be a regular feature of the landscape and
temperature will be hotter.
•What would the estimated total GHG reduction be?
       The total estimated GHG reduction is at least
500,000 tCO2 per year in the Ilocos Region alone. As
the conserve trees continue to grow, more CO2 will be
Specific global and local environmental
benefits: The benefits that could be derived
from using charcoal briquettes from abandoned
biomass in place of fuelwood for flue-curing of
tobacco are the following:
      a) Local Environmental Benefits
      b) Global Environmental Benefits
Socio-economic aspects:
        What social and economic effects can be
attributed to the project and which would not have
occurred in a comparable situation without the
project? Charcoal briquetting generates enormous
livelihood activity of the urban and rural communities.
Unutilized and underutilized labor can be tapped that
will spur the growth of local economy. Even the
agriculture sector benefits from it by the demand of
cassava starch needed as binder for the briquetting
Carbonized waste cellulosic materials can now be
traded by the poor population improving their way of
living. They don’t have to go to the city for
employment maintaining the culture and traditions.
What are the possible direct effects (e.g. employment
creation, capital required, foreign exchange effects)?
•Employment creation everywhere because abandoned
biomass is found everywhere. There is no need for
specialized skill. Unskilled labor can be tapped.
•Very little capital required; cooperatives can be
•Charcoal briquettes can be an export commodity aside
from supplying the need of the tobacco industry, hence can
be a dollar earner.
•When used as a household energy for cooking, expensive
LPG can be substituted hence, currency reserve can be
What are the possible other effects? For example:
•Training/education associated with the
introduction of new processes, technologies and
products and/or
   •For urban and rural poor, this is a new technology
   and foreign to them. Institutional arrangement and
   trainings especially at the community-based level is
   •Skills training will be needed for the workers; and
   this could be a vehicle for a good social change.
   •Educational materials will be produced to educate
•Effects of a project on other industries
   •Other industries such as coal-fired plants can also
   replace the dirty coal with charcoal briquettes if high
   production of this commodity has been attained.
   •LPG can be substituted in cooking or partial
   replacement of LPG
Environmental strategy/priorities of the Host
A brief description of the relationship of the
consistency of the project with environmental strategy
and priorities of the Host Country
       The project is consistent with the environmental
strategy and priorities of the Philippines. The project
can help conserve the forest resources which is one of
the programs of government.
Total project cost estimate
      Development costs : 5.0US$million
      Installed costs:       2.0US$million
      Other costs:           1.0US$million
      Total project costs:   8.0US$million
Indicate CER Price (subject to negotiation and
financial due diligence): $6.00 per ton CO2
Total emission Reduction Purchase Agreement
(ERPA) Value: $6.00 per ton CO2
A period until 2012 (end of the first budget
period):   6.5US$ million
A period of 10 years : 8.0 US$ million
A period of 7 years   : 5.5 US$ million
A period of 14 years (2*7years)
                      : 11.0 US$million

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