Appreciative Inquiry workbook by lindash


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									Appreciative Inquiry
Welcome to Appreciative Inquiry
Appreciative Inquiry is the exploration of what happens to individuals and communities when they function at their best. It is
about doing more of what we are good at, rather than the problem solving approach which is doing less of what we are not good
at. What we focus on becomes our reality – words create worlds. The language of Appreciative Inquiry is a series of positive
statements couched as if they were already happening.1

           Problem solving approach                                      Appreciative Inquiry approach

                  “Felt need”                                         Appreciating and valuing the best
         Identification of the problem                                           of “what is”

                Analysis of causes                                                    Imagining
                                                                                    “what might be”

         Analysis of possible solutions                                               Innovating
                                                                                    “what could be”

                  Action planning                                                    Implementing
                    (treatment)                                                      “what will be”

    Basic assumption:                                                Basic assumption:
    An organisation is a problem to be                               Organisations (relationships) are
    solved                                                           mysteries to be enjoyed
Adapted from Cooperider and Srivastva (1987) “Appreciative Inquiry into organisation life”

    Tricia Szirom, Success Works Pty Ltf
Assumptions of Appreciative Inquiry2
          in every society, organisation or group, something works

          what we focus on becomes our reality, and the language we use creates our reality

          the act of asking questions of a group influences that group in some way

          people have more confidence in journeying to the future (the unknown) when they carry forward parts of the past (the

          if we carry forward parts of the past, we should know what is best about the past

    Adapted from Hall J and Hammond S. “What is Appreciative Inquiry?”
Perspectives in analysing an issue…
What do the various characters (on page 5) think about the waves?

Where am I?

   A. In the boat being rocked by the issue (waves)?
   B. On the beach? (Can see the issue but not directly threatened, affected)
   C. On top of the hill? (Everything is beautiful, thank God)
   D. Behind the hill? (Waves? There are no waves. If there are, they are caused by foreigners, people with bad intentions,
      people from another culture etc)
   E. In the aeroplane?
   F. Are there any characters missing? Surfers (waves – fantastic!), marine scientists (thank goodness there’s a reef to cause the
      issue / waves!) etc.

Now, in broader terms, locate yourself.
        • Where are you in society?
        • From whose side are you analyzing ‘the issue’?

Case study: Mylah West Church…
"We had this problem - a great desire for an evening meal and study group at our church, but no access to the toilets at
night....eventually what we did was..."

Words create worlds.
This is a fundamental assumption of Appreciative Inquiry. Deficit language creates a problem. Sufficiency language creates

Case study: “Mylah West” Church…

Mylah West is one of two congregations in a town of 20,000 people. It’s located in the main street, and has a regular worship
attendance of about 65. 15 of these around children and their parents, and the remainder are older – mostly long-time attenders.
Two families from the Sudan have been coming once a month. They have an op shop in the shopping strip, a UCAF group, the
minister and one lay person are developing an R.E. program on Tuesdays at the local Primary School. Large crowds come on
Christmas and Easter, and they have a Carol’s by Candlelight well attended by the wider community. Many of the congregation
are involved in various community groups – Probus, the Red Cross, Rotary, the Fire Brigade. A “chat and chew” group meets
every Friday fortnight.

Scene: A person on the door is welcoming a visitor to worship…

     Hello… (doesn’t look visitor in the eye for too long. Passes a hymn book and order of service)….

     We’re running a bit late today. The minister is coming from another service – she’s quite a busy person... It’s
     school holidays so we’re down on numbers, and the organist is sick, so hopefully the singing will be ok…

     Have you been to our op shop in town? Three of the older ladies keep it going – they’re wonderful, really, although
     can only open it two mornings a week now. We never have enough warm clothes and blankets at this time of year,
     but it’s important to keep it going, and is a good way to help us pay for the minister. You should visit there

     We’ll be getting started soon…We have a quick cup of tea after the service over in the hall – people don’t stay too
     long - it’s getting more and more expensive to heat it…

8    Hope to see you again…
From… (deficit language)   To… (sufficiency, possibility language)

The Theology underpinning Appreciative Inquiry.
The key words are gratitude and sufficiency. Walter Brueggemann’s article, Enough is Enough, encapsulates the theology
underpinning Appreciative Inquiry.

Enough Is Enough
"In feeding the hungry crowd, Jesus reminds us that the wounds of scarcity can be healed only by faith in God's promise of abundance."

by Walter Brueggemann

 We live in a world where the gap between scarcity and abundance grows              Having thus set in motion a world of abundance, God rests--the
 wider every day. Whether at the level of nations or neighborhoods, this            mechanisms are in place, the world will have enough. God hears their cry,
 widening gap is polarizing people, making each camp more and more                  and sends Moses to tell Pharaoh that the God of abundance has come to
 suspicious and antagonistic toward the other.                                      free the Israelites from this ideology of scarcity. And Yahweh won't accept
                                                                                    no for an answer. It takes convincing, but Pharoah finally agrees--at least
 But the peculiar thing, at least from a biblical perspective, is that the rich--   long enough for the Israelites to gather their belongings and put a river
 the ones with the abundance--rely on an ideology of scarcity, while the            between themselves and Egypt. It isn't long before what they have left
 poor--the ones suffering from scarcity--rely on an ideology of abundance.          behind starts to look good compared to what they must face. They left the
 How can that be? The issue involves whether there is enough to go                  land of scarcity thinking they would bounce into the land of abundance.
 around--enough food, water, shelter, space. An ideology of scarcity says           Instead, they find themselves at risk in a wilderness, a desert with no
 no, there's not enough, so hold onto what you have. In fact, don't just hold       visible life-support systems, a place of scarcity where even bread seems
 onto it, hoard it. Put aside more than you need, so that if you do need it, it     an impossibility. Having inhaled the continuing reality of scarcity
 will be there, even if others must do without.                                     throughout their lives, the Israelites breathe out murmurs, complaints,
                                                                                    condemnations, and reveries of Egypt--where at least there was bread.
 An affirmation of abundance says just the opposite: Appearances
 notwithstanding, there is enough to go around, so long as each of us               Then, in this desert wilderness, bread inexplicably appears. A fine, flaky
 takes only what we need. In fact, if we are willing to have but not hoard,         substance comes down, answering Israel's risk with a manifestation of
 there will even be more than enough left over. The Bible is about                  God's faithful generosity. This bread violates all their categories: It
 abundance. From the first chapters of Genesis, God not only initiates              overturns their conviction about scarcity and cancels their anxiety about
 abundance--calling forth plants and fish and birds and animals--but                hunger. The gift of bread transforms the wilderness. And from that point
 promises continued abundance by commanding them to "increase and                   on, Israel would entertain the thought that a place of perceived scarcity
 multiply" (1:22). God's generosity and fidelity reach their climax on the          may turn out to be a place of wondrous abundance.
 sixth day, when God proclaims a sufficiency for "everything that has the
 breath of life" and declares all this "very good" (1:30Ð31).                       In the New Testament, Jesus knows all about the generosity and fidelity
                                                                                    of God. In his very person, the whole of Israel's faith is expressed with a
                                                                                    new intensity. Filled with God's generosity, Jesus went around to people
suffering from scarcity--of health, of acceptance, of power, of                hungry with good things" (Luke 1:53). And the Magnificat, it appears,
understanding--and replaced it with a gift of abundance.                       borrows from 1 Samuel 2, where Hannah, the mother of Samuel, sang
                                                                               that "those who were full have hired themselves out for bread, but those
The eighth chapter of Mark's Gospel contains the second feeding                who were hungry are fat with spoil" (1 Sam. 2:5). So Jesus remembered
narrative, a story rich in Israel's past. Jesus notices that the people        the songs of mother Mary and mother Hannah--songs of God's generosity
who've been listening to him have run out of food. He's been here before,      toward those in need. Jesus is well-schooled in the transformative
back in chapter six where he fed the five thousand. But hunger--scarcity--     generosity of God. He is also well-schooled in the conviction that if you
isn't a one-time experience, and Jesus isn't in the "symbolic gesture"         share your bread with the neighbor, the world will be made new. He
business. He's in the generosity business, and that means being                knows that generosity isn't something you just think about, it's something
constantly alert to any mismatch between the generosity of God and the         you do.
needs of the people. In this instance, the mismatch moves Jesus "to
compassion"--a Greek term that means that his insides are turned over.         Mark uses four words to describe what Jesus did: took, gave thanks,
Jesus has this strange bodily sense of an emergency. He cares about the        broke, and gave. The words are familiar; they are Eucharist words. Out in
hungry and knows something must be done. At first Jesus doesn't say            the desert, Jesus uses seven loaves to conduct a sit-down thanksgiving
anything about how the people's hunger might be satisfied. He just points      dinner that matches the needs of the people with the generosity of God.
out the need: "they have nothing to eat" (8:2). Perhaps he's hoping his        And his actions are transformative. The bread stays exactly what it is--
disciples will remember the last time this happened, and start looking         bread--yet it becomes something it never was before: a carrier of all the
around for a few loaves and fishes. But their minds are still stuck on         hidden, powerful gifts of God. The crowd stays as it is, but it becomes
scarcity: "How can you feed these people with bread in the desert?" (8:4).     something it never thought it would be: a people entitled to what they
You can sense the resistance in the disciples' question. It's the resistance   can't provide for themselves. The desert stays as it is, but it becomes
of pragmatism, of efficiency, of "the real world." The words are "how can      something that no one would ever expect: a viable place of existence, the
you?" but they're really saying "You can't." "It won't work." "Get real."      arena for the reign of God. Jesus has put into practice the generosity of
These are not generous words; these are not words that arise from              the Creator. It is as though Genesis 1 reappears in Mark 8, and the world
abundance.                                                                     is again made new.

But Jesus has abundance on his mind, so he doesn't even answer their           Gifts, when they are blessed and broken and given, have immense
question. Instead he moves on, asking a question of his own: "How many         potential. How could anyone take seven loaves (plus a few fish) and feed
loaves do you have?" (8:5). They answer: "Seven." It's enough. He tells        four thousand? But the narrator says that all ate and were full. And
the crowd to sit down. The Gospel of Mark doesn't usually go out of its        Hannah said, "those who were hungry are fat with spoil." And Mary said,
way to make the disciples look good, but it's not above giving them a few      "he has filled the hungry with good things." Signs of unlimited generosity
good lines on occasion. In verse four it is the disciples who raise the        are abundant and visible, leaving no room for the mistaken notion of
question of finding "bread in the desert"--an echo of Exodus. And in verse     scarcity.
five they affirm that there are seven loaves--evoking the number of days
God spent creating the world.                                                  We don't experience the world that way. But Mark's Gospel suggests that
                                                                               this is because we, like the disciples, are not clear about the limitless
The message from Mark seems clear: Jesus brings to this concrete               generosity of God. The disciples were not convinced that seven loaves
moment a rich background from the community of Israel. Part of that            were more than enough to feed four thousand. Chances are, they were
background, I believe, Jesus picked up at home, where he heard his             worried that if they started distributing the bread, there wouldn't be
mother Mary sing her Magnificat that includes the words "he has filled the

enough to go around. They did not grasp generosity and gratitude and              One glaring example of today's anxiety-driven scarcity is the frenetic
abundance.                                                                        activity that so characterizes our society. Corporate executives boast a
                                                                                  "24/7" mentality as a bulwark against losing their edge or missing an
We see this later in the same chapter, when the disciples are out in a boat       opportunity. Those of us with less "prestigious" positions continually
with Jesus. Mark tells us that they "had forgotten to bring any bread"            wrestle with our bulging appointment books and ever-growing to-do lists.
(8:14). They no longer remembered one critical truth: that Jesus is in the        Even youngsters have exchanged a carefree childhood for a schedule of
generosity business. Jesus notices this and says, "Watch out--beware of           structured activities.
the yeast of the Pharisees and the yeast of Herod" (8:15). The Pharisees
are the parsimonious ones who want to ration everything. The Herodians            There's never enough time; there's never a moment's rest. The Bible
are like Pharaoh, they want to monopolize everything and store it up and          offers an antidote to all this activity: the call to Sabbath. As shown in the
administer it. And Jesus is warning them: Watch out for their junk food. If       creation account, Sabbath (God's day of rest) is based on abundance.
you eat it long enough, you will think and act the way they do. Apparently        But how willing are we to practice Sabbath? A Sabbath spent catching up
this puzzles the disciples; they keep murmuring about the bread they              on chores we were too busy to do during the week is hardly a testimony
forgot. Jesus hears their whispering, and he blasts them with rapid-fire          to abundance. A Sabbath spent encouraging those who want to fill our
questions that are really accusations. "Why are you talking about having          "free time" with calls to amass more possessions--whether the malls with
no bread? Do you still not perceive or understand? Are your hearts                their weekend specials or televised sports events with their clutter of
hardened?" (8:17-18). Have you forgotten, Jesus seems to ask, that                commercials--does nothing to weaken the domain of scarcity. Honouring
abundance has vetoed scarcity? Or are you still back with Pharaoh, who            the Sabbath is a form of witness. It tells the world that "there is enough."
never thought he had enough and wound up with a hardened heart?                   Too often, the church has understood God's unconditional grace as solely
                                                                                  a theological phenomenon, instead of recognizing that it has to do with
The questioning continues: "When I fed five thousand with just five               the reordering of the economy of the world. We cannot separate the two.
loaves, how many were left over?" They answer: "Twelve!" "When I fed              When Jesus was asked which was the greatest commandment, he
four thousand with seven loaves, how many were left over?" "Seven!" The           replied with a trick answer: "You shall love the Lord you God with all your
disciples are really good at concrete, operational, statistical stuff, but they   heart and soul and mind and strength" and "you shall love your neighbour
cannot negotiate from the line items to the big picture. So Jesus ends up         as yourself." You can't have just one; you need to have both. And the link
asking--in one of the most pathos-filled lines of all scripture--"Do you not      that unites them is God's limitless generosity, acknowledged and enacted.
yet understand?" (8:21). There is no answer. Stuck in the anxiety of the          When we gather as church each Sunday, we should ponder the stories
moment, they've already lost sight of the message from the past.                  that declare scarcity to be false: an impromptu hillside meal with as much
                                                                                  in left-overs as when it began, a barren desert blossoming with manna, an
Today, the fundamental human condition continues to be anxiety, fuelled           earth fully equipped to meet everyone's needs. And a question should be
by a market ideology that keeps pounding on us to take more, to not think         burning in our hearts: "What if it is true? What if one of the links between
about our neighbour, to be fearful, short-sighted, grudging. Over and over,       the Creator's generosity and the neighbour's needs is us, this
we're told to be sure we have the resources to continue our affluent              community?" If that is not true, then scarcity rules and we are in sorry
lifestyles, especially with the approach of our "golden years" (which are         shape. But if it is, and if we believe it is, we can begin life anew as
"golden" in more ways than one). That same market ideology powers the             stewards of God's abundance.
multinational corporations, as they roam the world, seeking the best deal,
the greatest return, the cheapest labour and materials. Whether it's global       Travelers Together, the study guide based on this issue, features this article.
policies or local poverty-wage jobs, those who fear scarcity refuse to
acknowledge any abundance that extends beyond their own coffers.                  >From The Other Side Online, 2001 The Other Side, November-December
                                                                                  2001, Vol. 37, No. 5.
Extract from On the Way Together – A Theological Reflection
We choose to begin this journey from a disposition of gratitude, acknowledging God’s grace in our experience, because in doing so we understand that we
are a part of God’s movement, on the way to a promised goal.2 This disposition of gratitude is deeply rooted in our Judaeo Christian heritage. Every time
we gather to worship, we do so in gratitude for the grace God has lavished upon us. Grace and gratitude are partners. Karl Barth noted that grace and
gratitude belong together, that grace evokes gratitude like voice an echo. Gratitude follows grace like thunder and lightning.3

We begin by rehearsing our stories in worship through gratitude, confession, lament, praise and adoration. Together, we find our place in relationship with
God, who forgives and restores, reconciles and heals. The Jewish community expressed gratitude in response to God’s grace, and incorporated the
practice of gratitude into its worship. Consider the Psalms. Walter Brueggemann notes that each of three categories of Psalms4 includes gratitude in words
and acts of thanksgiving and re-membering. For the early church, each of the Gospels reveals a particular context, showing something of the
congregational realities each community struggled with. Yet, each Gospel speaks to a greater reality – the experience of God’s grace - and in the light of
that experience incites hope for a different future.

Paul’s letters, and those who write having adopted Paul’s style, often begin with a statement of gratitude for the people to whom the letters are addressed.5
It is only after an expression of gratitude for grace received that Paul gets into the specific difficulties each community struggles with. When we are aware
of God’s grace, gratitude becomes a natural response. This is the way The Basis of Union begins.6 We can appreciate our lives and the life of our
communities through the lens of God’s goodness to us and with us. Sometimes, it is in the light of this awareness that we are confronted with our
shortcomings, alerted to ways in which we might have refused or withheld all that God has for us. Perhaps it is our wilful behaviour that has caused our
problems. Maybe it is our limited vision, our tendency to stick to the known and the safe, even obsession with our difficulties, that has given rise to the
issues we face.

Confession is appropriate, if accompanied by repentance and turning to face God’s grace once again. Only then will we move from scarcity back to God’s
abundance. As we gather and listen to stories of appreciation for all that God has given to us and done for us or through us, this is the time to ponder how
best to express our gratitude to God. Consider the gifts of God’s Spirit liberally given to each and every community of Christian faith. Think of the many
opportunities to join with God where God has been at work in the past. Reflect on the benefits we have enjoyed simply because at some time each of us
has said “Yes!” to God. Perhaps each of the communities of which we are a member has also said “Yes!” to God. Consider the legacy that the saints of the
past have bequeathed us, the heritage which they have handed on. Take time to savour the many stories of lives turned around, of healing and
reconciliation, of extravagant compassion let loose, of liberation made real through the ministries of so many sisters’ and brothers’ who were faithful to
God’s calling. Think, too, about how best to confess, lament, repent, accept forgiveness and turn around. Taking time to repair our perspective, we will
listen together and again for God’s calling us to be God’s compassionate, liberating community. Listen then, as we journey on the Way together,
asking two essential questions:

• Who are we
• What are we called to?

John A. Emmett.
February, 2008

1 On the Way Together – a Spirited journey towards the future is the title of the UCA Synod of Victoria and Tasmania’s
Strategic Plan Project (Synod Strategic Plan). This project responds to the Synod meeting of 2007’s call for a new Strategic
Plan to be presented to the Synod meeting in September 2008. The On the Way Together project is oversighted by the Synod
General Secretary and a Project Team, assisted by a Reference Group representing each of the Presbyteries and agencies of
the Synod.
2 The Basis of Union, Para 3
the Church is a pilgrim people, always on the way towards a promised goal; here the Church does not have a continuing city
but seeks one to come. On the way Christ feeds the Church with Word and Sacraments, and it has the gift of the Spirit in
order that it may not lose the way.
3 Quoted by Mark Lau Branson, in Memories, Hopes and Conversations, Alban Institute, 2004; Ch3, p63. (From Church
Dogmatics IV, as used in Weavings, 7, No. 6 Nov/Dec 1992)
4 Three categories: Psalms of orientation, disorientation and reorientation. These three categories, recognized and developed
by Walter Brueggemann provide an appreciation of the role the Psalms played in providing an essential instrument to the self
understanding and worship of the Jewish people over a long period.
5 For example, consider Romans 1:8; Corinthians 1:4-9; or 1 Thessalonians 1:2-10.
6 The Basis of Union Para One …
“…enter into union under the name of the Uniting Church in Australia. They pray that this act may be to the glory of God the
Father, the Son and the Holy Spirit. They give praise for God’s gifts of grace to each of them in years past; they acknowledge
that none of them has responded to God’s love with a full obedience; they look for a continuing renewal in which God will
use their common worship, witness and service to set forth the word of salvation for all people.”

The four phases of Appreciative Inquiry
Phase 1: Inquire (or discover)

Phase 2: Imagine (or dream)

Phase 3: Innovate (or design)

Phase 4: Implement (or destiny)

Phase 1: Inquire

Case Study: US Navy…

You’ve been called in to assist the US Navy with a problem they’ve had for decades – ongoing sexual abuse of women by men.

What is the first question you’ll ask…?



Appreciative Inquiry begins at a different place to the problem solving approach. It begins with inviting stories of times when
things have worked well. So, in the case of the US Navy, the first question to ask would be…

“Tell us of times when men and women have worked together very effectively in the US Navy.”

Three key questions for Phase 1:

     1. When have you been most alive and motivated in your ministry in the past two months?







2. What has been your own (or your congregation’s) most vivid connection with people beyond the congregation (in the past
   6 months)?







3. When your congregation is at its best, what are its most life-enriching characteristics?







How did you feel when talking to others about your responses, and listening to theirs?

(circle 5 or 6)

                      alive     good great                 calm     confident         courageous peaceful               hesitant                 vulnerable

                             dissatisfied             energetic        liberated          comfortable amazed               optimistic         delighted

                             helpless        irritated        lousy             upset              incapable        enraged         provocative

                             encouraged               sympathetic               overjoyed          impulsive               interested         surprised

        satisfied            wary            bored            nervous           preoccupied                         cold   content            receptive       animated           quiet

                                accepting       spirited                    indecisive       fatigued          powerless                 perplexed        annoyed

                   certain                            relaxed          satisfied          disillusioned             hesitant        sceptical         frustrated       unsure

     wonderful                  reassured                  positive          strong           concerned          pessimistic    indifferent               suspicious      neutral

     reserved         eager              fascinated                earnest                    intrigued          anxious                 rebellious                inquisitive

                              inspired        passionate          excited          engrossed                enthusiastic       curious          challenged

                  worried                   disinterested                      restless            re-enforced     drawn toward             depressed        confused

                                            disappointed              doubtful           hostile                   discouraged uncertain

Phase 2: Imagine (or Dream)
      • What would we be like if we are more of that… more of the time?

The imagine phase includes collating and sharing the interview data (from Phase 1), finding the life-giving themes, deciding
what themes to focus on initially, and developing ‘provocative proposals’ concerning possible futures.3

                                                              "A vision is not just a picture of what could be; it is an appeal to our better selves, a call to
                                                              become something more"
                                                              Rosabeth Moss Kanter

                                                              Finding themes

                                                              A theme is an idea about what is present in the stories that people report are the
                                                              times of greatest excitement, creativity, and reward.4 Branson suggests that a
                                                              complete set of the data collected in phase 1 is passed out to everyone in the group.
                                                              They are asked to look for major themes or repeated ideas, and to then compare
                                                              notes in small groups, which are then put up around the room. “Some themes were
                                                              single important events in the church’s life, others were traits or characteristics, still
                                                              others were annual eve

                                                              They should be succinct statements, written as if it were happening now, grounded
                                                              (ie. possible), positive, capturing values, energy.

    Branson, Mark Lau     “Memories, hopes, and conversations – Appreciative Inquiry and congregational change” pp 77.
    Watkins and Mohr, “Appreciative Inquiry” pp 114
Phase 3: Innovate (or Design)
Often a group is able to develop an 'audacious' vision and then gets stuck at innovation / action because "we have tried it
before…" or "we don’t have…"

Appreciative Inquiry leads you out of this by using “Provocative Proposals”.

Provocative Proposals…
  • are stated in the affirmative as if already happening
  • point to real desired possibilities
  • are based on the data collected in Phase 1
  • create new relationships, including intergenerational partnerships
  • bridge the best of “what is” towards “what might be”
  • stretch the status quo by pushing boundaries
  • necessitate new learning, and challenge assumptions and routines

Think of one thing that brings you to life. How are you already doing it. What makes it work? Imagine making it even better

     • Write a story as if what you just imagined is already happening!





Phase 4: Implement
When President John F. Kennedy boldly announced that America would put a man on the moon within ten years, scientists all
over the country began to shudder. “We can’t do that…” Slowly, they began to imagine what ‘mission accomplished’ might look

What was their visual image of mission accomplished?

The visual image of mission accomplished for them was of the astronauts, emerging, alive, out of their re-entry capsule bobbing
on the ocean.

Once they knew what their visual image of mission accomplished was, they worked backwards from there.

Question: Is the vision actually what you are trying to achieve – are you aiming for the right spot? Have you gone far enough?

     • This is an iterative process – be prepared to try several times before you find a common vision

Further reading
 • Memories, Hopes and Conversations: Appreciative Inquiry and Congregational Change, Mark Lau Branson (8 copies are on order
   through Unichurch Books for $29.95)
 • Core Elements of the Appreciative Way: An Introduction to Appreciative Inquiry for Work and Daily Living, Robert J Voyle and
   Kim M Voyle
 • The Thin Book of Appreciative Inquiry, Annis Hammond S
 • Appreciative Inquiry, Watkins and Mohr

    (full details on the MPRU booklist )

                                                              Workbook compiled by the Mission Participation Resource Unit
                                                                          Uniting Church Synod of Victoria and Tasmania
                                                                                     130 Lt Collins St, Melbourne Vic 3000
                                                                                                               April, 2008

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