Basic Data Collection on E-Waste Recycling in Yemen

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					           Deutsche Gesellschaft für
           Technische Zusammenarbeit (GTZ) GmbH




Basic Data Collection on
E-Waste Recycling in Yemen




Report




Client:     Deutsche Gesellschaft für Technische Zusammenarbeit (GTZ) GmbH
Elaborated by: Orhan Boran (INFRASTRUKTUR & UMWELT)



Sana’a, May – June 2004
E-Waste Recycling in Yemen
Basic Data




Table of Content


1      Introduction                                                                                                               3

2      E-waste and E-waste Recycling                                                                                              4

3      Socio-economic Aspects                                                                                                     7

4      E-waste in Yemen                                                                                                           9

       4.1       Importer                                                                                                        10

       4.2       Retailer                                                                                                        11

       4.3       User                                                                                                            12

       4.4       Second Hand Dealer, Workshops and Recycler                                                                      14

       4.5       Final Destination of E-Waste                                                                                    18

       4.6       Recycling and Re-use Options for Stored Computers                                                               18

5      Experiences with E-Waste Recycling in South Africa                                                                        21

6      Broom Manufacturing from Plastic Bottles                                                                                  22

7      Other Recycling Options                                                                                                   26

8      Conclusions and Recommendations                                                                                           28

9      References                                                                                                                33

10 Annexes                                                                                                                       34

       10.1 Annex 1                                                                                                              34

       10.2 Annex 2                                                                                                              35

       10.3 Annex 3                                                                                                              37




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1           Introduction

The GTZ sector project “Partnerships for Recycling Management” and the
Yemeni German development cooperation project “Decentralisation of Solid
Waste Management in Yemen” have agreed to investigate possibilities to
cooperate in Yemen.

The aim of the GTZ-sector project “Partnerships for Recycling
Management” is to demonstrate how the informal sector can be integrated
into the tasks of solid waste management and at the same time contribute
to an improvement of the environmental situation.

One instrument is the co-operation of the three sectors, public, private, and
informal sector, to improve and enlarge the recycling activities in order to
reduce waste quantity to be disposed, improve the cleanness of the cities,
protect the environment and human health, and increase the income of
poor people.

In Yemen, until 1999 solid waste management was the responsibility of the
national Ministry of Public Works1 and cleaning services were implemented
by the Ministry branches. Based on Local Authority Law from 2000
responsibilities for public services including SWM then were transferred to
the newly created local authorities. This transition is supported by the
project “Decentralisation of Solid Waste Management”, which is
implemented by Infrastruktur & Umwelt on behalf of the German Technical
Cooperation Agency (GTZ).

E-waste recycling has been chosen as a possible area for co-operation
between a.m. projects. In a first step, in the scope of a short term expert
mission by Mr. Orhan Bülent Boran from IU, basic data on e-waste in
Yemen have been collected to analyse the possibilities for a pilot project in
this field. During the mission

      -     deliveries to the Sana’a landfill have been inspected

      -     recycling companies and workshops for electronic appliances have
            been interviewed

      -     internet and GSM provider have been visited

      -     computer shops and authorised resellers of main computer
            producers were asked for information on the quantity of hardware
            being imported into the country every year.



1 the name of the ministry changed several times in the last few years




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In Addition possibilities of a transfer of experiences and technologies for e-
waste recycling from South Africa to Yemen have been discussed with Ms
June Lombard, a SWM expert from South Africa.

Furthermore, other recycling options have been investigated in the Sana’a
area. One option was the manufacturing of brooms from plastic bottles, a
technology currently applied in Brazil. For this purpose, a sample of brooms
has been manufactured and tested.


2           E-waste and E-waste Recycling

E-waste is a collective name for discarded electronic devices that enter the
waste stream from various sources.

In the EU-directive on waste electrical and electronic equipment, electrical
and electronic equipment is defined as “equipment which is dependent on
electric currents or electromagnetic fields in order to work properly falling
under the categories set out in Annex IA of the directive”. The ten
categories are small and large household appliances, IT and
telecommunication equipment, consumer and lighting equipment, electrical
and electronic tools, toys and sport equipment, medical devices, monitoring
and control instruments, and automatic devisers.

The rapid development of new technologies is increasing the e-waste
problem all over the world. The life span of electronic devices is decreasing
annually. The US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) estimates the life
span of consumer electronics as shown in the following figure.


           16

           14                                                                                               Max

           12                                                                                               Min

           10
    Year




            8

            6

            4

            2

            0
                      TVs              VCRs              Audio         Computers           Monitors           Cell
                                                                                                             Phones


Figure 1                 Life span of consumer electronics (EPA)


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While TVs have the biggest life span, mobile phones are outdated most
rapidly. The second rapidly scrapped devices are computers and its
hardware. However, the life span of computers is decreasing permanently
due to the rapid development of new technologies. Thus, the life span of a
computer decreased to only two years. On the other side, the number of
processors brought into market is increasing very fast. At the same time
reuse of computers, cell phones etc. in industrial countries are not very
popular. The following table shows the processor types of Intel and number
of used transistors from 1971 to date. The increasing number of transistors
indicates better performance,

Table 1             Date of market introduction of processors and number of
                    used transistors
Year                    1971                1974                  1976                1982                  1986                 1989
Type                    4004                8080                  8086                80286                 386DX                486
Transistor              2,300               6,000                 29,000              134,000               275,000              1.2
                                                                                                                                 million
Year                    1993                1995                  1997                1999                  2000                 2003
Type                    Pentium             Pentium               Pentium             Pentium               Pentium              Pentium
                                            Pro                   II                  III                   IV                   M
Transistor              3.1                 5.5                   7.5                 9.5                   42 million           77 million
                        million             million               million             million

The next processors of Intel are 125-million transistor desktop processors
and 144-million transistor laptop processors. With this rapid development of
CPU technology, software is developed which needs more hardware
performance and this coerces the users into replacing of their computers
even more often. If the electronics that have a circuit board are processed
or disposed inattentive, they will be very hazardous for the human health
and environment. The Basel Convention from 1992 defines the e-waste as
hazardous waste because of content of the electronic parts, which contains
copper, zinc, and lead.

E-waste recycling takes place in several countries of the world. While the
recycling technologies in developing countries, like in China, India, and
Pakistan are very simple and dangerous for the workers and environment,
in industrialised countries, environmental soundly technologies have
already been developed and implemented. According to different sources,
up to 95% of a computer can be recycled. Development of computers today
includes that its components are easy to separate and to recycle. But
meantime, the first generation’s computer still cause a heavy environmental
damage as a proper disposal or recycling is not yet established for the
major part. In the following figure, a recycling strategy is shown. Different to
many other products computers and mobile phones are thrown away since
they are outdated and not because they are not functioning any more. The
re-use of these devices therefore should be considered within a recycling
concept anyway.


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                              E-Waste

         Obsolete                                 Outdated


                                         Yes
           Repair


          No                                       Upgrade



        Recycling                                   Re-use

    Disassembling

      Parts Recovery

          Materials
          Recovery

       Desoldering
        Shredding
        Smelting
           etc.




      Secondary Raw
         Materials
                                                   Disposal

Figure 2            Recycling Strategy for E-waste

The outdated but functioning computers can be upgraded with better
components like hard disk, memory, video card, etc.

Non reparable computers should be at first disassembled to check the
functionality of the components. Working components can be used for the
upgrading of outdated computers. The recycling process consists of
desoldering, shredding, smelting, and other appropriate processes. While
the recycled components can be used as secondary raw materials, the rest
will be treated or disposed. The precious and base metals, which can be
regained from the recycling of computer parts, are gold, silver, lead,
copper, iron, and other nonferrous metals. Plastics from the cases of
hardware can be fed to the plastic recycling. The most problematic issue is
the recycling of cathode ray tubes (CRTs) in monitors and TVs since the
leaded glass, a hazardous material, needs to be processed differently.


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3           Socio-economic Aspects

Before presenting the findings of the study, some statistical data are given
in order to understand the socio-economic framework in Yemen. Most of
the data have been quoted from the statistical yearbook 2000.

• Yemen is one of the poorest countries of the world with a GDP rate of
around 800 USD per capita and year. On the list of GDP per capita, Yemen
has been ranged as the 209th country from 225 countries listed in total
(nationmaster.com).

• The average monthly income of a family is around 220 USD per month,
whereas the average household size is 7.4.

• Around 74% of the total population of 18,261,000 lives in rural areas. And
one third of the urban population lives in the capitol city Sana’a.

• Around 50% of the population with an age of 10 years and older (70% of
women and 40% of men) are illiterate.

• Around half of the students of the seven governmental universities are
studying in Sana’a

• Even establishments with 10 or more workers are considered as large
industrial establishments. The number of industrial establishments is shown
in the following table:

Table 2                  Number of Industrial Establishments in 2000 in Yemen
 Size of the establishment                                                                       Number
 Large Industrial Establishments (10 workers & more)                                             383
 Medium Industrial Establishments (5-9 workers)                                                  1,304
 Small Industrial Establishments (1-4 workers)                                                   32,285

• The sources of lighting by dwellings are classified as following.

Table 3 Source of Lighting by Dwellings, 1998
                                                            Total                      Rural                 Urban
 Public Net                                                 30.47%                     13.21%                88.16%
 Co-operative Net                                           3.75%                      4.15%                 2.45%
 Private Net                                                4.99%                      6.04%                 1.45%
 Family-own Generator                                       2.08%                      2.62%                 0.27%
 Kerosene                                                   47.42%                     59.61%                6.68%
 Gas Lamp                                                   11.03%                     14.14%                0.64%
 Other                                                      0.23%                      0.21%                 0.29%
 Not Stated                                                 0.03%                      0.02%                 0.06%
 Total                                                      2,209,096                  1,700,196             508,900


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According to the table, in 1998 only around 40% of dwellings and 6.5
million people respectively had access to electricity. These figures show
that the use of electrical appliances is limited due to the availability of
electricity and mainly electricity is provided in urban areas.

• The number of working telephone lines was 346,709, of which one third is
in Sana’a. The total capacity of telephone stations was 460,736.

• The number of subscribers of various communication means has
developed as following.

Table 4 Number of Subscribers of Various Communication Means
                                                              1997               1998                   1999                     2000
Conventional telephone network                                36,231             40,227                 45,307                   50,091
Mobile telephone                                              9,480              16,146                 27,947                   32,042
Internet                                                      869                2,144                  3,862                    6,090
Telex                                                         535                428                    421                      372
Pager                                                         20,000             35,000                 42,000                   62,400

More than half of the above listed users of each device lived in Sana’a in
2000.

All these information show that the electrical and electronic devices are
mainly used in big cities, particularly in Sana’a. Poverty, availability of
electricity and in addition literacy are limiting factors for the purchase and
use of electrical and electronic devices.




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4           E-waste in Yemen

In order to describe the material flow of e-waste, a set of institutions,
computer shops, internet cafes, authorised resellers of international
computer producers, Sana’a landfill site, etc. were visited during the expert
mission in Sana’a. The material stream of electronic devices is shown in
the following chart:

                                                                  Importer



                                                            Retailer / Shops




                                                                                                         Governmental
                   Households                                Private Sector
                                                                                                            Sector




            Second hand dealer                                  Workshops                                    Recyclers




                                         Exporter                                     Final Disposal


Figure 3            Material flow of e-waste in Yemen

This figure shows the main material flow. The actual interrelations are more
complicated than shown in the figure. For example, private users can get
used computers from governmental offices due to private relationships or
from workshops, which sell refurbished second hand computers. Or some
companies can sell their obsolete computers directly to the scrap dealers.



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4.1         Importer


From the entire world, electrical and electronic devices are imported into
Yemen. Almost all international producers of electrical and electronic
devices, like Acer, Compaq, Dell, Epson, HP, IBM, LG, etc. are
represented. In addition to authorised resellers of these producers, a
considerable amount of electronic devices is imported from Dubai by small
traders.

General data on the number of computers coming into the country through
customs and going out of use by big users have been gathered by the
National Information Centre (NIC) for the years 2001 to 2003 (see Figure
4). The imports by small shops by land are not included in these numbers.


    45000
    40000
    35000
    30000
    25000
    20000
    15000
    10000
     5000
        0
                               2001                                 2002                                 2003

                                       Number of computers came into the country
                                       Number of computers went out of use



Figure 4            Number of computers imported to Yemen and going out of
                    use [NIC, 2004]

According to NIC, around 25 companies in the whole country were
engaged in information technologies business in the last year. 14 of theses
companies are located in Sana’a. The list of companies is given in Annex 1.

Other importers of computers are the small computer shops, which sell
assembled computers. These shops are mainly located on Mogadishu
Street and purchase the components from traders in Sana’a or directly in
Dubai.

In addition to importing new devices, second hand products are also
imported mainly from United Arabic Emirates and Saudi Arabia.



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Approximately 50 shops import used electronic devices, like desktops and
laptop computers, fax machines, photocopiers, and mobile phones.

The information and communication technology market in Dubai is
attractive not only for Yemeni purchasers but also in the region. Dubai has
a well-organised chain of retailers and wholesalers, a well-developed
stocking and warehousing facilities. Due to low import duties and direct
supplies from manufacturers, the prices for electronic devices are
considerably lower than in other regional markets. In addition, the importers
from Yemen pay low import duties too, if they do not smuggle.

Two of the ten companies, classified as large industrial establishments in
the Yemen statistical yearbook 2000 were active in the field of
manufacturing electrical equipment and apparatus. However, during the
stay in Sana’a, no information could be gathered on these companies.

4.2         Retailers


For appliances, there are countless retailers with different sizes distributed
all over Sana’a. While the shops for household appliances are mainly
located around Tahrier Square, the centre of computer hardware shops is
the Mogadishu Street.

Household appliances are supplied from importers in Sana’a. In addition to
products of all international producers, products of small producers from
Far East are also offered in these shops. The diversity of products should
be stated here. In one shop, fridges from more than 10 different producers
could be observed.

Some of the shop owners in Mogadishu Street bring the products in small
quantities directly from Dubai. Since they pay little customs duty or
smuggle, their prices are lower than the prices of authorised importers.

Neither the shops for household appliances nor the computer shops take
back the end-of-live products from consumers. In Sana’a, only the Al-
Ahmar Group, authorised reseller of Hewlett Packard, takes the obsolete
computers back. However, this action has been initiated by the HP head
office, while the collected computers are no subject to any further use so
far. If the governmental offices, big companies and donor organisations
have a call for tender, in the HP offer a take back of old computers is
included. The operations manager of the company, Mr Cherian John
pointed out that the storehouse of the company is full with old computers
and peripheries and that they do not know what to do with them. In spite of
repeated appointments for a meeting, the expert, however, was not allowed
to visit the storehouse.




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4.3         User


The National Information Centre (NIC) estimated the number of personal
computers in Yemen around 140,000 in 2002; only 10,000 of them were
used in households. The current distribution of computers has been
investigated by NIC, the data from 2001 are given in the next figure. The
main users of computers were in the bank sector in 2001. In 2003,
however, government offices purchased about 15,000 computers.
Therefore the governmental sector today is much more important than
shown in the figure.



                                    Industrial
                                  sector, 4.95%                        Governmental
                                                                       sector, 5.13%
                        Agricultural
                       sector, 2.93%
                                                                                                  Education
                                                                                                sector, 14.15%




                                                                                                  Health sector,
                                                                                                     3.33%

                          Bank sector,
                            38.34%




Figure 5            Distribution of computers according to sectors in 2001
                    [NIC, 2004]

In the following figure the total investment for information technologies in
the public and private sectors are given for the years from 1999 to 2001. In
this time, the investments doubled and reached 2.14% of total investments.




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             70,000,000

             60,000,000
                                                                                                         63,136,000
             50,000,000

             40,000,000
     [USD]




                                                                     38,117,000
             30,000,000
                                     30,445,000
             20,000,000

             10,000,000

                          0
                                          1999                            2000                           2001                [Year]


Figure 6            Total investments for information technologies in the
                    public and private sector [NIC, 2004]

In Yemen, there are several donor organisations, which use a considerable
number of computers in numerous projects. For example, GTZ currently
has about 20 projects in Yemen and if it is assumed that there are at least
10 computers in each project, GTZ is using around 200 computers.

In Yemen, there are two internet providers, Teleyemen and Yemennet.
While the first provider Teleyemen, founded in 1996, has only 12,000
subscribers, the other company, Yemennet, providing internet services only
for the last 3 years, has 35,000 subscribers. The higher growth rates for
Yemennet are due to the lower unit prices (in the ratio of 6 to 1).
Interviewed responsible persons from Yemennet stated that the number of
subscribers doubles every year. If the estimated 17,000 internet users in
2002 are considered, this statement should be accurate. The General
Manager of the Yemennet Internet Department, Mr Amer M. Haza’a
estimated the number of internet cafes in Sana’a about 400 and thus the
total number of internet users around 200,000. If the average number of
computers in internet cafes is 15, about 6,000 computers are used in
internet cafes in Sana’a.

Yemen has two GSM providers, Sabafon and Spacetel. Spacetel provides
mobile phone services since 2001 and they currently have around 350,000
subscribers. The other provider, Sabafon has more than 500,000
subscribers. If the mobile phones without a GSM contract are considered
too, the number of mobile phones can be estimated around one million.
According to the statistical yearbook of 2000, the number of mobile phone
subscribers was 32,042 in 2000 and around 17,821 of them lived in Sana’a.




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The most widespread electronic appliance in Yemeni households is
television. The number of TVs was about 470,000 in 1997. The current
number, however, should be much higher, since to the TV has an important
role for Yemeni families at least in urban areas. On the second hand
market, black and white TVs are still sold.

As an indicator for the consumer purchasing power, the prices for main
electrical and electronic appliances have been surveyed in Sana’a. In the
following table, ranges of prices for some new appliances are given:

Table 5             Range of prices for some appliances
 Appliance                                                   Range of prices [Euro]
 TV                                                          71 – 408
 Fridge                                                      183 – 541
 Washing machine                                             113 – 167
 Gas cooker with oven                                        from 295

Prices given above are average market prices. They are actually not limited
upward, since every kind of product, which is available in Europe or
anywhere in the world, can be imported to Yemen depending on demand.
However, if the average monthly income of a family, approx. 180 €, is
considered; only a small part of the population can afford even the
appliances with prices listed above.

4.4         Second Hand Dealer, Workshops and Recycler


Since the purchasing power of the population in Yemen is very limited, the
second hand dealers and workshops play an important role concerning
electrical and electronic appliances.

During the stay in Sana’a, every interviewed person pointed out that the
obsolete electrical and electronic devices are never thrown into the
garbage. The owners always think if a new appliance is broken, the old one
can be used instead or the parts can be used as spare part to repair the
new appliance. Therefore, the electrical and electronic appliances have a
high value in Yemen even if they are obsolete or outdated.

If the appliances are not stored at households, they are sold to the second
hand dealers, mainly in Haraq area, or to the workshops. The workshops
for computers and other electronic devices are mainly located on the 26th
September Street near Tahrier Square. There are about 25 small
workshops, which buy obsolete computers from dealer’s workshops and
use the spare parts for the repair of other computers. In addition, obsolete
appliances are sold to these shops by individuals too.




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Figure 7            Computer components in a workshop on the 26th
                    September Street

The big dealers of household appliances and computer hardware mostly
have their own workshops to supply repair and maintenance services within
the warranty time of products. Since the international producers of
computers and hardware do not take back the end-of-live devices, they are
stored for a certain time and the components are used as spare parts. If
there is not enough space in the storehouse, they are sold to the smaller
private workshops or to second hand dealers. The broken cases from
computers and hardware are sometimes thrown away.

In the market in Haraq, every kind of used goods can be found. These
goods are brought to the shops by owners or picked up by shop owners at
the households. While the owners of shops for household appliances have
small workshops, where they can refurbish the purchased goods, the
shops, which sell components from electronic devices, do not have
workshops. In one shop, the owner has bought a set of computers and
monitors from a language school, since the price seemed to be low (around
76 Euro, Figure 8). However, he did not know what to do with the
equipment and he had no idea if it still was functioning.




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Figure 8            Obsolete computers and monitors in a shop in Haraq

In addition to small shops, the appliances and their components are also
sold on the street. As an example, the circuit board on Figure 9 only costs
100 YER (0.45 Euro). Several parts of this board are desoldered and re-
used for the repair of other appliances.




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Figure 9            Selling of components from electronic devices in Haraq

Another location for the selling of second hand hardware is the Mogadishu
Street. Since the shops there sell components and assembled computers,
they have the possibility to repair and upgrade the computers and other
peripheral devices.

In addition to repairing and reselling of electrical and electronic appliances
within the country, a considerable amount of used electronic devices also is
imported from Dubai. One of these importers is the Ozone Trading
Company, which imports used as well as new desktop and laptop
computers from Dubai. They also offer training courses for computer
applications. Last year, they imported around 100 laptop and 100 desktop
computers. During the visit, they had a laptop for sale, which had a Pentium
II processor with 266 MHz, 4 GB hard disk and 64 MB memory. The battery
of the laptop was broken and it could only be used with adapter. The price
of the laptop was 230 Euro, which is a high amount if the properties of the
laptop are considered. The Marketing Manager of the Company, Mr Al-
Sanhani, pointed out that around 50 shops and persons import used
electronic devices from Dubai to Sana’a.

Many government offices have a maintenance office for computers and
other peripheral devices. Obsolete devices are mostly stored in the
storehouses and the components are used to repair newer devices. Since
these devices are fixture, they are not re-sold, thrown away or donated.


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4.5         Final Destination of E-Waste


During the stay in Sana’a, the landfill site has been visited three times and
the waste pickers and waste collection workers as well as responsible
persons on the landfill site were interviewed. The general information was
that no or only a very small amount of e-waste is delivered to the landfill.
Waste collection workers sometimes find small appliances like small TVs or
radios, and the cases from devices. However if they find something, this is
sold to the second hand shops, particularly in Haraq. If something is
overlooked by waste collection workers, this is most likely found by waste
pickers on the landfill. During the visual inspections of the landfill, only a
broken iron could be observed in the waste deliveries. Even this small
appliance caused an argument between waste pickers for the owner of the
finding.

According to National Information Centre (NIC), around 22,000 computers
went out of use in Yemen in the past three years. This figure is based on
information from governmental offices, computer dealers, and big
companies. Since no e-waste is delivered to the landfill, the final destination
of these computers is unknown. The responsible persons in the visited
governmental offices pointed out the storing of e-waste in own storehouses.
However, no storehouse could be visited to define quantity and quality of
stored e-waste.

The operation manager of the Information Technology Division of Al-Ahmar
Group, Mr Cherian John pointed out that the storehouse of the company is
full with old computers and peripheries returned from owners when buying
new computers.

The final destination of the appliances from households are the workshops
and second hand shops as described in the previous chapter. The
appliances are re-used until they are beyond repair, and then only the
cases or cabinets are thrown away. The cathode ray tubes (CRTs) from
TVs and monitors cannot be used again too, if they are broken. After the
dismantling of appliances, the circuit boards and other electronic
components are sold to the workshops for using as spare parts. The metal
cases of fridges and washing machines are sold to the scrap metal dealers,
who transport them to seaports, like Al-Hodeidah for exporting.

4.6         Recycling and Re-use Options for Stored Computers


There is no legislation concerning e-waste in Yemen. Governmental offices
actually are not allowed to dispose or re-sell the obsolete computers and
peripheral devices from their fixture. However, other solutions have to be
established, because sooner or later the old equipment can not be stored
any longer. Regulations should be implemented to assure that computers


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from government offices are passed on for re-use and recycling once they
are replaced.

In a first step, the usability of computers, monitors and their components
should be checked. The repairable parts should be repaired and re-used for
example in schools or NGOs.

Considering an estimated number of 22,000 computers, which went out of
use during the last 3 years (most of which currently are stored) and an
average weight of 27 kg for a computer with monitor, the current potential
for computer waste is 600,000 kg/a. According to information in the
literature, around 42% of this amount can be recycled2. The share of
recycled materials which could be gained from this amount of computer
waste is shown in the following table.

Table 6                Total amount of recyclable materials from computer
                    recycling
                                            Recycling                Total                                         Unit            Total
 Name                    Content            Efficiency               weight            Recyclable                 costs          revenues
                       [weight-%]                  [%]                  [kg]                  [kg]                [€/kg]           [€]
 iron                   20.4712%                       80%            121,599                  97,279                      0.2     16,213
 aluminium 14.1723%                                    80%              84,183                 67,347                      1.3     84,183
 copper                   6.9287%                      90%              41,156                 37,041                      1.8     64,821
 plastics               22.9907%                       20%            136,565                  27,313                   0.02             455
 zinc                     2.2046%                      60%              13,095                   7,857                     0.8      6,548
 tin                      1.0078%                      70%                5,986                  4,190                     6.4     26,889
 nickel                   0.8503%                      80%                5,051                  4,041                     7.6     30,641
 lead                     6.2988%                        5%             37,415                   1,871                     0.6      1,044
 silver                   0.0189%                      98%                    112                    110                  167      18,337
 cobalt                   0.0157%                      85%                      93                     79               11.7             925
 gold                     0.0016%                      99%                      10                       9          10,000         94,090
 ruthenium                0.0016%                      80%                      10                       8            1,750        13,306
 selenium                 0.0016%                      70%                      10                       7              45.8             305
 indium                   0.0016%                      60%                      10                       6                458       2,614
 palladium                0.0003%                      95%                        2                      2            6,667        11,286
 Total                                                                                       247,159                              371,657




2 The actual percentage which can be recycled is depending on the technology used and can reach up
     to 95 %



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For the calculation of revenues, the international prices are used which
might be different in the Yemeni market. However it has to be considered,
that at the moment these 22,000 computers are spread in numerous
different places and that even with paying for the return of the old
computers only a certain percentage of this number can be collected.

Taking into consideration the fairly small amount of obsolete computers, a
cost intensive investment would not be financially feasible in Yemen. While
the variable costs are not very high because of low salaries, high
investment costs could not be covered with the revenues to be expected. In
addition to the respective legal frame for the return and recycling of
computers, a payment is needed, to motivate computer owners to give their
old computers to the recycling company. Otherwise, nobody would give
them back, especially because even old computers are considered to be a
potential value. These costs have to be added to the costs of recycling as
well. An initial solution would be the manual dismantling of hardware and
selling the parts first in the second hand market in Yemen and then as
secondary raw materials in international market. For the further processing
of the material, the possibilities in South Africa can also be investigated.




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5           Experiences with E-Waste Recycling in South Africa


In February 2004, the Swiss Federal Laboratories for Materials Testing and
Research (EMPA) started the project “Knowledge Partnerships with
Developing and Transition Countries in e-Waste Recycling” with Swiss and
local partners from three regions. Lombard de Mattos & Associates
(LdeMA) from South Africa, and the Swiss Centre for Development
Cooperation in Technology and Management Consulting (SKAT) are the
partners in South Africa. The main objective of the EMPA project is the
publishing of an e-waste guide and providing of an interactive Website,
which should establish a knowledge base on e-waste recycling in
developing and transition countries. For this purpose, in three selected
regions, namely Johannesburg-South Africa, New Delhi-India, and Beijing-
China, feasibility studies have been implemented. One region will be
selected to implement an improved e-waste recycling system. The Case
Study for the South Africa report is scheduled for the beginning of June
2004.

E-Waste recycling has a relatively long history in South Africa. Currently
around 30% of e-waste is recycled by the formal and informal sector. The
rest is disposed off in hazardous waste or sanitary landfills. The biggest e-
waste recycling company, Desco Electronic Recyclers, has been founded
in 1992 and it processes about 400 tonnes printed circuit boards (PCBs)
and 2000 tonnes general electronic scrap per annum. In South Africa, e-
waste from neighbouring African countries as well as from United States
and Europe is processed. The processed materials are shipped to Europe
and Far East. There is no market for CRTs and plastic shells.

In addition to recycling activities in South Africa, there are also private
companies and non-profit organisations, which refurbish second-hand
computers. One of them is the private company FreeCom located in Cape
Town. The company purchases second-hand computers from USA and
Europe and has a capacity of 200 computers per month. Another one,
NetDay is a non-profit organisation and refurbishes computers for schools
donated by local governments and companies.

As the information above shows the use of information and communication
technologies and consequently respective recycling activities in South
Africa have another dimension than in Yemen. The following statistical data
point up the differences:




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Table 7             Comparison of some statistical data from South Africa and
                    Yemen [nationmaster.com]
                                        South Africa                                    Yemen
 Population                             42,768,678 (2003 est.)                          19,349,881 (2003 est.)
 GDP per capita                         10,000 USD                                      800 USD
 (2003)
 GDP total (2003)                       427.7 billion USD                               15.07 billion USD
 Electricity                            4236.74 kWh                                     144.70 kWh
 consumption per
 capita (2003)
 Internet users                         3,068,000 (2002)                                48,000 (2004)
 Personal computer                      67.8                                            1.8
 per 1000 people
 (2000)
 Illiteracy rate                        13.6%                                           49.8%

During the workshop held in Gauteng on 24.02.2004, the current number of
computers in South Africa was estimated 12.5 to 15 millions, from which
3.5 to 5 millions should be personal computer.


6           Broom Manufacturing from Plastic Bottles


In respect of poverty abatement and creating new jobs in the field of solid
waste management, alternative project approaches have been investigated
in addition to data collection on e-waste recycling. One of the options for
this purpose was the manufacturing of brooms from plastic bottles.

This idea comes from Brazil and has already been implemented there. A
photo3 brochure showing the process of broom manufacturing in Brazil was
prepared at the IU home office. This brochure was presented to all
interviewed persons in Sana’a and all of them were very impressed by the
idea. While in Brazil brooms were made out of 1.5-l-bottles, most soft drink
and water PET bottles in Yemen are 0.5 l. Therefore, the production of
brooms was not simple. At first, not enough big 1.5-l -bottles could be found
neither in the city nor on the landfill or at the sorting plant. The street
sweepers, who have been asked to supply bottles, could not deliver any,
although they were promised a day’s wage. Then, the waste pickers on the
landfill site and the workers at the sorting plant were asked for appropriate
bottles. The waste pickers collect and market small bottles, however, do not



3 Photos provided by Anna Lúcia Florisbela dos Santos, consultant on waste management, economic
     and social issues.



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collect the large bottles, since there is no demand for them so far. They
estimated the share of bigger bottles with only a few percent. Finally,
enough plastic bottles for the production of 5-6 brooms only could be found
at the sorting plant.

From small bottles, no test brooms have been produced, since the quality
of these brooms was not expected to be suitable because of their
corrugated shape. Another reason are the various shapes of the small
bottles.




Figure 10 Collected plastic bottles at the sorting plant near Sana’a
          landfill

The brooms were produced by a picture framer in the city centre of Sana’a.
The samples were given to the street sweepers; hotel staff, SWMP office
and Al-Khoolud Women’s Social Charitable Association (see Figure 11).




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Figure 11 Street sweeper using the broom made from plastic bottles

The quality of the brooms has been negatively affected by two main factors.
First, the bottles were cut manually with a pair of scissors, since there was
no cutting machine like the one being used in Brazil. The bristles therefore
became relatively thick, so that the sweeping of small parts and dust was
not possible. The other factor was the material of the used bottles. Since it
was very hard, the bristles broke after a short time.

Because of these reasons, the test brooms could not be used for a long
time. All test persons said that the brooms are not practical particularly for
street sweeping, although they considered the idea as brilliant. Thus, the
General Manager of the Al-Khoolud Women’s Social Charitable
Association, Ms Amria Abdallah Taizi, said that they would be pleased to
produce the brooms if the quality proves to be sufficient. This association
was founded in 1997 and now about 30 women participate in different
activities:

      -     Training women and girls in sewing and tailoring

      -     Training in embroidery and handicrafts
      -     Literacy classes

      -     Domestic and family economy

      -     Health and environmental awareness raising, etc


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Ms Taizi pointed out that they have enough place in their premises and the
production of brooms would give the opportunity to women to have a
permanent job. She stated that they would like to test the brooms from
Brazil first, before beginning with the production. However, the brooms from
Brazil possibly may have another quality depending on the material of the
bottles. Therefore testing of brooms produced with local materials is
necessary.

In Sana’a, there is only one factory, Al-Rawhani Marble & Granite Factory,
which produces push brooms with raw material from Saudi Arabia. The
General Manager of the factory, Mr Hezam Kassem Al-Rawhani, said that
they pay for one kg raw material between 0.33 to 0.42 € and one broom
cost in total around 0.84 €. These push brooms are sold in Sana’a city for
1.14 €. The price of small brooms was around 0.68 €.

The recyclers pay for one kg plastic bottles around 0.11 €. One scrap
dealer mentioned that an Egyptian Company is going to start very soon and
that this company has promised to pay 0.14 € for one kg of plastic bottles.
Since the bottles for manufacturing brooms should be clean and smooth, it
is assumed that they will cost 0.18 €/kg. Based on this information, the cost
of the manufacturing of one broom from plastic bottles is roughly estimated
as following:

Table 8             Rough cost calculation for plastic broom manufacturing
Item                                                                               Unit
Price of plastic bottles                                                            €/kg                                   0.18
Number of brooms from one kg bottle                                                   No                                         3
Price of broomsticks                                                            €/pcs.                                     0.18
Labour cost                                                                  €/month                                     54.55
Capacity of one labour                                                 Pcs./month                                           500
Quantity of bottles                                                          Kg/year                                   10,000
Needed labours                                                                        No                                         5
Investment                                                                               €                             5,0004
Payback per broom with 3 years life                                                      €
                                                                                                                           0.06
time
Subtotal                                                                     €/broom                                       0.41
Overheads 20%                                                                €/broom                                       0.08
Total                                                                       €/broom                                        0.49




4 Investment cost only considers the fabrication of a cutting machine. The costs for studies and
  investigations are not included.



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Considering the fact that these brooms would have a lower quality
compared to fabricated brooms, it is assumed that they can be sold for 40%
below market prices. In that case, the brooms might be sold with approx.
28% profit (0.2 €/broom). This, however, requires to achieve a much better
quality than the samples, which have been produced during the mission.

In Sana’a, there are around 3,000 street sweepers. Assuming that one
street sweeper needs one broom per month, the total need for brooms in
Sana’a Municipality would be 36,000 brooms per year. With one cutting
machine operated at full capacity, approx. 30,000 brooms can be produced
with 5 workers in one year. If these brooms can be sold to the municipality
for the demand of street sweepers, the total profit would amount 5,800
€.per year.


7           Other Recycling Options


During the data collection in Sana’a, other recycling options apart from e-
waste recycling and broom manufacturing have been also investigated.
Recycling activities in Yemen have been investigated within the solid waste
management project several times. In fact, there are efforts to recycle all
kind of recyclable materials, in spite of several problems regarding
recycling. The main problem is the absence of industry, which could
process collected materials. For that reason, most of the collected
recyclables are shipped, particularly to the Far East. One interviewed scrap
dealer estimated that around 70% of collected metals are exported.
Another one pointed out that he does not sell scrap metals to the trader any
more, since there is rumour that the government plans recycling plants and
all recyclables have to be processed in Yemen. However, in the SWMP
office, there was no information on such plans of the government. The
export of recyclables acquires another problem, namely only the materials
are collected for which transportation on long distances is economically
feasible.

The current frame conditions for recycling in Yemen are:

                 All recycling activities are implemented by private companies and
                 the informal sector

                 Recycling activities are not subsidized or supported by
                 government authorities

                 There is no separate collection of recyclables in any city in
                 Yemen

                 Legislation on recycling mostly does not exist (there is a bylaw
                 concerning plastic bags, which, however, has not been enforced,
                 and even has been declared void by the high court)


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For many years now, recycling is a topic on the government level. There
are very great expectations regarding the future potential of recycling and in
most of the big cities there are plans to install recycling facilities. Recycling
and composting activities also have been supported by several donors (e.g.
the composting project in Dhamar, manufacturing of glass ware in
Hodeidah), so far, however, with very limited success. Currently even the
big cities in Yemen still have difficulties to finance regular waste collection
and waste usually is disposed by open dumping without additional costs.
Therefore it can not be expected that communities will spent money on
recycling and frame conditions probably will not change in the near future.

Concerning plastic foils, the biggest visual SWM problem in Yemen, there
is enough material to recycle and technologies are available; however,
recycling of plastic bags is not cost-covering and therefore needs subsidy.
Possibilities to promote the recycling of plastic materials in Yemen have
been investigated in 2002 by Dr. Vest (a report on the mission is available
in the SWMP). Recycling concepts presented in this study have not been
implemented, mainly because financial sustainability could not be assured.

In this framework, no complicated recycling activities can be undertaken in
Yemen.

In Sana’a currently in cooperation with private companies a separate door
to door collection of recyclables is planned in certain areas. Separate
collection could be an interesting option for a lot of recyclables but also for
special wastes like used oil from workshops. Other possible measures
could include be installation of collection points for recyclables in locations
where recycling so far does not take place at all. Furthermore the transport
of materials to seaports could be optimised by using shredders and
presses, according to market demand.




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8           Conclusions and Recommendations

Conclusions of the expert’s mission are:

      -     Due to the high poverty rate, limited access to electricity, illiteracy
            and other factors the amount of electronic devices sold in Yemen is
            comparably low. Use of computers is limited to offices in bigger
            cities and internet cafés.

      -     Only a very small amount of e-waste is disposed on the landfill. This
            part mostly consists of non-recyclable materials, like small
            appliances, CRTs, cabinets of TVs. If the waste collection workers
            or waste pickers on the landfill site find some electronic devices in
            the waste, they sell them to the second hand dealer.

      -     E-waste recycling does not take place. The precious metal content
            of computer hardware is not known by people who deal with e-
            waste. The re-using of components is more valuable than the using
            of precious metals as secondary raw materials.

      -     The obsolete electrical and electronic devices are repaired until they
            get totally broken. After that, the components, also every small part
            on a printed circuit board are used for the repair of other devices.
            Computers older than 10 years are still in use and sold in second
            hand market. Thus, the life span of computer is between 8 to 10
            years.

      -     The share of refurbished and into the market restored computer
            hardware is not very high. Most of the outdated computers are kept
            in storehouses of ministries, companies, importers, and workshops.
            The exact quantity is not known, whereas according to NIC, around
            22,000 computers went out of use in the past three years.

      -     Obsolete electrical end electronic devices are not taken back,
            except for one company; authorised reseller of Hewlett Packard, Al-
            Ahmar Company. This company takes back outdated computers
            from big buyers of new computers. The returned computers are
            stored instead of being recycled.

      -     The market for information and communication technologies is
            growing very fast. The number of internet services subscribers
            doubles every year. The number of mobile phone users has
            increased from 32,000 in 2000 to 850,000 in 2004.

      -     The South African socio-economic framework is different from
            Yemen. The using rate of electronic devices in South Africa is much
            higher than in Yemen and thus the quantity of e-waste is much
            higher. In consequence of this, a good functioning e-waste recycling
            system has been implemented a long time ago.


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      -     The test brooms could not be manufactured similar to the brooms in
            Brazil, because of absence of a cutting machine and suitable plastic
            bottles. Therefore, the quality was very low and they could not be
            used as usual brooms.

      -     In spite of the low quality of test brooms, the idea itself was
            considered to be feasible. The Al-Khoolud Women’s Social
            Charitable Association agreed to produce brooms in their premises
            if further tests approve the suitability of the brooms.

      -     Many different recyclable materials are collected in Yemen. While a
            big part of collected material is shipped to Far East, a small part is
            processed in the country. Since there is no strongly developed
            industry, it is difficult to find a market for recycled materials.
            Recycling activities are not supported by the government and thus
            only recycling activities are implemented which are cost covering.

      -     One topic regarding SWM in Yemen is the scattering of plastic
            bags. These bags, although only a small percentage of the total
            amount of domestic waste, lie (and fly) around in any Yemeni
            settlement. Recycling could be a solution for this problem, if a
            sufficient price is paid for the collected bags. This, however, needs
            to be subsidized, and in spite of ongoing discussion no solution has
            been found so far regarding the funding for plastic bag recycling.

Recommendations on e-waste recycling

Currently disposal of e-waste is very limited. Most appliances which are
replaced are reused elsewhere or stored. Considering a steadily growing
amount of imported electronic devices, these solutions are not sustainable.
In the future

      -     legislation on e-waste

      -     separate collection and recycling of e-waste

are the most important key aspects to avoid negative impact from e-waste
disposal.

Concerning the necessary legislation on e-waste, the Yemeni government
currently is not very eager to draft new bylaws. Bylaws are urgently needed
in several SWM related areas and e-waste here at the moment is not a
priority.

For the implementation of recycling measures, the quantity of e-waste is a
very important aspect. As calculated in the previous chapters e-waste
recycling in Yemen without external subsidy currently does not seem to be
feasible due to small amounts and missing local markets. Potential sources
to support the establishment of e-waste recycling in Yemen could be the


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government authorities or international producers. E-waste in Yemen
currently is not a priority and it is not very likely that the government is
willing to finance activities in this area. There, however, might be a chance,
that international companies, especially those, that have included the
principles of sustainability into their company policies, will support the
issue.

Most interesting in this context is the Hewlett Packard company. HP
already gave orders to the local distributor in Sana’a to take back the old
computers. Currently, however, these computers are kept in the storehouse
without any plans for further use. It is therefore suggested to discuss
possibilities for cooperation regarding e-waste recycling in Yemen with the
responsible persons at the HP headquarters. Hewlett Packard is involved in
e-waste recycling projects in several countries worldwide and has recycled
around 226 millions tonnes of computer and printer hardware in the last 16
years. HP has set a target to double this amount until 2007.

A pilot project on e-waste recycling in Yemen without any additional
financial support currently does not seem to be promising. If however this
support can be secured, a stepwise implementation of e-waste recycling is
suggested.

The first step would be to collect a sufficient number of computers.
Government offices are among the biggest owners of obsolete computer
hardware. Authorities should be obliged to pass on computers which can
not be used any longer to organisations responsible to organize the reuse
and recycling of computers. Regulations concerning e-waste should be
included into the currently drafted SWM bylaw.

The collected computers then, first of all, might be refurbished as soon as
possible before they are disposed off in a landfill. The refurbished
computers can be donated to schools or other education institutes. After
the manual separation of all reusable components, the computers beyond
the repair can be shipped to countries with existing e-waste recycling
facilities. In this context, international agreements concerning waste and
hazardous waste trading should be considered. Due to manual processing
of computers, additional sources of income can be created and workers
can be qualified. In this first step the application of high technology
equipment would not be possible anyway, because of financial aspects.

This project can be implemented with the participation of non-governmental
organisations and peoples currently working in the informal sector. An
example for such a project is the “School Net Africa”, a non-governmental
organisation active in 31 African countries. The organisation, founded in
2001 aims to increase access to information communication technologies in
African schools. For this aim, outdated computers are refurbished and
donated to the schools. The experiences from this project might be applied
in Yemen. Furthermore, cooperation with private companies or distributors
of international producers should be considered.

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The recruitment of personnel would not be difficult, since in the several
workshops, the refurbishing takes already place. Particularly, the people on
the 26th Street work part time in the workshops, since they have other jobs
in the morning. It would be possible to employ them in a pilot project, if a
well-paid permanent job can be offered.

It is most likely that, considering the growing number of electronic
appliances imported to Yemen, sooner or later private companies will
recognize e-waste recycling as a new field for business. However, an e-
waste recycling approach supported by big producers like HP and donor
agencies like GTZ will assure, that environmental aspects will be
considered in a very early stage before routines with severe negative
impacts have been established.

Other recycling activities

As a result of the mission it is not really clear, if there is a potential for
producing and marketing of brooms manufactured from plastic bottles in
Yemen.

      -     large bottles (of sufficient size to produce larger brooms) are not
            very common

      -     samples produced could only be used for a short time because the
            single strands broke very fast.

      -     new brooms are very cheap

Before final implementation of the proposal further investigations on the
suitability of these brooms are necessary. For this purpose a special cutting
machine, based on experiences in Brazil should be constructed, and in the
scope of a pilot phase brooms should be produced, tested and market in
cooperation with a local NGO. Costs for this pilot measure are calculated in
the following table.




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Table 9             Cost for a pilot phase on plastic broom manufacturing5

                            Item / Activity                                                 Calculated Cost

 Local production of a cutting machine                                                               5,000 €

 Support of the local NGO
       international expert                         0.5 months                                       9,000 €
       local expert                                 1 month                                          2,000 €

 Testing, optimisation and distribution of                                                           4,000 €
 experiences (flyers etc.)

 Total                                                                                              20,000 €

If, during the pilot phase, the suitability and marketability of the brooms can
be proved, experiences can be distributed nationwide and even in other
Arab countries.

Another option that could be discussed with the Deputy Mayor of Sana’a
and the owner of the biggest recycling company in Sana’a is a separate
door to door collection of recyclables in certain areas of the city. Sana’a
Municipality is aiming at an improvement of the recycling quota. As one
option, recyclables could be collected by the informal sector whereas the
public sector is preparing, organising and supervising the collection and the
private sector is buying the materials. However, until now, this option has
not been discussed with the potential project partners. Furthermore in an
initial step the financial feasibility has to be approved.

Other possible activities like the recycling of plastic bags require a
permanent additional financial support and therefore at the moment should
not be further investigated.




5 For the calculation of production costs and expected revenues see Table 8.




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9           References


African Education Knowledge Warehouse, http://www.schoolnetafrica.net

Electronic Waste Guide, http://www.ewaste.ch

Exporting Harm, High-Tech Trashing of Asia, The Basel Action Network (BAN),
Silicon Valley Toxics Coalition (SVTC), February 2002. Available at:
http://www.ban.org

Freecom Group (Pty) Ltd, http://www.freecomgroup.com

Goldmasters Precious Metals, http://www.goldmasters.net

London Metal Exchange, The World Centre for Non-Ferrous Metal Trading,
http://www.lme.co.uk

Mission Findings Summary: 1st Mission to South Africa / Gauteng Province, SECO
Project "Knowledge Partnerships with Developing and Transition Countries in E-
Waste Recycling" / Sub-Project "Capacity Building", February 2004.

NetDay, Promoting Free and Open Source Software in Education,
http://netday.objectis.net/

Poison PCs and Toxic TVs, Silicon Valley Toxics Coalition, Californians Against
Waste and Materials for the Future, June 2001. Available at:
http://www.svtc.org/cleancc/pubs/poisonpc.htm

Recycler’s World, http://www.recycle.net

Sources on Waste Recycling Activities, Prepared by Fahmi Radman, Solid Waste
Management Project Yemen, January 2001.

Summary Report of Consultancy Mission to the Yemeni-German Solid Waste
Management Project, Dr. Heino Vest on Behalf of Infrastruktur & Umwelt, August-
September 2002.

Statistical Yearbook 2000, Ministry of Planning and Development Central Statistical
Organisation, Republic of Yemen, Sana'a 2001.




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10          Annexes


10.1        Annex 1


Table 9             List of the companies, which have activities in field of
                    information technologies according to governorates
                                                                                     Single           Main              Secondary
Governorate                                                                                                                          Total
                                                                                     Activity         Activity          Activity
                         World Central for Computer – Sales
                                                                                           1                0                    0      1
                         Section
                         Brothers World Trading & Industry                                 0                1                    0      1
                         Al-Khirbash IBM                                                   0                1                    0      1
                         Kat Computer Graphics                                             0                1                    0      1
                         Al-Khirbash Arabian Centre                                        1                0                    0      1
                         National Communication & Centre                                   1                0                    0      1
Sana’a                   H&B (GIS)                                                         0                0                    1      1
                         Net Technology                                                    1                0                    0      1
                         World & Trade                                                     0                1                    0      1
                         Al-Basha Computer                                                 1                0                    0      1
                         Yemen Soft                                                        1                0                    0      1
                         Computer & Search Centre                                          1                0                    0      1
                         Libraries Basic Systems                                           1                0                    0      1
                         Yemen Computer Co. Ltd.                                           1                0                    0      1
                         Sana’a Total                                                      9                4                    1     14
                         Future Net Company                                                0                1                    0      1
Aden                     Shmamakh for Systems and
                         Computers                                                         1                0                    0      1
                         Aden Total                                                        1                1                    0      2
                         Starnet for Computer Sciences                                     1                0                    0      1
Taiz                     National Company for Trade
                         (NETCO)                                                           0                0                    1      1
                         Taiz Total                                                        1                0                    1      2
                         Arabian Centre for Computer
Al-Hodeidah
                         Centre                                                            0                0                    1      1
                         B.C. Soft                                                         1                0                    0      1

                         Al-Ataas Centre for Computer                                      1                0                    0      1

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                                                                                     Single           Main              Secondary
Governorate                                                                                                                          Total
                                                                                     Activity         Activity          Activity
                         Sciences
                         Bajarsh Computer Centre                                           1                0                    0      1
                         Al-Hodeidah Total                                                 3                0                    1      4
Ibb                      Al-Raid Computer Sciences Centre                                  0                1                    0      1
                         Ibb Total                                                         0                1                    0      1
                         Future for Language and Computer                                  0                0                    1      1
Dhamar                   Specialist in Computer and
                         Language                                                          0                0                    1      1
                         Dhamar Total                                                      0                0                    2      2
                         Grand Total                                                      14                6                    5     25




10.2        Annex 2


Table 10            Statistical data on information and communication technologies
                    in Yemen (NIC, 2004)
Nr      Description                                                        Quantity              Remark
1       Number of personal computer in
                                                                           140,000               Up to mid 2002
        Yemen
2       Approximately number of computers at
                                                                           10,000                Up to end of 2001
        households
3       Number of personal computer per
                                                                           0.64                  Ditto
        1,000 inhabitants
4       Number of telephone lines per 1,000
                                                                           22.4                  Ditto
        inhabitants
5       Number of mobile phone lines per
                                                                           1.25                  Up to mid 2002
        1,000 inhabitants
6       Number of TV’s with receiver per 1,000
                                                                           283                   Up to end of 2001
        inhabitants
7       Consumption of typing papers per
                                                                           2.2                   Ditto
        capita [kg]
8       Number of internet subscribers                                     9,920                 Up to mid 2002
9       Number of internet users                                           59,520                6 x subscribers
10      Percentage of internet users in the
                                                                           0.31%                 Up to mid 2002
        population
11      Internet Services Providers                                        2                     Ditto
12      Total number of Yemeni web sites                                   183                   Ditto
13      Percentage of computer users                                       1.54%                 Ditto


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Nr      Description                                                        Quantity              Remark
        (capable) in the population
14      Number of information scientists                                                         In for all specialist
                                                                           8,000
        (intermediate diploma)                                                                   informatics
15      Total number of employees in the                                                         Including the sector
                                                                           25,500
        information sector                                                                       operators
16      Software development companies                                     11                    Big companies only
17                                                                                               Out of 64 companies
        Number of company start-ups in the                                                       working in information
                                                                           28
        information telecommunication sector                                                     technology and
                                                                                                 telecommunication
18      Percentage of investments in the
        information sector from the total                                  2.14%                 Up to 2001
        investment
19      Percentage of computers in the sectors
20                   Government administration
                                                                           5.13%
        sector
21                   Education sector                                      14.15%
22                   Health sector                                         3.33%                 Up to end of 2001
23                   Bank sector                                           38.34%
24                   Agricultural sector                                   2.93%
25                   Industrial sector                                     4.95%
26      Number of information research
                                                                           22
        centres except for universities
26      Number of central libraries                                        3
27      Total investment for information
        technology systems in the government                               63,136,000            During 2001
        & private sector [USD]




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10.3        Annex 3


Table 11            Consultancy Schedule and Locations Visited
Date                       Activities / Locations visited                       People met
27 May 2004                  Travel to Sana’a
28 May 2004                  Meeting at the Arabia Felix                          Ms June Lombard
                             Hotel                                                Mr Gernod Dilewski
29 May 2004                  Visit of Sana’a landfill site                        Mr Salah Sureyhi, Director of
                                                                                  the Landfill Site
                                                                                  Mr Mohammed Ali Salah El-
                                                                                  Gabri, Supervisor of the Landfill
                                                                                  Site
                             Visit of Yemen Zeynad                                Mr Mücahit Ahmet Hamud,
                             Company, sorting plant for                           Chief of the waste pickers on the
                             recyclables near landfill site                       landfill site
                             Visit of Scmammakh Trading                           Mr Abdul Melik, Sales Manager
                             Company

                             Visit of a small workshop, At-                       Mr Suleiman Mohammed
                             Tamimi                                               Suleiman At-Tamimi, Owner
                             Visit of the flea market at the                      Street sellers, small shop owners
                             Asawia Street

30 May 2004                  Visit of a small shop for                            Seller in the shop
                             electronic appliances near
                             Tahrier Square, Jaber
                             Electronics
                             Visit of El-Aghil Trading                            Mr Anwer M. Al-Shjekh,
                             Company                                              Showroom Manager

                             Visit of two internet cafes
                             near Tahrier Square

                             Visit of various shops for
                             appliances
                             Visit of the National Institute                      Mr Hamud Al-Sayghi, Training
                             for Administrative Sciences                          Officer
                                                                                  Tel.: +967 1 71139623
31 May 2004                  Visit of Cleansing                                   Mr Ahmed Al-Gouzi, General
                             Department of Sana’a City                            Director of the Cleansing
                                                                                  Department




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Date                       Activities / Locations visited                       People met
                             Visit of the office local                            Mr Mohammed A. Mahyub,
                             training consultant for                              General Manager
                             SWMP, Technology and                                 Tel.: +967 1 410425
                             Management Consultants,
                             techman
                             Visit of GSM Provider                                Selling Department
                             Spacetel
                             Visit of a reseller of HDSON                         Seller in the shop
                             appliances
                             Visit of Yemen Computer Ltd.                         Mr Najeeb Ahmed Al-Khadher,
                                                                                  Showroom Manager
                             Visit of Al-Mortada Company                          Mr Al-Mortada, Owner of the
                             for Trading & Computers                              Company
                                                                                  Tel.: +967 1 405036
01 June 2004                 Visit of the Sana’a landfill site                    Mr Mohammed Ali Salah El-
                                                                                  Gabri, Supervisor of the Landfill
                                                                                  Site
                             Visit of Yemen Zeynad                                Workers in the company
                             Company, sorting plant near
                             landfill site
                             Visit of the Company Al                              Mr Al-Rawhani, General
                             Rawhani Marble & Granit                              Manager of the Company

                             Visit of Ministry for Local
                             Administration

                             Visit of Internet Provider                           Mr Abdoulnasir Ortofi, Manager
                             Teleyemen                                            for Internet Selling

02 June 2004                 Meeting at the SWMP Office                           Mr Gernod Dilewski
                                                                                  Mr Thomas Pritzkat

                             Visit of National Information                        Mr Ibrahim Al-Sabahi, Official
                             Centre                                               Mr Tawfik M. Jaber, Systems
                                                                                  General Manager
                                                                                  Tel.: +967 1 215116 / 7 /8
                                                                                  Mr Labib S. Mohammed,
                                                                                  Studies General Manager
                                                                                  Tel.: +967 1 215116 / 7 /8


                             Visit of GSM Provider                                Mr Mohammed Fazil, Secretary
                             Sabafon                                              Director of General Manager

03 June 2004                 Visit of the Information                             Mr Cherian John, Operation
                             Technology Division of Al-                           Manager
                             Ahmar Group                                          Tel.: +967 1 240170



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Date                       Activities / Locations visited                       People met
                             Visit of authorised reseller of                      Mr Saeed A. Bamekhrama,
                             Samsung, SAM Electronics                             Sales Representative Head
                                                                                  Centre
                                                                                  Tel.: +967 1 242176
                             Visit of Internet Provider                           Mr Amer M. Haza’a, General
                             Yemennet                                             Manager of Internet Department
                                                                                  Tel.: +967 1 331006
04 June 2004               Holiday
05 June 2004                 Visit of CEW Trading                                 Mr Mohammed A. Al-Germozi,
                             Company                                              Deputy General Manager
                                                                                  Tel.: +967 1 449180
06 June 2004                 Visit of the Sana’a landfill site                    View investigation of the
                                                                                  deliveries

                             Visit of Zeynad Company,                             Collection of the plastic bottles
                             sorting plant near landfill site                     for the brooms

                             Bringing of the bottles to the
                             craftsman

                             Visit of the small computer                          Mr Sadiq Ahed Asaad, General
                             shops on the Magdishu                                Manager of Arabic Computer
                             Street                                               Tel.: +967 1 216065
                                                                                  Mr Basim Ali, Owner of Basim
                                                                                  Ali Computers
07 June 2004                 Ministry of Public Works and                         Mr Ridwan, Stores MPWH
                             Highways
                             Workshop of the CEW                                  Workers
                             Trading Company
                             Al-Hadad Electronic Services                         Mr Imad Al-Hadad, worker

08 June 2004                 Visit of some recyclers on the                       Mr Kemal Mahsun Makuri,
                             45th Street                                          Plastic and scrap metal dealer
                                                                                  Other scrap dealers
                             Visit of National Information                        Mr Labib S. Mohammed,
                             Centre                                               Studies General Manager

                             Visit of Al-Khlood Charity                           Ms Amria Abdallah Taizi,
                             Society                                              Chairwoman of the Society

                             Visit of Ozone Ultimate                              Mr Sultan Ali Al-Sanhani,
                             Technology                                           Marketing Manager
                                                                                  Tel.: +967 1 215261
                             Visit of various electronic                          Shop owners
                             workshops on the 26th Street




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Date                       Activities / Locations visited                       People met
                             Visit of various shops in                            Shop owners
                             Haraq

09 June 2004                 Visit of Theipan Corporation                         Mr Ali Theipan, General
                             for Trading & Computer                               Manager
                                                                                  Tel.: +967 1 519389

                             Visit of National Information                        Mr Sami Al-Khoulani, Official
                             Centre
10 June 2004                 Return flight to Germany




Orhan Bülent Boran
M.Sc. Environmental Engineer

Infrastruktur & Umwelt
Professor Böhm und Partner

Julius-Reiber-Straße 17
D-64293         Darmstadt

Tel.: +49 6151 813029
Fax: +49 6151 813020

E-Mail: o.boran@iu-info.de
Homepage: http://www.iu-info.de




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