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NIOSH.


                     ORDERING INFORMATION
To receive documents or other information about occupational safety and
health topics, contact the National Institute for Occupational Safety and
Health (NIOSH) at


                NIOSH—Publications Dissemination

                    4676 Columbia Parkway

                   Cincinnati, OH 45226–1998



         Telephone: 1–800–35–NIOSH (1–800–356–4674)

                      Fax: 513–533–8573

                    E-mail: pubstaft@cdc.gov


          or visit the NIOSH Web site at www.cdc.gov/niosh




              DHHS (NIOSH) Publication Number 2001–156

                                 July 2001
                      Preventing Injuries and Deaths from Falls

                      during Construction and Maintenance of

                            Telecommunication Towers


                                                  WARNING!
                      Workers involved in construction and maintenance of
                     telecommunication towers are at high risk of fatal falls.


WORKERS should take the following steps to                • Ensure that workers use 100% fall protection
protect themselves from falls during tower                 when working on towers at heights above
construction and maintenance:                              25 feet.

  • Use 100% fall protection when working on tow­         • Provide workers with a 100% fall-protection
    ers at heights above 25 feet.                          system compatible with tower components and
                                                           the tasks to be performed.
  • Participate in all training programs offered by
    your employer.                                        • Ensure  that gin poles are installed and used
  • Follow safe work practices identified by worker        according to the specifications of the manufac­
    training programs.                                     turer or a registered professional engineer.

  • Use  OSHA-required personal protective                • Ensure  that tower erectors are adequately
    equipment and make sure you are trained in its         trained in proper climbing techniques, includ­
    proper use.                                            ing sustaining three-point contact.
  • Inspect equipment daily and report any dam­           • Provide workers with OSHA-required personal
    age or deficiencies to your supervisor
                                                           protective equipment and training in its proper
    immediately.
                                                           use.

EMPLOYERS should take the following steps to              • Ensure   that workers inspect their equipment
reduce the risk of worker injuries and deaths from         daily to identify any damage or deficiencies.
falls during tower construction and maintenance:
                                                          • Provide workers with an adequate work-posi­
  • Comply     with OSHA Compliance Directive              tioning device system. Connectors on position­
    2–1.29.                                                ing systems must be compatible with the tower
  • Ensure  that hoisting equipment used to lift           components to which they are attached.
    workers is designed to prevent uncontrolled
    descent and is properly rated for the intended        • Supplement worker training on safe work prac­
    use.                                                   tices with discussions of FACE case reports.

  • Ensure     that hoist operators are properly          • Know and comply with child labor laws that pro­
    trained.                                               hibit hazardous work by workers under age 18.



Please tear out and post. Distribute copies to workers.               See back of sheet to order complete Alert.
For additional information, see NIOSH Alert: Preventing Injuries and Deaths
from Falls during Construction and Maintenance of Telecommunication
Towers [DHHS (NIOSH) Publication No. 2001–156]. Single copies of the Alert
are available free from the following:

                     NIOSH—Publications Dissemination

                         4676 Columbia Parkway

                        Cincinnati, OH 45226–1998


             Telephone: 1–800–35–NIOSH (1–800–356–4674)

                          Fax: 513–533–8573

                        E-mail: pubstaft@cdc.gov


              or visit the NIOSH Web site at www.cdc.gov/niosh



Department of Health and Human Services
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention
National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health
          Preventing Injuries and Deaths from Falls

          during Construction and Maintenance of

                Telecommunication Towers


                                  WARNING!
             Workers involved in construction and maintenance of
            telecommunication towers are at high risk of fatal falls.




The National Institute for Occupational     hold transmitting devices for cellular phones,
Safety and Health (NIOSH) requests as­      personal communication services, and tele­
sistance in preventing deaths and inju­     vision and radio broadcast antennas. The
ries from falls of workers during           Federal Communications Commission (FCC)
construction and maintenance of tele­       estimates that at least 75,000 telecommu­
communication towers. Recent NIOSH          nication towers have been constructed in
fatality investigations suggest that em­    the United States, and industry groups in­
ployers, supervisors, workers, tower        dicate that more than 1,000 telecommuni­
owners, tower manufacturers, and            cation towers are erected each year
wireless service carriers may not rec­      [Chiles 1997]. The Telecommunications Act
ognize or appreciate the serious fall       of 1996 (Public Law 104–104) is expected
hazards associated with tower con­          to promote more tower construction to
struction and maintenance. As a result,     meet the increased demand for wireless
they may not follow safe work practices     communication services [OSHA 1998].
for controlling these hazards. This Alert
describes seven deaths resulting from       Telecommunication towers may be of sev­
falls during construction and mainte­       eral types and range in height from 100 to
nance of telecommunication towers.          2,150 feet or more [OSHA 1998]. Three
The Alert also includes recommenda­         general forms of telecommunication tow­
tions for preventing similar incidents.     ers are
The seven deaths were investigated by
the NIOSH Fatality Assessment and             — monopoles that consist of tapered
Control Evaluation (FACE) Program.              steel tubes that fit over each other to
                                                form a stable pole,
BACKGROUND                                    — guyed towers that are stabilized by
                                                tethered wires, and
The widespread use of wireless communi­
cation services has resulted in the con­      — self-supporting towers that are free­
struction of telecommunication towers to
       standing lattice structures (Figure 1).


                                                                                        1

           Monopole                    Self-Supporting                Guyed




        100–200 feet tall             100–400 feet tall             100–2,150 feet tall



                                    Figure 1. Tower types.


Telecommunication towers are generally               • SIC* 623—Water, sewer, pipeline, and
manufactured as sections and constructed              communications and power line con­
onsite by hoisting each section into place            struction (subcategory—radio trans­
and bolting sections together. Some mod­              mitting tower construction)
els of shorter towers are self-erecting. For
most towers that are constructed onsite,             •	 SIC 1731—Electrical work (subcate­
cranes and gin poles attached to the tower            gory—telecommunications equipment
being erected are generally used to hoist             installation)
each section into place. A gin pole is a de­
                                                     •	 SIC 1791—Structural steel erection
vice unique to the telecommunication tower
industry. The gin pole is used to raise suc­         •	 SIC 1799—Special trade contractors
cessive sections of steel, equipment, or              not elsewhere classified (subcategory—
workers into position. This temporary lift­           antenna installation, except household
ing device uses cables and pulleys to al­             type)
low enough head room to accommodate
the length of the next tower section or
                                                 In addition to telecommunication towers,
equipment being installed (Figure 2).
                                                 transmitting devices for wireless commu­
                                                 nication services are often mounted on the
The exact number of workers involved in
                                                 roof perimeters of buildings, exposing
tower construction and maintenance is un­
                                                 workers to fall hazards. However, the
known. Workers are categorized in a vari­
                                                 mounting and maintenance of these de­
ety of occupational subgroups for which
                                                 vices on buildings require fall protection
employment data are collected. These
                                                 measures that are not addressed in this
groups include communications workers,
                                                 document.
painters, steel erectors, and electrical and
electronic equipment repairers. This type
of work also occurs in several industrial        *
                                                 Standard Industrial Classification (SIC) [OMB
subgroups such as the following:                 1987].



2                                                              Telecommunication Towers
                                                     CURRENT STANDARDS
                        Gin pole head assembly
                        Load line
                        Jump plate               OSHA
                          Hook block
                                                 The Occupational Safety and Health Ad­
             Gin pole    Tower section           ministration (OSHA) safety standard for
        Bridle Choker                            fall protection in the construction industry
                           Tag line              [29 CFR† 1926, Subpart M] excludes steel
                                                 erection activities on nonbuilding struc­
        Jump line          Gin pole              tures such as towers. Subpart R of the
                                                 OSHA fall protection standard in construc­
         Tower                                   tion [29 CFR 1926] has a proposed effec­
                        Basket choker            tive date of September 18, 2001, and does
                                                 not apply to transmission towers, commu­
                                                 nication and broadcast towers, and tanks.


       Figure 2. Gin pole attached to            Compliance Directive
          communication tower.
                                                 To address hazards associated with tele­
                                                 communication tower construction and
                                                 maintenance, OSHA formed a multiagency
FATALITY DATA                                    Tower Task Force in August 1997. The
                                                 Task Force (with representatives from
The Census of Fatal Occupational Injuries        Regional and Federal OSHA offices, the
(CFOI) is a multisource data system main­        Federal Aviation Administration, the U.S.
tained by the Bureau of Labor Statistics to      Army Corps of Engineers, NIOSH, the
identify work-related deaths in the United       U.S. Navy, and others) has worked with
States. A NIOSH review of the CFOI data          the National Association of Tower Erectors
identified 118 deaths associated with work       (NATE) to develop a compliance directive
on telecommunication towers from 1992            to protect workers from hazards in the
through 1998. These deaths included              tower construction industry.
93 falls, 18 telecommunication tower col­
lapses, and 4 electrocutions. However, the
number of deaths identified here should be       The OSHA compliance directive (CPL 2–1.29,
considered a minimum because identifica­         Interim Inspection Procedures During Com­
tion methods are not exact [NIOSH 2000a].        munication Tower Construction Activities)
                                                 became effective January 15, 1999 [OSHA
Estimates vary greatly about the number          1999]. The directive addresses fall protec­
of workers in telecommunication tower con­       tion and safe tower access during con­
struction and maintenance. In 1993, esti­        struction. Specifically, the directive does
mates ranged from 2,300 to 23,000 workers        the following:
in this field [OSHA 1998]. These estimates
suggest fatality rates of 49 to 468 deaths
per 100,000 workers—nearly 10 to
100 times the average rate of 5 deaths           †
                                                  Code of Federal Regulations. See CFR in
per 100,000 workers across all industries.       references.



Telecommunication Towers                                                                   3
    •	 Establishes uniform policies and pro­        — Worker training
     cedures for OSHA compliance officers           — Use of hoisting equipment that has
     when conducting inspections of towers            been approved, certified, and/or in­
     under construction                               spected by a registered profes­
                                                      sional engineer or other designated
    •	 Describes best practices for use by the        professional
     industry
                                                    — Trial lift and proof-testing procedures
    •	 Requires telecommunication tower work­       — Pre-lift meetings
     ers to maintain 100% fall protection
                                                    — Documentation of procedures used
     when working 25 feet or more above
     the ground (this requirement applies to        — Continuous communication between
     workers ascending, descending, or mov­           hoist operator and workers being
     ing from point to point)                         hoisted
                                                    — Consideration of environmental con­
    •	 Specifies procedures and allowable             ditions
     conditions under which workers may
     access the tower by “riding the line” (a       — Specifications and maintenance for
     practice in which workers are directly           hydraulic hoists and gin poles
     lifted up a tower by a hoist line):
                                                 Addendum on the Use of Gin
     — Prohibits riding the line for work at     Poles
       heights less than 200 feet above
       the ground. Requires instead that         The OSHA Tower Task Force may de­
       workers access workstations at            velop an addendum to the OSHA compli­
       these heights using conventional          ance directive (CPL 2.129) or a new
       methods such as climbing with fall        directive specific to the use of gin poles.
       protection or use of a personnel          Such a directive would draw on guidelines
       platform                                  that already exist or are under develop­
                                                 ment [NATE 1998, 1999]. For example,
     — Permits up to two tower erectors at       NATE has developed industry guidelines
       a time to ride the line for work at       for the use of gin poles. In addition, the
       heights more than 200 feet above          Telecommunications Industry Association/
       the ground when (1) towers are            Electronic Industries Association (TIA/EIA)
       erected with gin poles, (2) condi­        is developing a gin pole standard [TIA/EIA
       tions preclude the use of a person­       2001]. OSHA is considering components
       nel platform, and (3) other conven­       from both the NATE gin pole guidelines
       tional methods of climbing using a        and the TIA/EIA standard for use in any fu­
       ladder or other approved climbing         ture compliance directive addressing gin
       devices might create a greater haz­       poles.
       ard from fatigue or repetitive stress
                                                 At a minimum, any future directive on gin
    •	 Specifies minimum requirements for        poles would require that a registered pro­
     allowing workers to be hoisted on the       fessional engineer’s drawing be available
     hoist line, such as the following:          at the site. The drawing must


4                                                            Telecommunication Towers
    — show the gin pole and its track (if any)
      and indicate lifting capacity and the      CASE REPORTS
      manner of attachment to the tower,
                                                 The cases presented here were investi­
                                                 gated by the NIOSH FACE Program. The
    — indicate track attachment to at least      goal of this program is to prevent occupa­
      two places (top and bottom), and           tional fatalities across the Nation by
                                                 (1) identifying and investigating work situa­
    — indicate how high the gin pole can be      tions that involve high risk for worker injury
      raised above its uppermost attach­         and (2) formulating and disseminating pre­
      ment to the tower.                         vention strategies.

In addition, any future directive would
require inspection records, documented
                                                 Case 1
worker training, and an anti-two block device
                                                 On December 3, 1999, the 40-year-old
(a device that prevents contact between the
                                                 owner of a tower-painting company, his
lower load block or hook assembly and the
                                                 16-year-old stepson, and a 19-year-old
gin pole head assembly).
                                                 employee died after falling 1,200 feet to
                                                 the ground. The company had been at the
Fair Labor Standards Act and                     site for 2 weeks repairing the beacon light
Youth Employment                                 at the top of a 1,500-foot radio broadcast
                                                 tower, painting the tower, and installing
The Fair Labor Standards Act (FLSA)              rest platforms. On the day of the incident,
[29 USC‡ 201 et seq.] includes work de­          the owner had planned to work on the
clared hazardous for youth by the Secre­         beacon light at the top of the tower while
tary of Labor. Hazardous Order No. 7             the other two workers continued painting the
Power Driven Hoisting Apparatus Occu­            tower. A 3,000-foot length of ¾-inch nylon
pations prohibits workers under age 18           rope and a 1,000-pound-capacity portable
from work in all occupations involved in the     electric capstan hoist were used to raise
operation of a power-driven hoisting appa­       the workers up the outside of the tower.
ratus, including riding on a manlift. The Act    Three loops were tied into the hoist line ap­
defines the term manlift as “a device in­        proximately 6 feet apart. The workers used
tended for the conveyance of persons             these loops to help them ride the hoist line.
which consists of platforms or brackets          The stepson was first on the line, followed
mounted on, or attached to, an endless           by the 19-year-old, and then the company
belt, cable, chain, or similar method of sus­    owner. Using a length of woven rope, the
pension; such belt, cable, or chain operat­      workers had attached one of the rest plat­
ing in a substantially vertical direction and    forms to the end of the nylon rope 62
being supported by and driven through            inches below the last loop. The company
pulleys, sheaves, or sprockets at the top        owner’s wife was operating the capstan
and bottom.”                                     hoist using a foot pedal located on the
                                                 ground. As the wife was hoisting the work­
                                                 ers up the side of the tower, the hoist line
                                                 began to slip around the capstan. The wife
                                                 was unable to hold the rope and the work­
‡
 United States Code.                             ers fell to the ground. The hoist used in this


Telecommunication Towers                                                                     5
incident was not manufactured or rated for     side D-rings on their body harnesses. The
lifting people. In addition, the load was      terminal devices on the coworker’s lan­
likely to have exceeded the lifting capacity   yards were two large pelican hooks. The
of the hoist [NIOSH 2000b].                    terminal device on one of the victim’s lan­
                                               yards was a large pelican hook, but the
Case 2                                         other lanyard had a smaller snaphook as a
                                               terminal device. The victim began to at­
On December 8, 1998, a 21-year-old male        tach a coaxial phone cable to an antenna
tower erector died after sliding approxi­      arm while the coworker, with his back to
mately 1,000 feet down a supporting guy        the victim, was attaching cable tray com­
wire. The victim and coworkers were at­        ponents to the tower. A short time later, the
taching dampeners to the tower guy             victim fell, unwitnessed, from the tower to
wires when the incident occurred. The          the ground. The coworker stated that two
tower being constructed was a 1,040-foot,      pelican hooks were necessary because
high-definition digital television tower.      the smaller snaphook could not be at­
When the incident occurred, the victim was     tached to the larger tower components
at the 1,000-foot level and was wearing a      [NIOSH 1999].
positioning safety belt with a T-bar at­
tached to the D-rings on his belt. At­         Case 4
tached to one end of the T-bar was an
adjustable-length lanyard with a large         On July 16, 1998, a 23-year-old male tower
hook as its terminal device. Attached to       erector died after falling 200 feet from a
the other end of the lanyard was a large       telecommunication tower while attached
hook. The victim placed the large hook         to an 80-foot section of cable tray. He
over the guy wire but did not attach the ad­   was a member of a nine-man crew erect­
justable lanyard to the tower before sliding   ing a 240-foot, three-sided telecommuni­
out on the guy wire. Although he had one       cation tower. The crew bolted a 140-foot
foot draped over the wire, he could not        section of the tower together on the ground.
keep himself from sliding. The victim slid     Next this section was set in place by a
rapidly down the wire, striking the anchor     crane. The workers then erected the final
point of the guy wire. He was pronounced       100-foot section on the ground, and three
dead at the scene [Missouri FACE 1998].        tower erectors climbed the 140-foot sec­
                                               tion. The final section was set in place by
Case 3                                         the crane, and the workers bolted the two
                                               sections together. The crane then lifted an
On November 13, 1998, a 41-year-old            80-foot section of cable tray to the top of
male tower erector fell 240 feet from a        each side of the tower. As each section
260-foot telecommunication tower while         was lifted into place, an erector began to
attempting to install a new phone service      attach it to the tower using four J bolts
device on the tower. The victim and a          every 10 feet. The victim began working
coworker attached their lanyards to the        down the tower, attaching the cable tray
cable climb positioned on one leg of the       and tightening all bolted connections as he
tower and climbed to the 240-foot level of     descended. After approximately 1 hour,
the tower. The owner and a third tower         the victim was at the 200-foot level of the
erector remained on the ground. Both workers   tower. The victim then repositioned him­
wore two 6-foot lanyards attached to the       self and connected both of his lanyards to


6                                                          Telecommunication Towers
the partially attached cable tray. Shortly        •	 A hoist that is not rated to hoist workers
thereafter, the section of cable tray gave
way, falling to the ground with the victim at­    •	 Truck-crane failure
tached [NIOSH 1998a].
                                                  •	 Inadequate fall protection
Case 5                                            •	 Failure to attach the lanyard to the
                                                    tower
On December 8, 1997, a 32-year-old male
tower erector was working with a crew of          •	 Terminal devices on the lanyard that are
two others on a 160-foot cellular phone             not compatible with tower components
tower. The crew had completed the tower
erection and was in the process of lower­         •	 Attachment of lanyard to unstable tower
ing the gin pole (the lifting device used to        components
hoist tower sections into place) to the
ground. The tower erector had removed             •	 Failure to ride the line under prescribed
two choker cables securing the upper sec­           conditions
tion of the gin pole to the tower and was at­     •	 Inadequate worker training
tempting to ride the hoist cable down to the
two lower chokers. The terminal device on         •	 Potential fatigue and repetitive strain
the victim’s lanyard was a pelican hook
with a 4-inch-wide by 7¼-inch-long interior      Failure by employers, workers, tower own­
opening. The terminal device on the hoist        ers, tower manufacturers, and wireless
cable was a 3-inch clevis. Either the victim     service carriers to address these factors
tried to hook to the cable and missed or the     could result in future fatalities.
larger opening of the pelican hook on his
lanyard slipped off the hoist cable. He fell
130 feet to the ground [NIOSH 1998b].
                                                 RECOMMENDATIONS

                                                 NIOSH recommends that employers and
CONCLUSIONS                                      workers comply with OSHA directives,
                                                 maintain equipment, and take the follow­
These incidents suggest that employers,          ing measures to prevent injuries and
workers, tower owners, tower manufactur­         deaths when constructing or maintaining
ers, and wireless service carriers may not       telecommunication towers.
fully appreciate or recognize the serious
hazards associated with the construction
and maintenance of telecommunication             Employers
towers and the need to follow safe work
procedures that include the use of 100%          Employers should take the following steps
fall protection.                                 to reduce the risk of worker injuries and
                                                 deaths during tower construction and
FACE investigations identified the follow­       maintenance:
ing contributing factors in fatal falls from
telecommunication towers:                         •	 Comply with OSHA Compliance Di­
                                                    rective 2–1.29 Interim Inspection Pro­
  •	 Hoist failure                                  cedures During Communication Tower


Telecommunication Towers                                                                       7
     Construction Activities. OSHA inspec­        •	 Supplement worker training on safe
     tors use these guidelines in tower in­         work practices with discussions of
     spections. Employers should ensure             FACE case reports to help assure that
     that workers follow these guidelines.          workers fully appreciate the serious
                                                    hazards involved with their tasks and
    •	 Ensure that hoisting equipment used          the need for strict safe work practices.
     to lift workers is designed to prevent
     uncontrolled descent and is properly         •	 Know and comply with child labor laws
     rated for the intended use.                    that prohibit hazardous work by work­
                                                    ers under age 18. An example of haz­
    •	 Ensure that hoist operators are prop­        ardous work is any task involving
     erly trained.                                  power-driven hoisting apparatus.

    •	 Ensure that workers use 100% fall pro­    Tower Owners and Manufacturers
     tection when working on towers at
     heights above 25 feet.                      Tower owners should take the following
                                                 steps:
    •	 Provide workers with a 100% fall-
     protection system compatible with            •	 Use contracts requiring that workers
     tower components and the tasks to be           adhere to OSHA-required safety mea­
     performed.                                     sures (including Compliance Directive
                                                    2–1.29) while construction or mainte­
    •	 Ensure that gin poles are installed and      nance is being performed on your
     used according to the specifications of
                                                    towers.
     the manufacturer or a registered pro­
     fessional engineer.
                                                  •	 Require contractors to have a formal
    •	 Ensure that tower erectors are ade­          safety and health program relating to
     quately trained in proper climbing             tower construction and maintenance.
     techniques, including sustaining three-
     point contact.                               •	 Include a provision in your contracts
                                                    for frequent and regular jobsite inspec­
    •	 Provide workers with OSHA-required           tions by a competent person who has
     personal protective equipment and              expertise in tower erection and worker
     training in its proper use.                    fall protection.
    •	 Ensure that workers inspect their
                                                 Both manufacturers and tower owners
     equipment daily to identify any dam­
                                                 should install fall-protection fixtures for
     age or deficiencies.
                                                 workers to use as anchor points on tower
    •	 Provide workers with an adequate          components during fabrication or erection.
     work-positioning device system. Con­
     nectors on positioning systems must be      Workers
     compatible with the tower components
     to which they are attached. (Note that a    Workers should take the following steps to
     work-positioning device system does         protect themselves during tower construc­
     not constitute 100% fall protection.)       tion and maintenance:


8                                                            Telecommunication Towers
  •	 Use 100% fall protection when working      (1–800–356–4674), or visit the NIOSH
    on towers at heights above 25 feet.         Web site at www.cdc.gov/niosh.

  •	 Participate in all training programs of­   We greatly appreciate your help in protect­
    fered by your employer.                     ing the safety and health of U.S. workers.
  •	 Follow safe work practices identified
    by worker training programs.
  •	 Use OSHA-required personal protec­               Kathleen M. Rest, Ph.D., M.P.A.
    tive equipment and make sure you are              Acting Director
    trained in its proper use.                        National Institute for Occupational
                                                       Safety and Health
  •	 Inspect equipment daily and report any           Centers for Disease Control and
    damage or deficiencies to your super­              Prevention
    visor immediately.

                                                REFERENCES
ACKNOWLEDGMENTS
                                                CFR. Code of Federal regulations. Wash­
The principal contributors to this Alert were   ington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Of­
Virgil Casini and Dawn N. Castillo of the       fice, Office of the Federal Register.
NIOSH Division of Safety Research, and
T.J. Lentz of the NIOSH Education and In­       Chiles, JR [1997]. We got us some sky to­
formation Division. Cases presented in this     day, boys. Smithsonian 28:44–52.
Alert were contributed by the NIOSH
FACE Project and by Thomas D. Ray of            Missouri FACE [1998]. Tower construction
the Missouri State-Based FACE Project.          worker dies following 940-foot fall from tele­
Additional reports from FACE investiga­         vision tower. Jefferson City, MO: FACE In­
tions are available at the NIOSH internet       vestigation No. 98MO161.
site: www.cdc.gov/niosh/face/faceweb.html.
                                                NATE [1998]. NATE Gin Pole Procedures.
                                                San Diego, CA: National Association of
Please direct comments, questions, or re­
                                                Tower Erectors. February 6.
quests for additional information to the
following:
                                                NATE [1999]. NATE Large Gin Pole Pro­
                                                cedures. New Orleans, LA: National Asso­
Dr. Nancy A. Stout, Director                    ciation of Tower Erectors. February 19.
Division of Safety Research
National Institute for Occupational Safety      NIOSH [1998a]. Tower erector dies after
and Health                                      falling 200 feet from telecommunication
1095 Willowdale Road                            tower—North Carolina. Morgantown, WV:
Morgantown, West Virginia 26505–2888            U.S. Department of Health and Human
Telephone: 304–285–5894                         Services, Public Health Service, Centers
                                                for Disease Control and Prevention, Na­
For further information about occupational      tional Institute for Occupational Safety and
safety and health topics, call 1–800–35–NIOSH   Health, FACE Report No. 98–20.


Telecommunication Towers                                                                    9
NIOSH [1998b]. Tower erector dies after        National Institute for Occupational Safety
falling 130 feet from hoist cable to ground—   and Health, FACE Report No. 2000–07.
Pennsylvania. Morgantown, WV: U.S. De­
partment of Health and Human Services,         OSHA [1998]. Profile of the wireless tele­
Public Health Service, Centers for Disease     communications industry and the telecom­
Control and Prevention, National Institute     munications tower industry. (Contract
for Occupational Safety and Health, FACE       No. J–9–F–4–0013, Jack Faucett Associ­
Report No. 98–5.                               ates, Bethesda, Maryland.) Washington,
                                               DC: U.S. Department of Labor, Occupa­
NIOSH [1999]. Tower erector dies after         tional Safety and Health Administration.
falling 240 feet from a telecommunications
tower—North Carolina. Morgantown, WV:          OSHA [1999]. CPL 2–1.29 Interim inspec­
U.S. Department of Health and Human            tion procedures during communication
Services, Public Health Service, Centers       tower construction activities. Washington,
for Disease Control and Prevention, Na­        DC: U.S. Department of Labor, Occupa­
tional Institute for Occupational Safety and   tional Safety and Health.
Health, FACE Report No. 99–01.
                                               OMB [1987]. Standard industrial classifi­
NIOSH [2000a]. NIOSH analysis of the           cation manual. Washington, DC: Execu­
Census of Fatal Occupational Injuries.         tive Office of the President, Office of Man­
Morgantown, WV: U.S. Department of Health      agement and Budget.
and Human Services, Public Health Serv­
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10                                                         Telecommunication Towers

								
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