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Do Now: 1.27.04 Set up Notebook 1/3 2/3 Final Notes of French Rev. Notes Title: The Phases of the French Revolution Examination on Thursday: the French Revolution and Napoleon The French Revolution; Quiz #2 Define, Identify or Explain the Following: The National Constituent Assembly The Great Fear The Sans Culottes The Jacobins The Napoleonic Code The French Revolution Where were we? Oh yes, revolution. Revolution is Change What has happened in France from 1789 to 1795, before Napoleon “bum rushes” the National Directory ? Let’s back track… The French Revolution 1789 was a big year… National Constituent Assembly breaks from the Estates general The Declaration of the Rights of Man Free Speech Free Press Freedom of Assembly Free from unlawful imprisonment The French Revolution By the end of 1789, we have the King and queen virtual prisoners in Paris, The National Constituent Assembly is making moves, trying to establish a Constitutional Monarchy The assembly will try and decentralize power and place power in local governments. This is a great idea, but a real problem to make happen. What is next? The French Revolution Big moves in 1790: Civil Constitution of the Clergy Makes the Catholic Church (clergy) essentially a department/employees of the state It is a way for the Assembly to get back at the church for years of favoritism But, it backfires because most Frenchmen are believers, and fear this kind of change The French Revolution 1790 continued… The Assembly breaks up the local provinces, and takes further power away from the monarchy. Decentralization = Unity? A good idea, but it makes collecting taxes even more difficult No matter what your ideas, if your new government has less money, change will be harder to implement. The French Revolution 1791.We are about two years deep in the revolution, and change is still in the air. However, this change is not always what you think, being good for the “people” Chaplier Law is passed by the Assembly This forbids any workers unions from forming They fear the urban worker organizing It shows that even the Revolutionaries are still elitist: They do not believe in the “little guy” The French Revolution The Logic of the Chapiler Law was that it would encourage the Enlightenment ideals of free competition. They wanted to avoid any favoritism that had been existent in the Ancien Regime It does not meet the expectations of the urban workers, who perceive this new govt. as their possible savior The French Revolution Less than a week after the Chaplier Law is passed, Louis XVI and his wife are caught trying to flee the country That does not reflect a spirit of cooperation from the monarch. Yet, even at this point, the Assembly is willing to say that he was kidnapped, in the hope if securing a true constitutional Monarchy. It is at this point that his goose is really “cooked” It also gives the Assembly a chance to force a constitution on the King, and he gladly signs. The French Revolution Constitution of 1791: the King agrees to: A limited Monarchy and a Legislative assembly All judges are to be elected But, notice what happens for voting rights… Only those who have paid taxes = to three days pay for an average laborer can vote Essentially, voting is restricted to the wealthy This supports the fact that it is a revolution of the rich against the very rich The French Revolution Lets review for a moment about the strengths and weaknesses of the National Constituent Assembly *Used to be the Third Estate The French Revolution Strengths Weaknesses Declaration of the Rights No Universal Suffrage of Man (voting) Abolish the Old Regime Rising Inflation Limited Monarchy Mobs are unchecked Decentralizes Power Slavery not abolished in Curbs the Power of the colonies Church The French Revolution Don’t forget that outside of France, there is a great deal of pressure from other European Monarchs Why??? They do not want the ideas of revolution working their way to their areas: Austria Prussia Russia England The French Revolution Who opposes the revolution – the Counterrevolutionaries Royal families outside of France; Remember that Leopold II of Austria is the Brother of Marie Antoinette Those monarchists who seek to re-establish the Ancien Regime Émigrés who have fled but seek support against the revolution Most other royal families in Europe! The French Revolution This revolution is extremely unpopular, and runs counter to the collective belief in Europe that Government is to be left to those who are qualified to govern. Even in the face of Enlightenment thought, there is an overwhelming belief that certain classes rule, and they are the care takers of the other classes. French Revolution Remember as well that European political, life has not stopped, and that around France, there is growing hostility to the events of the past few years. Austria, Prussia, Russia and Britain are all in various stages of aggression against this revolution. Further, it seems to be more and more necessary that the French will have to take steps to both protect themselves and hopefully spread this revolutionary vigor. The French Revolution The Girondists, those members of the Jacobins who are more conservative, will promote a call to arms so that the ideals of Liberty, Equality and Fraternity can be spread. Ironically, the king is on board for this movement. Could the war be a galvanizing force to get all of France under one banner? The French Revolution The French Revolution Conservative Jacobins Radical Jacobins (The (Girondists) Mountain) Want to keep a Want to establish a Monarchy that answers republic, and that means to a Legislative Assembly the King Must go! The French Revolution The “War of the Peoples” as it is called backfires, French forces are pushed back by the Austrians This is seen as a defeat for the Girondists, and the French people feel that they have been sold out to the Monarchies in other lands. It begins to encourage a more radical, Jacobin approach Apparently, this Constitutional Monarchy is not working, and a Republic will become the solution. The Legislative assembly will end, and the National Convention will replace it. The French Revolution Either way, this means that the Revolution is beginning to break apart, and will begin to consume itself. By Late 1792, the Constitutional Monarchy is over. The Palace is stormed, and Louis and his family are virtual prisoners of the Assembly. In September, the people take to the streets and thousands are killed, many of them priests and aristocrats. By the 21st of September, the Republic is declared The French Revolution The Assembly is now called the National Convention, and their slogan is: Liberty Equality Fraternity Yet, when we see the Reign of Terror, we will see the same types of repression used under any King The French Revolution Once again, we have a new government that is to be the caretaker of France They must protect the republic, and take action against those who oppose it. Hence, shoring up the army, expanding it, becomes a primary concern With military victories will come further legitimacy. The French Revolution A clear action taken by the Convention was the willful and violent elimination of those who oppose the Revolution These become the September Massacres, lead by, among others, Maximilien Robespierre. Hence we are moving into the violent phase of this new republic. The French Revolution The main aims of this new National Convention can be narrowed down to four. o Defeating the enemies of France o Giving the country a Republican Constitution o Stabilizing the finances o Restoring law and order. The French Revolution Primary among the tasks of the Convention will be the trial and execution of King Louis XVI, and his wife, Marie Antoinette. They have been identified as enemies of the French republic There can be no monarchy if there is to be a Republic. Further, the Jacobins have eliminated the Girondists from the Convention. Many are tried and killed as traitors to the Revolution. The French Revolution Further, a committee of Public Safety is set up, with Robespierre, Dalton and Marat at the helm. The Reign of terror became a necessary step in the eyes of the Committee Members. The issue will become, like the difference between the Girondists and the Jacobins, how much will be enough? It is at this point that France will be transformed into an ideological republic: a “republic of virtue.” The French Revolution The radicals are worried about France being invaded by England, among other countries They will use that to pass the law called the “levee en mass” – which is the first real way to draft people into the military It gives France a huge Army, and also promotes a sense of nationalism Their success, both domestically and abroad lend credence to the Republic. The French Revolution The Radicals, lead by Maximilien Robespierre, set up a committee of public safety, which is to protect the people and keep order The Committee uses its power to oust the Conservatives from the Revolutionary government, and it also begins to execute the enemies of the Republic. This period of time is known as the Reign of Terror The French Revolution The Reign of terror lasts from Mid-1793 to mid 1794 Louis XVI and Marie Antoinette are its first victims Both King and Queen are lead to the guillotine in November of 1793 Soon afterward, the Reign of Terror would get out of control, and begin turning on itself. The French Revolution Where are we? Let’s examine Robespierre’s Republic Of Virtue This is, in large part, the De-Christianizing of France It will also serve as further ammunition for the remaining Royalists and devout Christians to oppose the Republic. Remember that France has been a devout roman Catholic country for centuries. These changes will not be taken easily. The French Revolution Changes in the Republic of Virtue The names of the months are changed, and the “week is made into ten days instead of seven. This clearly diminished the importance of Sunday’s as the Lord’s day, and imposes reason on faith Holy Days, which dominate the calendar, are eliminated as well Churches, even the great Cathedral “Notre Dame” in Paris are renamed Temples of Reason. The French Revolution The revolution begins to “eat its own.” Robespierre begins to attack those not true to the Republic of Virtue At Nantes, hundreds of suspected counterrevolutionaries are drowned The sans-culottes, previously a source of strength for the revolution are now becoming its victims. Those opposed to the anti-Christian republic, the enrages, are put to death along side of the clergy and the aristocracy. The French Revolution By April of 1794, Danton is executed. Robespierre is making the ultimate power play by eliminating all those opposed to him. The Law of 22 Prairial gives the revolutionary tribunal, run by Robespierre, essentially unlimited power to try and convict suspected enemies of the Republic. By July of 1794 – Thermidor – Robespierre had effectively alienated all other leaders, and was now tried and convicted. He attempts suicide before his death, shooting himself in the jaw. But, he lives long enough to he executed the next day. The French Revolution Do Now: 1.30.03 Set up Notebook 1/3 2/3 Hand in Hmwk #3. Notes Title: Napoleonic Europe Homework #4. Pages 508-520 for Tuesday 1/3 2/3 notes. Quiz #1. Study notes for 5 minutes. The French Revolution They would use the Guillotine (the People’s Axe) as their method of execution, and by the end of the Reign of terror, roughly 25,000 people would meet their deaths. Most of those who were killed were poor members of the urban working class, victims of the Terror. A number of clergy and nobility die as well, but it will get so out of hand that Robespierre himself and he will be sent to his death after he kills many of his own associates. The French Revolution The Reign of Terror ends with the death of Robespierre and the backlash of those who had been persecuted by the radicals These conservatives set up a new government to try and maintain order The New Government is called the National Directory It doesn’t have a King, but it is still favorable to the wealthy The French Revolution In Africa, there is a gifted general leading France against Great Britain Napoleon views the chaos in France with great interest! As much as France does not want another King, they do want better control than the Directory can give them. Napoleon will seek power while “serving” his country. The French Revolution With the rise of Napoleon, who will become Emperor for life by 1802,we see the “death of the Revolution and the beginning of a New phase in French history, as well as the history of Europe Napoleon will both try and appease the Old nobility and also spread the ideals of the Revolution. He will try an conquer all of Europe, for himself more so than for France. The French Revolution Napoleonic France. He takes control of France in a coup de Etat: which means literally to seize the state. The Directory, which became the government after the Reign of Terror called napoleon for help,and he took advantage of the situation. He will become beloved and popular as he brings France into a new age The French Revolution By 1802, Napoleon has himself crowned Emperor for life of France. He, or any of his family will be assured this title, forever! If we look at the polices of Napoleon,we can see him try and appease the “old guard” of France, and also promote the ideals of the Revolution. The French Revolution Key moves made by Napoleon: Economics: he controlled prices supported new industry and financed the building of new roads and canals. Education: It was Napoleon that began the concept of public education in France: taking the education monopoly away from the church! The French Revolution He will also establish the Napoleonic Code. This was a legal and moral code that he would enforce, not just in France but into other sections of Europe as he conquered them It focused on ideals like religious toleration and legal equality He also attacked the kind of privilege that allowed aristocrats advantages that commoners did not have The French Revolution Napoleon set his sights very high: control of all Europe! He was successful everywhere except Britain and Russia He established family members and associates in power positions, replacing many monarchs and dynasties This of course made him very unpopular. The French Revolution What leads to the fall of Napoleon? He creates a feeling of nationalism wherever he goes…unfortunately, this nationalism is directed against him Though he was a great general, he makes a gigantic mistake by trying to invade Russia in 1812. Problems with the Russian Campaign??? The French Revolution He begins the invasion in the Fall…this means that he will have to fight during the Russian winter The Russian use a scorched earth policy: As they retreat, they burn everything: crops and farms They draw Napoleon farther and farther into Russia As he is drawn farther and farther into Russia,ha and his troops arte stretched too thin He eventually has to retreat as the Russian sneak attack and he is cut off from supplies The French Revolution Napoleon will abdicate his throne in 1814, and is sent into exile He escapes from exile, and returns to France for his 100 days…his last attempt at ruling France In the mean time, England, Austria, Russian and Prussia had allied against him He meets his final defeat at the battle of Waterloo in 1815, and is then banished forever From France The French Revolution How can we look the French Revolution and the Napoleonic Age in the Long View? Are there lessons that can be learned? Effects of the French Revolution… The French Revolution Democratic Ideals: Liberty from absolute monarchs Social equality and justice An end to the system of landed aristocrats having advantages over the middle class Nationalist sentiment, both ethnic and political rises in Europe The French Revolution Conservative Backlash The big Four: Russia Britain Prussia Austria Will have a meeting, the Congress of Vienna. The purpose of this congress will be to… The French Revolution Set new political boundaries around France Re-establish monarchs where they had been deposed by Napoleon Try and regain the Old Order, and fight against democratic movements Make sure that France will not be able to rise against Europe in the near future The French Revolution We are left with the struggle between the Conservative order of Europe, and the rising feelings of nationalism and liberalism.
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