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  • pg 1
8th March 2002
A meeting on the theme of livelihoods was conducted at CESS, Hyderabad by ODI and
CESS on the 8th March 2002 following a similar meeting that was organized in London
during the previous month. The purpose of the meeting was primarily to provide people
with an opportunity to introduce themselves to each other and share basic information
about their projects on livelihoods in the state of Andhra Pradesh. the aim was to foster
cooperation among all the people working on this issue and avoid duplications. Several
researchers and development workers attended the meeting and gave brief presentations
on their projects.

Welcome: Prof. S. Mahendra Dev, Director, CESS
Prof. Mahendra Dev, Director CESS welcomed the gathering. He said that the DFID
livelihoods framework has helped us to understand how to approach poverty alleviation.
He discussed the effects of macro policies at the micro level, fitting small scale projects
into the macro level and scaling up projects as the three issues of micro-macro linkages.
The strategy for poverty reduction of government of Andhra Pradesh consists of six

     1)   Promotion of natural resources
     2)   Promotion of livelihoods opportunities from farm and non farm sources
     3)   Promotion of human resources
     4)   Promotion of rural infrastructure
     5)   Promotion of social capital through SHGs and
     6)   Promotion of decentralized government

The government of A.P constituted four missions for this viz., employment, poverty,
water conservation and literacy. He further explained that poverty alleviation
programmes in A.P are broadly of two types –SHG based and watershed development
based. He revealed that evaluations showed that SHG based approach is still at the
subsistence (“Pickles and Papads”) level. Therefore, watershed based strategies assume
greater importance.

On Going Projects on Livelihoods:
1)      Project Title: Watershed Based Livelihoods Approach: A policy Action
        Research Program
Presenter:    V. Ratna Reddy
Affiliation: CESS, Hyderabad
Email:      vratnareddy@yahoo.com

The study is being carried out by CESS in collaboration with the university of Leeds,
UK. The study is an attempt to address primarily the issue of lesson learning and policy
influence component of A.P Rural livelihoods project (APRLP). The study will be carried
out at the policy (Macro, Meso and Micro) as well as implementation levels. As a first
step a policy framework will be developed based on the review of existing policies. This
framework will be used as background for drawing testable insights from the empirical
studies as second step. Finally the empirical analysis are used to verify the policy model
and develop a more generalized and practicable framework for watershed based
livelihoods approach. As a second step, an intensive empirical work will be taken up at
the village (watershed) level in two phases. In the first phase fieldwork in four phase I
watersheds has already been completed watershed that were regarded as model of good
practice and assess constraints from the policy framework when implemented under the
best conditions. This study has provided a range of insights into the impact and
limitations of existing national watershed guidelines and provides a basis for identifying
the scope of activities needed to re-orient traditional watersheds approaches towards a
livelihoods perspective.

The second phase of fieldwork will have a more explicit action research character, with
the research team working closely with a leading NGO (RDT) involved as a project
implementation agency and widely regarded as an effective and credible PIA in three
watershed/villages in Anantapur district. The role of research team will be to develop
new approaches to the implementation of watersheds policies that is more explicitly
linked to an analysis of livelihoods dynamics and more effectively targeted to poverty
eradication. This will include and more effectively targeted to poverty eradication and
sustainable processes within villages and the analysis of the policy and institutional
processes needed to support these innovations in relation to their links to external
institutions and wider social and economic process.

Out of four village level programme, one village will have an established watershed
programme second will have no existing watershed programme, the third will be selected
as a pilot for the development of a comprehensive poverty eradication and fourth one will
be a village where watershed programme is initiated but has relatively larger proportions
of area under irrigation. The approach develop will be examined and shared with key
policies stakeholders at state and national levels. The approaches will be carefully
documented with the intention of providing case studies that can act as a model of good
practice for replication. Within the mainstream of the AP watersheds programme and

2)      Project Title: Poverty Focused Smallholder Water Management Systems:
       Promoting Innovation Water Harvesting and irrigation Systems to
       Support Sustainable Livelihoods in South Asia
Presenter:     Christopher Scott
Affiliation: International Water Management Institute (IWMI)
Email:         c.scott@cgiar.org

The focus is mainly on water and other natural resources in watersheds. They are not
looking at income generation activities through SHG‟s in watersheds. The purpose of the
project is to create an applied knowledge base of traditional systems to assess proven
innovations in small holders water management and develop practical mechanism for
their promotion and dissemination. The effect of these systems on up stream, middle
stream and down streams people will be studied. Five-research questions are to be
addressed in this regard for each of the traditional water system viz., impact of the
system, aspect of the system for further improvements that can be made probable impact
of large-scale adoption and strategies for the replication of innovation.

Five smallholder watershed management systems have been identified and significant
progress has been made so far. These systems include:

    1)   Pael revival, Alwar district, Rajastan
    2)   5% technology, Purlia district, West Bengal
    3)   Low cost drip irrigation kits, Nepal
    4)   Integrated watershed development initiation (Rajastan, India)
    5)   Tank rejuvenation (Tamilnadu, India)

a) Pael ruvival: - it is a traditional rainwater harvesting practice for augmenting
groundwater recharge in Alwar district of Rajastan. Major partners in this project are
professional Assistance for development action (PRADAN), NGO promoting the
technology in the region and Mewat Sahyoz Samtha- Khanpur Mewam (MSs) a farmers
society managing the system.

b) Five-percent technology: - it is an on-farm rainwater harvesting technique in Purulia
district of west Bengal. It essentially consists of a pit dug usually at the most upstream
point on farmers plots and represents roughly 5% of the total area of the plot. Major
partner in this project is the NGO, PRADAN, which is promoting uptake of this new
technology in the region.

c) Low cost drip irrigation kits: - these are for efficient water usage for vegetable
production during dry reason in Tanabu, Palpa and Dailakh districts of western and mid-
western Nepal. Major partners in this project are international development Enterprise
(IDE), Nepal and the developers and promoters of low cost drip kits and Research,
institution and training integrated (RITI), a Consulting firm based in Nepal.

All these three projects have been started and in advanced stage. Preliminary findings
have already come.

d) Integrated watershed development initiation: - it is a water harvesting system linking
upstream catchment a forestation and grassland development with mid catchment „
medbundi‟ (traditional soil and water conservation) and where applicable downstream
„ancient „(check dam) for irrigation. The major partner in this project is Seva Mandir, an
NGO that is promoting integrated health and community development in the region.

e) Tank rejuvenation: - A joint effort undertaken by communities NGOs and
governmental organizations in Tamilnadu to revive abandoned or declining tank storage
systems. Major partner in this project is DHAN foundation, a NGO.

The above two projects are in initial stages. Process documentation and identification and
analysis of innovation are currently underway.

Alwar pael increased agricultural productivity directly and groundwater recharge
indirectly. Drinking water situation also improved. But the impact on the downstream due
to intensive use in the upstream could not be brought out. Another project “pro-poor
interventions in canal irrigation common areas” done in A.P is to be replicated in
Maharashtra in terms of not only physical area of command but also migration.

3)      Project Title: Urban Waste Water Usage for Fodder, Paddy and vegetable by
        Poor Farmers in the peri-urban Foot Print Downstream of Hyderabad
Presenter: Stephanie Buechler
Affiliation: International Water Management Institute
Email:         s.buechler@cgiar.org

Stephanie Buechler of International Water Management Institute:-She informed that apart
from the above projects, another project has been taken up recently. The project is “urban
waste water usage for fodder, paddy and vegetable production by poor farmers in the
peri-urban foot print downstream of Hyderabad”. This is to be done in the Musi water
area. This is still in initial stages.

4)      Project Title: Micro-Diversification: Case Study on Livelihoods
Presenter: Sourindra. B
Affiliation: BASIX
Email:         sourindra@basixindia.com

This project was initiated in September 2001 as part of the ODI Livelihood Options
Project and is likely to be completed in eight months. Case studies are being conducted in
Anantapur and Medak. They are taking the family as a unit. The questions being
addressed are: How have livelihoods evolved? What are the choices? Who takes
decisions? How it is scaling up? The role of support agencies, including elected bodies in
such changes was also looked into.

The main finding is that in both the areas, the rural producers are trying to strengthen
agriculture as a base and it is the main safety net. Diversification in livelihoods occurs
when a new member in the family grows up. Role of institution in Medak are the
important factors in micro-diversification. UNDP‟s SHGs have an influence on the poor
in Anantapur in majority of the cases. Only in a few cases government policies have
influenced the livelihoods.

In reply to discussion, Mr. Sourindra clarified that it is push factors in Anantapur and pull
factors in Mehaboobnagar that resulted in diversification. There was a good discussion on

the possibilities of diversification in Anantapur, when he declared that there is no scope
for diversification (from groundnut) in the district except to a small extent into buffaloes.
He explained that they are promoting sub-sector approaches to generate livelihoods. They
have also developed a livelihoods manual in collaboration with Action Research in
particular sub-sectors viz., groundnut in Anantapur, milk in Adilabad, vegetables in
Vikarabad and Mahboobnagar, and wheat in Hoshangabad.

5)      Project Title: Technical Support to A. P Rural Livelihoods Project
Presenter:      P. Parthasarathy Rao
Affiliation:    ICRISAT
Email:           p.partha@cgiar.org

ICRISAT is providing technical support for “A.P Rural livelihoods project” in Kurnool,
Mahabubnagar and Anantapur and also looking at livelihood options. This is tie-up with
government of A.P and DFID. The watersheds are yet to be selected. They have surveyed
10 villages in 1975 and 1985. Out of these 10 villages two are from Mahbubnagar. In
each village 40-50 farmers were surveyed on various aspects. These villages are
resurveyed in 1999. It was observed that livelihood options increased in 2001.

 Parthasarthy explained that there is a need to undertake research to link livestock
holdings with rural livelihoods because they are more equitably distributed than lands. In
reply to discussion, he told that overall livestock population is increasing in the 1990‟s at
a slow rate. In the better-endowed regions, buffaloes are increasing and in low rainfall
areas, cattle are dominating.

Some of the participants felt that the poor are denied the opportunity to rear goats. It was
also expressed to that large ruminants have positive relationship with landholding and
goat can be reared by all communities where as sheep is reared by only one community
people. Mr. Bhaskara Rao (of SPWD) informed that their research revealed that livestock
near towns is increasing and declining in forest areas. Mr. T.D Jose felt that livestock
increases workload on women for collection of fodder.

6)      Project Title: A. P Rural Livelihoods Project
Presenter:     Sarah Montagu and Narasimha Reddy
Affiliation: APRLP
Email:         sarahmontagu@yahoo.co.uk

AP Rural Livelihoods Project (APRLP) was initiated in partnership and the support of
DFID, UK with an aim to reduce poverty through effective and sustainable rural districts
of AP, viz., Anantapur, Kurnool, Mahbubnagar, Nalgonda and Prakasam. The SRL
strategy is being integrated with the scaling up of watershed activity by supporting
capacity building, livelihood support and convergence of other schemes and services
(collectively called “watershed plus”). In the new structure of APRLP capacity building
programme is emphasized. Though this project clearly spell out key features, components

and impacts, it implementation is expected to be dynamic and a learning experience in
itself and area specific. The APRLP has seven components viz.,

   a)   Capacity building for primary and secondary stake holders
   b)   Innovations to enhance the impact of watershed works
   c)   Lesson learning and policy influence
   d)   Convergence
   e)   Gender and equity
   f)   Watershed and watershed plus SRL initiatives and
   g)   Participatory technology development

The various institutional arrangements are specified to take care of these components at
micro, meso and macro levels.

The solution criteria for watershed is not satellite photos alone but also poverty related
indicators now, they are also taking per capita investment to select. They are now
selecting mandals. Total fifty watersheds will be studied.

7)      Project Title: AP Rural Poverty Reduction Program (APRPRP)
Presenter: S. Galab
Affiliation: CESS, Hyderabad
Email:       galabsp@yahoo.co.in

District poverty initiatives project (DPIP) is the first phase. It was initiated in the context
of declining income poverty and continuing non-income poverty. It is built on SAPAP
(South Asia Poverty Alleviation Programme). DPIP was implemented in 6 districts of
A.P, viz., Anantapur, Chitoor, Adilabad, Mahbubnagar, Srikakulam and Vizianagaram.

AP-RPRP is based on the demonstrated success of AP DPIP in 6 districts and aims to
extend its achievements to the remaining 16 rural districts in the state. The project
development objective is to help enable the poor- with special attention on the poorest of
the poor- to articulate their needs, access and influence the quality services and create
their own opportunities to improve their livelihoods in a sustainable manner. SERP
(Society for eradication of rural poverty) will be the implementing agency. AP-RPRP
will place greater emphasis on ensuring convergence of anti- poverty programmes at the
mandal level and Panchay raj institutions playing a key role in implementations.

Livelihoods framework has (I) assets framework (II) risk context (III) PIP (Policies
institutions and programme) (IV) livelihood strategies and (V) livelihood outcomes. The
social and environmental Assessment (SEA) has been subsumed into a more broadly
contextualised study- the Livelihoods Assessment.

Preliminary analysis of livelihoods assets framework based on baseline survey indicated
that intervention through social capital has led to improvements in other capitals. Formal
institutions are gradually becoming pro-poor. Because of social mobilization, self-
employment and wage employment is increasing. Inspite of the many loopholes, PDS and

DWCRA are helping the poor. Intervention through social capital has contributed to
improvements in human capital, financial capital and to some extent physical capital. But
it has not contributed to natural capital. Analysis of livelihood outcomes reveled that non-
poor are sticking to only agriculture where as poor are diversifying.

7)      Project Title: Livelihood Options Study
Presenter:      Priya Deshingkar
Affiliation:    Oversea Development Institute (ODI)
Email:         livelihoods@eth.net

This three year policy study is funded by DFID and is being conducted by ODI in India,
Nepal and Bangladesh.. In India, three states are covered viz., A.P, M.P and Orissa. The
study aims to understand diversification in rural livelihoods and how policy can support
exits out of poverty.

Four related research questions are addressed in this study
   1) How have rural livelihoods changed and why?
   2) What is the impact of diversification on well being?
   3) What has been the role of the state? And
   4) How poor people are voicing their problems?

Fieldwork in Andhra Pradesh is being conducted in three districts Krishna, Chitoor and
Medak. Fieldwork was started in August 2001 and will be continued up to May 2002.
Preliminary findings are available now at www.livelihoodoptions.info.

Findings to date show that agriculture continues to be the main employer and that
agricultural labour is the main occupation for a majority of men and women.
Diversification into non-farm occupations is occurring and this is higher at either end of
the wealth spectrum both in terms of the number of activities pursued and the share of
non-farm income to total income. The poor tend to switch from one lowly-paid activity
to another and diversification is mainly risk mitigation or coping mechanisms. Whereas
for the rich it is more skilled and profitable. Therefore the income increases associated
with diversification rise as we move up the wealth spectrum.

Caste and access to political patronage are important determinants of diversification and
changes in material well being. The acquisition of skills is definitely important for
diversification but not necessarily formal education.

Seasonal rural-rural as well as rural-urban migration is on the rise. This offers better
incomes for people who are pushed out by drought. But it reduces welfare in other
respects, especially in relation to children‟s schooling.

In relation to government pro-poor programmes, the PDS does reach a vast number of
poor people despite large scale corruption and leakage in the system. In general
corruption is endemic and widespread. It prevents people from getting their due share of
benefits that they are entitled to. In fact a combination of the rural elite and corrupt

officials are preventing poor people from even getting information about their
entitlements. Therefore they may not even know about the existence of schemes let alone
get anything out of them.

CPRs exist mainly on paper in most locations and the poor have been forced off them,
with deleterious consequences to their well-being in the absence of alternatives.

8)      Project Title: Policy Response to Poor
Presenter: M. Gopinath Reddy
Affiliation: CESS, Hyderabad
Email:         mgrjl@yahoo.com

This project is funded by ODI and carried out by the Institute of Development Studies,
Sussex, England with the help of local experts. It is being carried out in A.P and M.P in
India. This study aims to look at the political dimension of development at the interface
of panchayat raj institutions with watershed committees in villages and village tribal
development agencies (VTDAs) in tribal areas.

Gram panchyat bodies democratically elect the watershed committees for planning and
implementation of watershed works. This is not desirable in view of long-term
sustainability. The same is the case with VTDAs in tribal areas. They select community
health workers and exercise control over them.

Because of long-term problems in this type of implementation, M.P government has
integrated watershed committees with panchayat raj institutions therefore; the study of
ground level implementation issues with political dimensions is needed.

9)      Project Title: Strengthening Civil Society
Presenter:     K. S Revathy
Affiliation:    AP Urban Services for the Poor
Email:          mastdcel@hd2.vsnl.net.in
Management advisory support team (MAST) is an agency set up by the DFID and the
Municipal Administration Department, Government of A.P to implement component 3
(c3) of the APUSP. MAST‟s primary focus is on capacity building of the stakeholders at
the user, representative and also at the service provider level set the backdrop against
which the poor people‟s wider, non- infrastructural needs are orchestrated and ultimately
managed by stakeholders. It is being implemented in 32 municipalities in A.P.

Participatory poverty assessment (PPA) is taken up in all the towns of APUSP: Town
level working groups (TLWG) is formed in the towns to organize the civil society with
due support of the local governance and initial direction of civil society organization
(CSOs). TLWG helps identify issues and facilitates preparation of town level framework
plan (TLFP) and assist MAST to support innovative interventions through urban
initiative fund (UIF).

Livelihoods form an important component of this project. Research is not initiated so far
in this regard. Town credit plans for Ramagudam and Kutbullapur are to be prepared on
pilot survey basis, which will start in April 2002.

10)     Project Title: Young Lives: An interventional study of child hood poverty
Presenter:      T. D Jose
Affiliation: Save the Children, U. K
Email:         jose@scindia.org.uk

It is a 15 years longitudinal project, simultaneously carried out in A.P in (India),
Vietnam, Peru and Ethiopia and funded by DFID, UK. The collaboration is among
government, academic institutions like Institute of Development Studies, Sussex, CESS,
Hyderabad, etc.. Save the children, UK will be the NGO involved in it.

The project aims at improving our understanding of the causes and consequences of
childhood poverty in the developing world, and at informing policy to reduce it. The
major objectives of the study are to produce good quality long-term panel data about the
changing nature of the lives of children living in poverty, to trace linkages between key
events and policy changes on the one hand and child welfare on the other and to respond
to the needs of policy makers and planners.

The research will evolve a methodology for monitoring child welfare and includes a
panel survey tracking of children and their families over 15 years at 3-4 years intervals. A
quantitative survey of 2000 one –year old children and their households and a similar
survey of approximately 1000 8 years old children and their households. AP specific
issues of child labour, violence against children, migration and HIV/AIDS will also be
studied. Research will concentrate on survival, development, participation and protection
aspect of children.

The project is now in the initial stages. Action Aid- carried out participatory poverty
assessment of children and report titled „ Voices of children in difficult circumstances‟
was prepared with study in 27 locations of 9 districts in A.P. The issues covered are
children working in hazardous circumstances, affected by globalization, factionalism etc.
Children of traditional sex workers, street children, children in slums, juvenile homes;
children of traditional communities (Tribal Fisherfolk, weavers) and female infanticide
are also studied. Main fieldwork will commence in June 2002 and first AP child
development report will be ready by September 2003.

11)     Project Title: Livelihoods – NRI Projects
Presenter: John Butterworth
Affiliation: Natural Research Institute (NRI)
Email:          j.a.butterworth@gre.ac.uk

NRI has been involved in five livelihoods focused projects. They are:

   a) Water, households and rural livelihoods project with Accion Frainna, Anantapur.
      The focus is on rural water supply, impact of groundwater over exploitation on
      domestic water supply and potential solutions with a watershed management
      framework. It is funded by DFID up to March 2004. Outputs have started flowing
   b) Human and social capital aspects of soil fertility management in India
      collaboration with Deccan Development society. It focuses on the role of fertility
      management in agricultural systems (for farmers) and the livelihoods of poor
      people funded by DFID. Report will be available by end –March 2002.
   c) Common pool resources in semi- arid India –dynamic, management and
      livelihood contributions with CRIDA. It comprises case studies from two states
      (including A.P) covering forests, grazing lands and water resources. It is funded
      by DFID up to September 2002. Report including AP focused review is available.
   d) Household livelihood and coping strategies in semi-arid India with MOS in
      Anantapur. It was completed in 2001. Report was published by SPWD. It consists
      of reviews of A.P and Gujarat.
   e) Decentralized approaches to village food security with CEC and IGMRI. Work is
      on in Medak and Mahabubnagar districts with women‟s sanghas to test grain
      storage bins for sorghum. Funded by DFID up to July 2003 mid- term report will
      soon be available

12)     Project Title: Indo-Swiss Programme on Natural Resource Management
Presenter: Rebecca
Affiliation: Intercooperation (Swiss Organization for Development and Cooperation)
Email: becky@tatanova.com

Here the „rural livelihood system matrix-a tool‟ was introduced. In this matrix,
component of livelihoods are taken in the columns, while the technical, political and
cultural views are taken in the rows policies/ strategies, structure and human resources
are the components of livelihoods. Planning can be done using this test. They studied
using this model taking caste and gender. They found that ST women don‟t have
resources and does not have autonomy. In the cooperatives women are not the members.

In Anantapur they formed sheep and goat rearers associations under MACS. Now they
formed federations. They are also trying to do the same in other districts. They provide
revolving fund to the sheep and goat rearers. Cooperatives in which all communities
including women can join.

13)    SPWD
Presenter: G. Bhaskara Rao
Email: Spwd_hyd@satyam.net.in

Society for Promotion of Waste Lands Development (SPWD) is taking up field based
activities pertaining to rural livelihoods. They are mobilizing social capital and started a
natural resources center in 1991. They have taken up a study on household livelihood and
coping strategies in semi-arid India in collaboration with NRI and funded by DFID.

The meeting closed by everyone stating that they had found the process useful and would
welcome another chance in say six months time to exchange information again. We
thought that we might cast the net a little wider next time to include other projects too
and also to hear from those who could not make it to this meeting.

List of Participants:

Name      of        the         Organization / Address E-mail ID          Title of the
Participants                                                              project
Sarah Montagu        Andhra Pradesh Rural Livelihoods Project (PSU)       APRLP
                      Rajendra Nagar, Hyderabad /
N.L. Narasimha Reddy Andhra Pradesh Rural Livelihoods Project (PSU)       APRLP
                     Rajendra Nagar, Hyderabad /nukanr@rediffmail.com
Stephanie Buechler   International water management institute             Waste Water use
                      / s.buechler@cgiar.org
M.Gopinath Reddy     Center For Economic and Social Studies               Water shed base
                     NO Campus Hyd.-16 /mgrjl@yahoo.com                   livelihood
S.Galab                   Center For Economic and Social Studies          A policy action
                          NO Campus Hyd.-16/ galabsp@yahoo.co.in          research
                                                                          programme in AP
T.D. Jose                 Young Lives Save the children U.K               Young Lives
                          Plot # 8, D.No. 6-3-852/2/b/6 Aparajitha
                           Housing Colony Amreepet, Hyd. –16 /
P. Parthasarathy Rao      ICRISAT, Patancheru P.O. 502324 /               Cup –Livestock
                          p.partha@cgiar.org                              interaction
Sourindra Bhattachary     BASIX Pangajutta Hyd.-82 /                      Livelihood
                          sourindra@basixindia.com                        Options Project
Priya Deshingkar          Plot 49 Kamlapuri colony phaseIII Hyderabad     Livelihood
                          500073/                                         Options Project
                           livelihoods@eth.net, priyadeshingkar@eth.net
S. Mahendra Dev           CESS Director / cesshyd@hd1.vsnl.net.in         -
V.Ratna Reddy             CESS Hyd. /vratnareddy@yahoo.com/               Leeds Project?
                          ctvrr@sify.com                                  -
G.Sathya Narayana         APUSP –MAST 56, Ishaq colony picket             A.P Urban
                          Secendrabad-15 mastdcel@hd2.vsnl.net.in         Services Project

K.S. Revathy              SDO, APUSP-MAST 56,Ishaq colony picket          Working with
                          Secendrabad-15 /mastdcel@hd2.vsnl.net.in        civil societies
K. Raja Reddy             ODI, Hyderabad / rrkalluri@rediffmail.com
M.Sreenivasa Rao.         ODI, Hyderabad molabanti@yahoo.com/             Livelihood
                          msrao70@rediffmail.com                          Options Project
N.Chandra Sekhar          PHD. Student CESS /
Christopher Scott         IWMI (International water Mant-Ingt.) /         Smallholder
                          c.scott@cgiar.org                               Water


B.Renuka             ODI, Hyderabad /                                   Livelihood
                     Renuka2020@rediffmail.com                          Options Project
B.Rama chandrudu     ODI Livelihoods options project, A.P, Hyd.         ODI Livelihoods
                     barigelaram@rediffmail.com/                        Options Project

Jos Mooij            Center For Economic and Social Studies             ODI Livelihoods
                                                                        Options Project
Usha Kulkarni        ODI Livelihood options project /                   ODI Livelihoods
                     ushakulkarni@yahoo.com                             Options Project
G.Bhaskara Rao       SPWD Hyd.-16 /
Bhagirath Behara     CESI, Hyd.-16 /
Arpita joshi         ODI Livelihood options Project AP, Hyd             ODI Livelihoods
                      Ph.No.3555168, 6590339 /                          Options Project

K.Eswarappa          CESS Hyd.-16 /kasieswar@yahoo.com
M. Srinivasa Reddy   RDT Krishna –217 S.K. University,
                     Anantapur / sreenivasdrreddy@rediffmail.com
J. Jairath           Saci Waters, Hyderabad./ saciwaters@rediffmail.com
John Butterworth     NRI, Chathan, Kent, UK. /
Lakshmi Murthy       MANAGE Rajendranagar Hyderabad 5000030             ODI Livelihood
                                                                        Options Project
Henk Op Het Veld     NRMPA 8-2-351/r/8 Road No 3 Banjara Hills          Indo-Swiss
                     Hyderabad 500034 /isnrm@hd2.dot.net.in             Programme on
Rebecca Katticaren   NRMPA 8-2-351/r/8 Road No 3 Banjara Hills          Indo-Swiss
                     Hyderabad 500034 /isnrm@hd2.dot.net.in,            Programme on
                     becky@tatanova.com                                 Natural


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