The French Revolution _PowerPoint_ - The French Revolution by mifei

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									               Do Now: 1.27.04
   Set up Notebook 1/3 2/3 Final Notes of French Rev.
   Notes Title: The Phases of the French Revolution
   Examination on Thursday: the French Revolution and
    Napoleon
The French Revolution; Quiz #2
   Define, Identify or Explain the Following:
   The National Constituent Assembly
   The Great Fear
   The Sans Culottes
   The Jacobins
   The Napoleonic Code
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   Where were we?
   Oh yes, revolution.
   Revolution is Change
   What has happened in France from 1789 to
    1795, before Napoleon “bum rushes” the
    National Directory ?
   Let’s back track…
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    1789 was a big year…
    National Constituent Assembly breaks from
     the Estates general
    The Declaration of the Rights of Man
      Free Speech
      Free Press
      Freedom of Assembly
      Free from unlawful imprisonment
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   By the end of 1789, we have the King and queen virtual
    prisoners in Paris,
   The National Constituent Assembly is making moves,
    trying to establish a Constitutional Monarchy
   The assembly will try and decentralize power and place
    power in local governments.
   This is a great idea, but a real problem to make happen.
    What is next?
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   Big moves in 1790:
   Civil Constitution of the Clergy
     Makes the Catholic Church (clergy) essentially a
      department/employees of the state
     It is a way for the Assembly to get back at the
      church for years of favoritism
     But, it backfires because most Frenchmen are
      believers, and fear this kind of change
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   1790 continued…
   The Assembly breaks up the local provinces,
    and takes further power away from the
    monarchy. Decentralization = Unity?
   A good idea, but it makes collecting taxes even
    more difficult
   No matter what your ideas, if your new
    government has less money, change will be
    harder to implement.
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   1791.We are about two years deep in the
    revolution, and change is still in the air.
    However, this change is not always what you
    think, being good for the “people”
   Chaplier Law is passed by the Assembly
     This forbids any workers unions from forming
     They fear the urban worker organizing
     It shows that even the Revolutionaries are still elitist:
      They do not believe in the “little guy”
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   The Logic of the Chapiler Law was that it would
    encourage the Enlightenment ideals of free
    competition.
   They wanted to avoid any favoritism that had
    been existent in the Ancien Regime
   It does not meet the expectations of the urban
    workers, who perceive this new govt. as their
    possible savior
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   Less than a week after the Chaplier Law is passed,
    Louis XVI and his wife are caught trying to flee the
    country
   That does not reflect a spirit of cooperation from the
    monarch.
   Yet, even at this point, the Assembly is willing to say
    that he was kidnapped, in the hope if securing a true
    constitutional Monarchy.
   It is at this point that his goose is really “cooked”
   It also gives the Assembly a chance to force a
    constitution on the King, and he gladly signs.
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   Constitution of 1791: the King agrees to:
     A limited Monarchy and a Legislative assembly
     All judges are to be elected

   But, notice what happens for voting rights…
     Only those who have paid taxes = to three days pay
      for an average laborer can vote
     Essentially, voting is restricted to the wealthy
     This supports the fact that it is a revolution of the
      rich against the very rich
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 Lets review for a moment about
  the strengths and weaknesses of
  the National Constituent Assembly
 *Used to be the Third Estate
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   Strengths                      Weaknesses
   Declaration of the Rights      No Universal Suffrage
    of Man                          (voting)
   Abolish the Old Regime         Rising Inflation
   Limited Monarchy               Mobs are unchecked
   Decentralizes Power            Slavery not abolished in
   Curbs the Power of the          colonies
    Church
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   Don’t forget that outside of France, there is a
    great deal of pressure from other European
    Monarchs
   Why???
   They do not want the ideas of revolution
    working their way to their areas:
    Austria    Prussia    Russia England
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   Who opposes the revolution – the
    Counterrevolutionaries
   Royal families outside of France; Remember that
    Leopold II of Austria is the Brother of Marie
    Antoinette
   Those monarchists who seek to re-establish the Ancien
    Regime
   Émigrés who have fled but seek support against the
    revolution
   Most other royal families in Europe!
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   This revolution is extremely unpopular, and runs
    counter to the collective belief in Europe that
    Government is to be left to those who are
    qualified to govern.
   Even in the face of Enlightenment thought,
    there is an overwhelming belief that certain
    classes rule, and they are the care takers of the
    other classes.
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   Remember as well that European political, life has not
    stopped, and that around France, there is growing
    hostility to the events of the past few years.
   Austria, Prussia, Russia and Britain are all in various
    stages of aggression against this revolution.
   Further, it seems to be more and more necessary that
    the French will have to take steps to both protect
    themselves and hopefully spread this revolutionary
    vigor.
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   The Girondists, those members of the Jacobins
    who are more conservative, will promote a call
    to arms so that the ideals of Liberty, Equality
    and Fraternity can be spread.
   Ironically, the king is on board for this
    movement.
   Could the war be a galvanizing force to get all of
    France under one banner?
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   Conservative Jacobins          Radical Jacobins (The
    (Girondists)                    Mountain)
   Want to keep a                 Want to establish a
    Monarchy that answers           republic, and that means
    to a Legislative Assembly       the King Must go!
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   The “War of the Peoples” as it is called backfires,
    French forces are pushed back by the Austrians
   This is seen as a defeat for the Girondists, and the
    French people feel that they have been sold out to the
    Monarchies in other lands.
   It begins to encourage a more radical, Jacobin approach
   Apparently, this Constitutional Monarchy is not
    working, and a Republic will become the solution.
   The Legislative assembly will end, and the National
    Convention will replace it.
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   Either way, this means that the Revolution is beginning
    to break apart, and will begin to consume itself.
   By Late 1792, the Constitutional Monarchy is over. The
    Palace is stormed, and Louis and his family are virtual
    prisoners of the Assembly.
   In September, the people take to the streets and
    thousands are killed, many of them priests and
    aristocrats.
   By the 21st of September, the Republic is declared
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   The Assembly is now called the National
    Convention, and their slogan is:
     Liberty
     Equality

     Fraternity

    Yet, when we see the Reign of Terror, we will see the
      same types of repression used under any King
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   Once again, we have a new government that is
    to be the caretaker of France
   They must protect the republic, and take action
    against those who oppose it.
   Hence, shoring up the army, expanding it,
    becomes a primary concern
   With military victories will come further
    legitimacy.
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   A clear action taken by the Convention was the
    willful and violent elimination of those who
    oppose the Revolution
   These become the September Massacres, lead
    by, among others, Maximilien Robespierre.
   Hence we are moving into the violent phase of
    this new republic.

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   The main aims of this new National Convention
    can be narrowed down to four.
    o Defeating the enemies of France
    o Giving the country a Republican Constitution
    o Stabilizing the finances
    o Restoring law and order.
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   Primary among the tasks of the Convention will be the
    trial and execution of King Louis XVI, and his wife,
    Marie Antoinette.
   They have been identified as enemies of the French
    republic
   There can be no monarchy if there is to be a Republic.
   Further, the Jacobins have eliminated the Girondists
    from the Convention.
   Many are tried and killed as traitors to the Revolution.
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   Further, a committee of Public Safety is set up, with
    Robespierre, Dalton and Marat at the helm.
   The Reign of terror became a necessary step in the eyes
    of the Committee Members.
   The issue will become, like the difference between the
    Girondists and the Jacobins, how much will be enough?
   It is at this point that France will be transformed into
    an ideological republic: a “republic of virtue.”
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   The radicals are worried about France being
    invaded by England, among other countries
   They will use that to pass the law called the
    “levee en mass” – which is the first real way to
    draft people into the military
   It gives France a huge Army, and also promotes
    a sense of nationalism
   Their success, both domestically and abroad
    lend credence to the Republic.
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   The Radicals, lead by Maximilien Robespierre,
    set up a committee of public safety, which is to
    protect the people and keep order
   The Committee uses its power to oust the
    Conservatives from the Revolutionary
    government, and it also begins to execute the
    enemies of the Republic.
   This period of time is known as the Reign of
    Terror
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   The Reign of terror lasts from Mid-1793 to mid
    1794
   Louis XVI and Marie Antoinette are its first
    victims
   Both King and Queen are lead to the guillotine
    in November of 1793
   Soon afterward, the Reign of Terror would get
    out of control, and begin turning on itself.
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   Where are we?
   Let’s examine Robespierre’s Republic Of Virtue
   This is, in large part, the De-Christianizing of France
   It will also serve as further ammunition for the
    remaining Royalists and devout Christians to oppose
    the Republic.
   Remember that France has been a devout roman
    Catholic country for centuries.
   These changes will not be taken easily.
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   Changes in the Republic of Virtue
   The names of the months are changed, and the “week
    is made into ten days instead of seven.
   This clearly diminished the importance of Sunday’s as
    the Lord’s day, and imposes reason on faith
    Holy Days, which dominate the calendar, are
    eliminated as well
   Churches, even the great Cathedral “Notre Dame” in
    Paris are renamed Temples of Reason.
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   The revolution begins to “eat its own.”
   Robespierre begins to attack those not true to the
    Republic of Virtue
   At Nantes, hundreds of suspected
    counterrevolutionaries are drowned
   The sans-culottes, previously a source of strength for
    the revolution are now becoming its victims.
   Those opposed to the anti-Christian republic, the
    enrages, are put to death along side of the clergy and
    the aristocracy.
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   By April of 1794, Danton is executed.
   Robespierre is making the ultimate power play by
    eliminating all those opposed to him.
   The Law of 22 Prairial gives the revolutionary
    tribunal, run by Robespierre, essentially unlimited
    power to try and convict suspected enemies of the
    Republic.
   By July of 1794 – Thermidor – Robespierre had
    effectively alienated all other leaders, and was now tried
    and convicted. He attempts suicide before his death,
    shooting himself in the jaw. But, he lives long enough
    to he executed the next day.
The French Revolution
             Do Now: 1.30.03
   Set up Notebook 1/3 2/3
   Hand in Hmwk #3.
   Notes Title: Napoleonic Europe
   Homework #4. Pages 508-520 for Tuesday 1/3
    2/3 notes.
   Quiz #1. Study notes for 5 minutes.
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   They would use the Guillotine (the People’s Axe) as
    their method of execution, and by the end of the Reign
    of terror, roughly 25,000 people would meet their
    deaths.
   Most of those who were killed were poor members of
    the urban working class, victims of the Terror.
   A number of clergy and nobility die as well, but it will
    get so out of hand that Robespierre himself and he will
    be sent to his death after he kills many of his own
    associates.
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   The Reign of Terror ends with the death of
    Robespierre and the backlash of those who had
    been persecuted by the radicals
   These conservatives set up a new government to
    try and maintain order
   The New Government is called the National
    Directory
   It doesn’t have a King, but it is still favorable to
    the wealthy
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   In Africa, there is a gifted general leading France
    against Great Britain
   Napoleon views the chaos in France with great
    interest!
   As much as France does not want another King,
    they do want better control than the Directory
    can give them.
   Napoleon will seek power while “serving” his
    country.
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   With the rise of Napoleon, who will become Emperor
    for life by 1802,we see the “death of the Revolution
    and the beginning of a New phase in French history, as
    well as the history of Europe
   Napoleon will both try and appease the Old nobility
    and also spread the ideals of the Revolution.
    He will try an conquer all of Europe, for himself more
    so than for France.
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   Napoleonic France.
   He takes control of France in a coup de Etat: which
    means literally to seize the state.
   The Directory, which became the government after the
    Reign of Terror called napoleon for help,and he took
    advantage of the situation.
   He will become beloved and popular as he brings
    France into a new age
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   By 1802, Napoleon has himself crowned
    Emperor for life of France.
   He, or any of his family will be assured this title,
    forever!
   If we look at the polices of Napoleon,we can
    see him try and appease the “old guard” of
    France, and also promote the ideals of the
    Revolution.
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   Key moves made by Napoleon:
   Economics: he controlled prices supported new
    industry and financed the building of new roads
    and canals.
   Education: It was Napoleon that began the
    concept of public education in France: taking
    the education monopoly away from the church!
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   He will also establish the Napoleonic Code.
   This was a legal and moral code that he would enforce,
    not just in France but into other sections of Europe as
    he conquered them
   It focused on ideals like religious toleration and legal
    equality
   He also attacked the kind of privilege that allowed
    aristocrats advantages that commoners did not have
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   Napoleon set his sights very high: control of all
    Europe!
   He was successful everywhere except Britain and
    Russia
   He established family members and associates in
    power positions, replacing many monarchs and
    dynasties
   This of course made him very unpopular.
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   What leads to the fall of Napoleon?
   He creates a feeling of nationalism wherever he
    goes…unfortunately, this nationalism is directed
    against him
   Though he was a great general, he makes a
    gigantic mistake by trying to invade Russia in
    1812.
   Problems with the Russian Campaign???
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   He begins the invasion in the Fall…this means that he
    will have to fight during the Russian winter
   The Russian use a scorched earth policy:
       As they retreat, they burn everything: crops and farms
       They draw Napoleon farther and farther into Russia
       As he is drawn farther and farther into Russia,ha and his
        troops arte stretched too thin
       He eventually has to retreat as the Russian sneak attack and
        he is cut off from supplies
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   Napoleon will abdicate his throne in 1814, and is sent
    into exile
   He escapes from exile, and returns to France for his
    100 days…his last attempt at ruling France
   In the mean time, England, Austria, Russian and
    Prussia had allied against him
   He meets his final defeat at the battle of Waterloo in
    1815, and is then banished forever From France
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   How can we look the French Revolution and
    the Napoleonic Age in the Long View?
   Are there lessons that can be learned?
   Effects of the French Revolution…
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   Democratic Ideals:
     Liberty from absolute monarchs
     Social equality and justice

     An end to the system of landed aristocrats having
      advantages over the middle class
     Nationalist sentiment, both ethnic and political rises
      in Europe
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   Conservative Backlash
   The big Four:
     Russia
     Britain
     Prussia
     Austria

   Will have a meeting, the Congress of Vienna.
   The purpose of this congress will be to…
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   Set new political boundaries around France
   Re-establish monarchs where they had been
    deposed by Napoleon
   Try and regain the Old Order, and fight against
    democratic movements
   Make sure that France will not be able to rise
    against Europe in the near future
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   We are left with the struggle between the
    Conservative order of Europe, and the rising
    feelings of nationalism and liberalism.

								
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