German public relations Dr Randy Hines Susquehanna University

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					                                    German public relations

                                            Dr Randy Hines
                      Susquehanna University, Pennsylvania, USA

                                                          whose products and services may not be on a
Public relations has a 150-year history in                par with those in Deutschland.
Germany, starting with promotional efforts in                 Trust in their companies remains high for
railroad and industry. The German Council for             Germans, although it has suffered a slight
Public Relations, the country’s major public              decline compared with the previous year,
relations organisation, was founded in 1958 in            according to the 2009 Edelman Trust
Cologne. Its recent survey found lots of                  Barometer (Edelman, 2009), its 10th annual
misunderstanding regarding the role of public             worldwide survey of opinion leaders. It found
relations in German society. More than three              that 73% of Germans trust their companies less
out of four respondents think public relations is         than in 2008, compared with the global average
a form of journalism and about six out of 10              of 62%. Yet, despite the economic crisis in
said public relations and advertising are the             2009, German ‘trust in businesses to do what is
same.                                                     right’ remained relatively steady, dropping
  Formal cultural customs are also followed in            from 35% to 33%, based on the Edelman study.
the public relations workplace. Meetings are              Yet, “trust in government to do what is right”
punctual, last names are used, and office doors           increased in Germany from 27% to 35%.
are usually closed.                                           “The most trusted companies are
                                                          headquartered in Sweden, Germany, and
                 Introduction                             Canada. These three countries have held the
Germany has been known for decades as an                  ‘most trusted spot’ for the past three years of
industrial leader. Its many products have had             Trust Barometer surveys” (Edelman, 2009, p.
sterling reputations throughout Europe and the            8).
world. They have earned a major competitive                   Public relations experts in Germany would
edge in international markets. Munich-based               want to use these findings to help their clients
BMW, for example, is the global sales leader in           and organisations deal with this loss of trust.
the luxury-car market. The largest car                    Information from a CEO or government official
manufacturer in Europe is Volkswagen AG,                  has less credibility than in previous years. It hit
another German company. VW’s Audi AG line                 a low of only 19% in Germany, according to
is the world’s third-largest luxury car maker.            the survey. Globally, outside experts are
    The list, of course, could go on to include           perceived to be the most trusted spokespersons
drug manufacturing (Bayer), electric devices              for a company. An academic or industry expert
(Braun), and earth-moving equipment (Bomag).              was considered extremely or very credible by
Six million people visit Munich for its 16-day            59% of the respondents (Edelman, 2009, p. 13).
annual Oktoberfest, celebrating the country’s
world-famous beer. Germany, a country of 83                   Deutsche Public Relations Gesellschaft
million people, is the largest exporter in the                              (DPRG)
world and has Europe’s largest economy. All of            The German phrase for public relations is
this quality production has created a                     “Öffentlichkeitsarbeit,” which means “public
marketplace in which German companies may                 work” or “working in public with the public
sense that the necessity of public relations and          sphere and for the public sphere” (Verčič,
advertising is not as crucial as it might be for          Ruler, Bütschi, & Flodin, 2001, p. 376). One
other organisations                                       can see the application of that phrase with the
                                                          global definition of public relations that
Hines, R. (2009). German public relations. PRism 6(2):   1
includes in the public interest. The German                   •    Direct communications (meetings,
Council for Public Relations (DPRG) was                            corporate fitness, incentives)
founded on 8 December 1958, in Cologne. It
created an ethics commission in 1988 and                     The PowerPoint contained ‘PR Images in
issued its code in 1991, which is binding on all          Deutschland’ conducted by the University of
members. Similar to other public relations                Leipzig. This undated survey does indicate
bodies,                the             organisation       some misunderstanding about the role of public
(             relations in German society. For the statements,
4?id=140) conducts conferences, workshops,                the general public agreed by the following
contests, and networking opportunities for its            percentages:
membership. Within the past few years it                     • PR is a form of journalism 77%
instituted an optional accrediting exam for its              • Lobbying is a form of PR         66%
members. Almost half of its members are                      • PR and advertising are the same
employed as public relations counsellors.                         59%
Unlike other professional organisations—such                 • PR and propaganda are the same
as the Public Relations Society of America or                     54%
the International Association of Business
Communicators—there are no student campus                    The survey also asked the public about trust
chapters of the DPRG yet to help groom the                in occupations and institutions. The public
next generation of public relations professionals         relations profession was judged below average
(although they can join DPRG). Underfunded                by the respondents. Ranked at the top on the
German universities have been victims of                  one (no trust) to five (high trust) scale is the
protests as proof they too need quality public            federal constitutional court at 4.0. It was the
relations programmes for themselves.                      only one ranked four or higher on the five-point
    “Thousands of less coddled students                   scale. Others above the three-level for trust
    recently staged protests across Germany               were police (3.9), radio (3.7), newspapers (3.6),
    against      their     conditions.    ‘Back           journalists (3.4), television (3.3), army (3.2),
    education, not banks’, demanded                       and Internet (3.1). Below the three-level were
    protesters fed up with overcrowded                    public relations consultants (2.8), church (2.8),
    lecture halls, crumbling campuses,                    trade unions (2.8), advertising experts (2.4),
    tuition fees and a chaotic conversion                 and political parties (2.4).
    from the traditional diploma to a                        Training for public relations employees was
    European two-tier degree system” (The                 typically handled by the DPRG in the 1960s
    Economist. p. 57).                                    and 1970s. Public relations courses were
                                                          offered at several universities starting in the
   An online English-language PowerPoint
                                                          1980s. A training and examination process was
(Luetzler, 2006) from DPRG’s Web site lists
                                                          started in 1991, called Deutsche Akademie für
several activities of its membership. Under
                                                          Public Relations, or German Academy of
instruments of external public relations are:
                                                          Public Relations (Boatner, 2009). Several other
   • Oral communications
                                                          private training institutes provide skills for
   • Direct media relations
                                                          public relations practitioners. No degree,
   • Arranged media relations
                                                          certificate, or specialised training is required to
   • Print media
                                                          enter the profession. Today about 20,000
   • Event management/communications
                                                          individuals work in the public relations
   • Electronic media
                                                          profession throughout the republic. Almost half
   • Political PR
                                                          of them are employed in departments within a
   • Sponsoring
   • Other (product placements, surveys,
                                                             Germany celebrates a national Public
                                                          Relations Day, although the date lately has
   Instruments of internal public relations are:
                                                          varied from May to August. The annual event
   • Media transfer (employee publications,
                                                          started back in 1966.
         intranet, press clippings)

Hines, R. (2009). German public relations. PRism 6(2):   2
   DPRG is synonymous with the voluntary                  anything that might lead the public to wrong
self-regulating German Council for Public                 conclusions and to wrong behavior. I have to be
Relations. Three other organisations involved             honest and truthful.
in its activities are the German Association of               2. With my work I serve my principal or
Political Consultants (DEGEPOL), the Federal              employer. I commit myself to act as responsible
Association of German Press Officers (BdP),               advocate of his interests and to keep him from
and the Association of German public relations            harm.
Agencies (GPRA), which consists of only the                   3. By my work I am involved in the
largest agencies in the country. As is attempted          activities of an organisation. I am faithful to the
in most nations, these organisations self-                targets and the policy of the organisation which
regulate the profession to avoid governmental             I represent, as long as these are in line with the
interference in their affairs.                            dignity of man and his basic rights and the
    All communication is vulnerable to                    resulting laws and rights.
    dishonesty. Should the legislator                         4. If I should work for an organisation
    intervene in such cases? In order to                  which in communicating with the public fails to
    avoid state interference, two institutions            respect the dignity of men and fairness against
    were created in early post-war Germany                other organisations, I will use my best
    to support the voluntary self-regulation              endeavours to encourage them to correct this
    of those working in the communication                 behaviour. If necessary, I will give back the
    sector: the Press Council and the                     assignment.
    Advertising Council. The Public                           5. I will be honest and accurate in all
    Relations Council, the last of the three              communications to the best of my knowledge
    larger institutions and founded as                    and belief. In communicating with journalists
    recently as 1987, deviated from this                  and other bodies assuming public responsibility
    pattern. It was established because of                I will not use any unfair means. I will not
    the notoriously bad reputation of the                 induce them to accept any kind of advantages.
    public relations guild. However, today,                   6. I will respect the independence and
    even the Press Council claims the                     freedom of my interlocutors. Therefore, I will
    protection of the reputation of the press             not apply any instruments of power against
    as an important reason for its existence              them. Above all, I will refrain from any
    (Avenarius. 2008).                                    coercion.
                                                              7. I consider public relations work as a
   The DPRG conducts ethical misconduct
                                                          necessary assignment to create trust, public
hearings quite unlike that of the US Public
                                                          interest and to review one’s own behavior.
Relations Society of America. The latter only
                                                          Therefore, I will not deliberately damage the
deals with its own members and has very little
                                                          reputation of my profession.
enforcement powers other than dismissal from
the organisation. The DPRG, on the other hand,
                                                                     Public relations in practice
can censure not only members, but non-
members as well as individuals not even                   Public relations is not a new development
employed within the public relations                      within Germany, even though most scholars
profession. Rather than holding meetings                  credit the United States with its modern
behind closed doors, it publicly announces and            development. “By 1890, Alfred Krupp’s
publicises its findings (Avenarius, 2007).                company had a ‘news-bureau’ composed of as
   The German Public Relations Council                    many 20 staff members” (The German public
encourages all public relations practitioners to          relations business, 1987, p. 8). US practitioner
adhere to ethical standards. It publishes and             and author Fraser Seitel maintains that the
promotes the seven self-commitments of a                  practice of public relations began in Germany
public relations practitioner (Avenarius, 2008,           much earlier than many thought.
p. 14):                                                      “As in Canada, public relations developed
   1. By my work I serve the public interest. I           more or less simultaneously in Europe and the
am aware of the fact that I am not allowed to do          United States during the 20th century. In

Hines, R. (2009). German public relations. PRism 6(2):   3
Germany, in particular, public relations                       The existence of a ‘PR bunny’
writings appeared in the early 1900s.” (Seitel,                stereotype among female public
2007, p. 31)                                                   relations professionals shows a new
    Wilcox and Cameron (2009) added to this                    devaluation of women’s soft skills by
early history of German public relations in their              women and offers initial confirmation
widely used introductory textbook:                             of Fröhlich’s (2004) model of the
     “Railroads and other large business                       ‘friendliness trap,’ which argues that the
     enterprises began publicity efforts as far                stereotyping of women as ‘natural born
     back as the mid-19th century. Alfred                      communicators’ is being accompanied
     Krupp, who founded the Krupp                              by a recoding process of female
     Company, the premier industrial firm in                   attributes as deficiencies in managerial
     Germany … , wrote in 1866, ‘We think                      tasks, professionalism, and public
     … it is time that authoritative reports                   relations competence and, therefore,
     concerning      factory    matters,     in                fundamentally       threatens    women’s
     accordance with the facts should be                       ability to overcome the glass ceiling
     propagated on a regular basis through                     effect. Interesting enough, this recoding
     newspaper reports which serve an                          process is also applied by women when
     enlightened public’” (p. 43).                             judging other women (p. 247).
    Aspects within German culture of being                    Public relations practitioners have had some
formal and serious also transfer to the                   of their work eased when laws were passed
workplace. Employees are hard-working and                 allowing comparisons between competing
detailed. They prefer to follow agreed-upon               products. Comparative advertising where one
guidelines exactly. Meetings and presentations            item was shown as inferior to another had been
are always punctual, unlike in many other                 illegal. Discounts and longer shopping hours
global offices. There is a long and slow                  have also allowed more promotional work,
decision process that takes place. Information is         especially amongst retailers. One of the recent
not readily shared since most German                      major public relations efforts in Germany, also
companies are compartmentalised. Office doors             echoed in other countries, is encouraging
are usually closed, unlike the practice in the            tourism within Germany by its own citizens.
US. Although Western traditions are slowly                Caused by the economic downturn, local
being adapted in some cases, first names are              holidays within the republic are increasingly
still infrequently used in the office. Co-workers         being promoted as Germans eschew longer,
are addressed formally and with titles. As is             more expensive trips to their normal
true in the US and other countries, women                 destinations, such as southern Europe.
make up a majority of the employees within                    Americans who come to Germany to
public relations. “In Germany, the number of              conduct public relations typically make other
women in public relations is currently at 53%”            mistakes        beyond       just    conversational
(Fröhlich, Peters, & Simmelbauer. 2005, p. 80).           misunderstandings          of     the    language.
    A major study about gender stereotypes in             Introductions are rather formal and titles are
German public relations agencies was                      always important. Other cultural errors made by
conducted by Fröhlich and Peters (2007). The              outsiders are being too informal (calling
authors conducted extensive interviews with 13            everyone by first names), speaking louder than
females experienced in the public relations               necessary, dressing too casually, talking about
field. They determined that the field was                 World War II, and using product names that
becoming much more female-dominated. The                  backfire. Sunbeam’s Mist-Stick was a failure,
researchers developed a new gender stereotype             for example, when the American company
called “the PR bunny.”                                    discovered that mist in German was a word for
                                                          dung. Although Germany places restrictions on
     Our study provides interesting findings
                                                          speech or messages promoting Hitler or Nazis,
     for our understanding of women’s
                                                          it has a casual attitude toward nudity in the
     careers and problems in public relations
                                                          media and advertisements. In a seven-country
     by identifying ‘new’ gender stereotypes.

Hines, R. (2009). German public relations. PRism 6(2):   4
study regarding nudity of female models in                    Q: Do you think the attitude used to be, “If
primetime television commercials, German ads              it’s a quality product, why promote it?”
ranked as having the highest levels of nudity,                A: No! This may only be the attitude of
along with Thailand (Nelson & Hye-Jin, 2008).             family-owned and family-run small specialised
    “In Germany, many business managers are               companies, or those that monopolise their
still convinced that an excellent product sells           markets or market segments. German
itself” (Hinner. 2009, p. 45). Publicity shyness          companies know that it is not enough to be
is still a factor in society. Hinner indicates this       convinced about the first-class technical quality
could be because of the strong regional                   of their products to be successful. Therefore,
differences that contributed to the concept of            the vast majority of German companies do
consensus and parity. Thus, a company might               heavily promote their products, but as
not wish to extol all of its virtues and stand out        mentioned before, they prefer advertising tools.
from the crowd. One example of this is this               Depending on what they produce and sell, they
chapter’s US author’s consultancy with a four-            do TV, print, radio or billboards if they offer
star hotel. It was suggested that a big sign be           consumer products. Manufacturers of technical
erected on the back of a kiosk facing the river           products attend fairs and distribute brochures,
that the hotel fronts. Cruise boat passengers and         or advertise in specialised magazines. Germany
motorists on the other side of the river could            is the export champion of the world. This is
easily see the sign promoting the nearby hotel.           only achievable if you not only have excellent
But the German owner strenuously objected,                products, but also promote your products
saying it would be “tacky” to install such a              aggressively.
sign, especially on a kiosk.                                  Q: Do you think the promotion picture has
    A recently retired marketing and advertising          changed and in what ways?
executive with 30 years of experience in the                  A: Yes, this has changed over the past 30
consumer goods industry agreed to be                      years. But the change is much bigger in
interviewed (anonymously) regarding public                advertising spending than in public relations
relations activities in the republic today (Hines.        efforts. Public relations is even now the
personal e-mails. June 22, 29, & 30, 2009).               stepchild in marketing departments. If public
    Q: May I ask you about the practice of                relations is done, then it is company public
public relations in German companies?                     relations—very rarely product public relations.
    A: First of all, I want to make sure we are           There is one exception: If a company has a
talking about the same thing: public relations as         serious image or product problem (health-
defined as all efforts to let other people—such           related or legal concern), then it discovers the
as journalists and opinion leaders—talk                   value of public relations activities. Over the
positively about your own company or                      years, companies have learned to handle issues
products, and not about paid advertising.                 of this kind actively with the help of public
    Q: Do you think German companies are as               relations tools.
publicity shy as they used to be?                             Q: So that’s when public relations comes
    A: Basically, yes, although there are                 off the shelf to save the CEO’s or the
improvements over the past 20 years. It                   company’s reputation?
depends on the size of the company. Big                       A: You hit the point and made it clear and
corporations are more open to public relations            concise. Exactly. That is the behaviour in
activities as mid-size or even small ones.                Germany. I always appreciate how Americans
Generally speaking, German companies would                can express an issue in one sentence where
rather spend money in product or company                  Germans need a whole paragraph to say the
advertising than in product or company PR.                same.
This may depend on the fact that advertising
effects are better measurable, and that                                          Media
companies have almost always an advertising               Journalists and public relations employees are
department, but not so often somebody who is              more closely aligned in Germany than in many
responsible for PR.                                       other countries, especially the UK. A credible

Hines, R. (2009). German public relations. PRism 6(2):   5
public relations counsellor or firm is viewed as           popular throughout Germany. The weekly
a valuable source of information by members of             magazines hit newsstands on Mondays or
the media.                                                 Thursdays. About 6,000 trade journals and
   The traditional media landscape is changing             consumer magazines are published. The two
as much in Germany as elsewhere. The news                  best known ones are the news weekly Der
wire service German Press Agency (DPA) is                  Spiegel (the mirror) founded originally in 1946,
losing revenue and clients as circulation and              and the illustrated weekly Stern (star), started in
advertising income declines at member                      1948. Major competitors include the monthly
newspapers. The same is true for Agence                    Reader’s Digest (German edition), and
France-Presse and the Associated Press,                    weeklies Bunte (lifestyle) and Focus (news).
according to an article in the news magazine               Started in 1993, Focus was initially criticised
Der Spiegel (Brauck, Hülsen, & Müller, 2009).              for short articles and lots of colour (similar to
   Public relations writers send news releases             the USA Today launch earlier in the US).
to major print media regularly. German                     (Focus magazine also created some publicity
readership rates are amongst the highest in                for itself when it tried to prevent Ford Motor
Western Europe. About three out of four                    Company from introducing its Ford Focus
Germans over age 14 regularly read                         model into Germany. The magazine worried it
newspapers, compared with about half in the                could lose revenue by the confusion. A German
United States. Almost all publications today               court, fortunately, ruled that its citizens would
also have an online edition, thus increasing the           not confuse the two.) Capital is one of many
opportunities for public relations writers to              German         business/financial      magazines.
place content in both print and online versions.           SUPERillu started in 1990 in East Berlin and
The largest quality newspapers are the                     still focuses most content toward the former
Süddeutsche Zeitung and the Frankfurter                    East Germany, where it is the highest-read
Allgemeine Zeitung. Magazines are quite                    magazine.

                  German newsstands are full of options. This section contains just a few of the
                           specialised magazines for law, business, and politics.
                             Photo Courtesy of Hotel Günther. Boppard, Germany.

Hines, R. (2009). German public relations. PRism 6(2):   6
   Journalists adhere to ethical standards and          and worked for several years in
do not expect favours from public relations             Germany.
practitioners. The University of Leipzig-               I say this not out of cynicism for the
sponsored      survey     (mentioned      above)        validity of the results, or a skepticism of
determined that more than three out of four             this as potentially being one of
German respondents considered public                    Germany’s many strengths—I just
relations a form of journalism. The two share           haven’t experienced enough anecdotal
many professional interests, but do follow              examples of where I have seen this first
ethical      guidelines.      Bribing      media        hand to say, ‘Yes, that makes sense,’
representatives for positive portrayal in their         despite lots of exposure to both markets
publications is much rarer in Germany than              (Porter, 2008, n.p.).
elsewhere around the globe. Based on a white           Television is still a major media source for
paper from the Institute for Public Relations, 66   most German citizens, who must pay an annual
countries were ranked on the likelihood that        fee for each television set they own. As in other
journalists would accept gifts or cash in           parts of Europe, German households have
exchange for news coverage:                         access to cable television. In many cases, public
    Bribery of the media, according to the          relations efforts are adopting more of an
    study, is most likely to occur in China,        integrated marketing communications (IMC)
    Saudi Arabia, Vietnam, Bangladesh and           approach. It enables an organisation to work
    Pakistan. By contrast, those countries          cohesively so the identical message is
    with the best ratings for avoiding such         reinforced by various factors within the
    practices are Finland (first place);            company. So advertising, marketing, public
    Denmark,       New       Zealand      and       relations, sales, and IT are all delivering the
    Switzerland (tied for second place).            unified message to persuade targeted audiences.
    Germany, Iceland, and the United                One such IMC campaign was called “Aktion
    Kingdom tied for third place, followed          Meditech,” where more than a dozen German
    by Norway. Austria, Canada, the                 medical technology companies worked together
    Netherlands, Sweden, Belgium, and the           to convince the public, governmental agencies,
    United States had the fifth best rating         physicians, and patients about the value of
    (Kruckeberg, & Tsetsura. Institute for          advanced medical technologies (Schmitt &
    Public Relations White Paper. p. 1).            Beeres, 2006). It used such tools as news
   Germans have had mobile phones (originally       releases, newsletters, brochures, TV and radio
called handies) for quite some time. In fact,       spots, emails, reports, speakers, special events,
there are more mobile phones than people in         interviews, websites, and dinners. It combines
Germany. Consumers buy the latest gadgets,          two-way communication in an advocacy role to
including iPods, BlackBerry phones, and             influence behaviour or attitude change. The
iPhones. However, social media devices (blogs,      authors listed the lessons learned from the IMC
Twitter, YouTube) were slightly slower in           campaign:
catching on. Still, based on a recent survey,          We would like to summarise the lessons we
Germany leads other Western European nations        learned from our PRs, public affairs and
in using social networking tools. Ronna Porter,     political lobbying campaigns. Our key
who works in Germany, wrote that the rate of        learnings are:
adoption is 72% in Germany, compared with              • It takes time to establish our key
59% in the UK.                                      messages and to promote our technologies. We
    While the reasons behind this must              have to realise that public relations campaigns
    remain the subject for some future              are a marathon, not a sprint.
    research, this result will surprise                • Associations,            companies         and
    many—not the least of which is me. I            stakeholders need to join forces!
    have a foot in both camps as a British             • We need stories and tools that
    business communicator having lived              emotionalise.
   • We need more patient stories, pictures,        
films.                                                        German Council for Public Relations.pdf.
   • We need allies in communicating to a                 Boatner, B. (2009). Public relations in
broad public.                                               Germany.      Public    Relations   Student
   To summarise it: Success takes patience and              International Coalition. Retrieved 29 July,
well-informed patients! (p. 208).                           2009,                                  from
   Another successful IMC branding project
was conducted in 2006 by Weihenstephan, a                 Brauck, M., Hülsen, I., & Müller, M.U. The
major     dairy     company      near    Munich             solitary curse: Hard times for a German
(http://www.molkerei-                                       news wire. Der Spiegel, 16 April 2009. F               Edelman, R. (2009). 2009 Edelman trust
& H Porter Novelli, a full-service public                   barometer. New York: Strategy One.
relations firm in Munich, handled the                       Retrieved    30    July,    2009, from
successful multi-faceted campaign. Wanting to     
re-connect with its Bavarian roots, the dairy
developed a hiking guide for that region’s                Fröhlich, R., Peters, S. B., & Simmelbauer, E.
popular sport. The “Weihenstephan Hiking                     M. (2005). Public relations und Fakten Der
Guide” was released along with a famous                      geschlechtsspezifischen Berufsfeldforschung
Bavarian actor providing voiceover for a                     [Public relations: Data and facts from
premier edition of the German hiking audio                   gender-specific      research].   München,
podcast. News releases were sent to various                  Germany: Oldenbourg.
media outlets.                                            Fröhlich, R., & Peters, S. B. (2007). PR bunnies
   The 2006 “Weihenstephan Hiking Guide”                     caught in the agency ghetto? Gender
and podcast were also available from the                     stereotypes, organizational factors, and
dairy’s website. Copies of the guide were                    women’s careers in PR agencies. Journal of
provided to Bavarian tourism offices, hotels                 Public Relations Research, 19(3). pp. 229-
and restaurants. Another aspect of the campaign              254.
was a raffle with more than 500 entries co-
sponsored with a regional daily newspaper. The            The German public relations business has not
winners would receive a hike led by the popular             yet declared itself essential for industry and
Bavarian actor Elmar Wepper.                                it still has to prove itself. (April 1987). PR
   According to one study, almost three out of              World, p. 8.
four Germans used the Internet during 2007,               Hinner, M. B. (2009). Culture’s influence on
more than the European average. But the use of              business as illustrated by German business
the Internet had not impacted traditional media             culture. China Media Research, 5:2. pp. 45-
usage. Most citizens still get brand information            54.
from their televisions (Quoc and Favier, 2008).
                                                          Kruckeberg, D., & Tsetsura, K. (2003).
Much progress in the use of social media will
                                                            International index of bribery for news
be a major agenda item for German public
                                                            coverage. White Paper for the Institute for
relations departments in the future.
                                                            Public Relations.
                  References                              Luetzler, T. (2006). Introduction to the
Avenarius, H. (2007). German experiences with               vocational field ‘public relations’ – as well
  codes and their enforcement. Journal of                   as latest trends in Germany.           DPRG
  Communication Management. 11(2). pp. 99-                  PowerPoint. Retrieved 30 July, 2009, from
Avenarius, H. (2008). The German Council for
  Public Relations: Its structure, its                    Nelson, M., & Hye-Jin, P. (2008). Nudity of
  procedures, its public esteem. Retrieved 24               female and male models in primetime TV
  July,    2009,     from     http://www.drpr-              advertising  across    seven    countries.

Hines, R. (2009). German public relations. PRism 6(2):   8
  International Journal of Advertising, 27(5).
  pp. 715-744.                                                         Author contact details:
Porter, R. (2008). Germany leads European                 Dr Randy Hines, APR, can be reached at
  adoption of social networking, apparently.        His mailing address is
  Retrieved 11 November, 2008, from:                      Susquehanna University, 514 University
  Internet          Branding          Strategy.           Avenue, Selinsgrove PA 17870, USA.
Quoc, K. L., & Favier, J. (2008). The impact of                         Copyright statement:
  the internet on German consumers’ media
                                                          The authors of this article have elected, in
  behaviour. Forrester Research White Paper.
                                                          the interests of open dissemination of scholarly
  Retrieved     9     July,     2008,    from:
                                                          work, to provide this article to you in open
                                                          access      format.     This      means    that,
                                                          in accordance with the principles of
Schmitt, J. M. & Beeres, M. (2006).                       the Budapest Open Access Initiative
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