Hardware by csz2010



1. Can recursive programs be written in C++, Write a recursive program to calculate
   factorial in C++.
2. What is best data structure to store the processes info in a real time operating
3. Give two ways of converting a two input NAND gate to an inverter
4. Given a circuit, draw its exact timing response. (I was given a Pseudo Random
   Signal Generator; you can expect any sequential ckt)
5. What are set up time & hold time constraints? What do they signify? Which one
   is critical for estimating maximum clock frequency of a circuit?
6. Compare the no. of bytes in unix and Dos for long, char, short, int.
7. How do you make programs portable on unix and Dos under such circumstances?
8. In C++, what is a constructor, destructor?
9. What is friend?
10. What is waterfall model, prototype model?
11. What is testing? What is unit testing, integration testing, etc?
12. What is indexing when talking about databases?
13. What is atomicity?
14. Give a circuit to divide frequency of clock cycle by two
15. Design a divide-by-3 sequential circuit with 50% duty circle. (Hint: Double the
16. Suppose you have a combinational circuit between two registers driven by a
   clock. What will you do if the delay of the combinational circuit is greater than
   your clock signal? (You can’t resize the combinational circuit transistors)
17. The answer to the above question is breaking the combinational circuit and
   pipelining it. What will be affected if you do this?
18. What is Finite Automata
19. What is a Turing machine?
20. How many processors are there in a pentium microprocessor? In Sparc?
21. Difference between RISC and CISC
22. Design a Transmission Gate based XOR. Now, how do you convert it to XNOR?
   (Without inverting the output)
   23. How do you detect if two 8-bit signals are same?
   24. How do you detect a sequence of "1101" arriving serially from a signal line?
   25. Design any FSM in VHDL or Verilog.
   26. Explain RC circuit’s charging and discharging.
   27. Explain the working of a binary counter.
   28. Describe how you would reverse a singly linked list.
   29. Is RISC always fast?
   30. What is a real time system?
   31. Name some real time OSs.
   32. Is DOS a real time OS?
   33. What is a kernel, shell?
   34. What is binary search, traversal, hashing?
   35. Write a code to count the no. of 1’s in a binary representation of a number.
   36. Memory taken for char *, int * etc.


* How can I make my server a daemon?

* How should I choose a port number for my server?

* Layers in TCP/IP

* How can I be sure that a UDP message is received?

* How to get IP header of a UDP message

* Writing UDP/SOCK_DGRAM applications

* How many bytes in an IPX network address?

* What is the difference between MUTEX and Semaphore?
* What is priority inversion?

* Different Solutions to dining philosophers problem.

* What is a message queue?

* Questions on Shared Memory.

* What is DHCP?

* Working of ping, telnet, gopher.

* Can I connect two computers to internet using same line ?

* Why networks are layered ? What is the advantage of that ?

* User(s) are complaining of delays when using the network. What would you do?

* What are some of the problems associated with operating a switched LAN?

* Name some of the ways of combining TCP/IP traffic and SNA traffic over the same

* What sort of cabling is suitable for Fast Ethernet protocols?

* What is a Class D IP address?

* Why do I sometimes lose a server's address when using more than one server?

* What is Firewall?

* How do I monitor the activity of sockets?
* How would I put my socket in non-blocking mode?

* What are RAW sockets?

* What is the role of TCP protocol and IP protocol.

* What is UDP?

* How many layers are there in OSI ? Why is it called OSI model ?

* network topologies ?

* Which are the different network topologies ?

* an example of bus type network.

* What is the Bandwidth of Ethernet ?

* Explain the advantage and disadvantage of Ethernet ?

* Which is the protocol used in Ethernet. (CSMA/CD) Why is it called so ?

* What is the advantage of Ring network ?

* Compare it with Ethernet.

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