Prüfberichts-Nummer I-5139 TEST REPORT No. 03c - 002 by zjv65716

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									   FARM MACHINERY FUNCTIONAL AND SAFETY TESTING SERVICE



Prüfberichts-Nummer I-5139
             TEST REPORT No. 03c – 002




                      GB BLADES (VERSION 2002)
                       FITTED TO HARROW KNIVES
                 SICMA ADLER ADS 5000 ROTARY HARROW


            ACCESSORY MANUFACTURER: GIOVANNI BURATO
               Via Marocchesa, 31 – 31021 Mogliano Veneto (TV)
               HARROW MANUFACTURER: SICMA S.P.A.
         VIA F.LLI LOMBARDI, 5 – 60010 OSTRA VETERE (AN)


                           Rome, November 2002




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Burato - GB BLADES 2002


TESTS CARRIED OUT IN COMPLIANCE WITH ENAMA SPECIFICATIONS NO. 03C BY ISTITUTO
SPERIMENTALE PER LA MECCANIZZAZIONE AGRICOLA (EXPERIMENTAL INSTITUTE FOR FARM
MECHANISATION), MONTEROTONDO - ROME:

      Supervisor                             Ing.Giovanni Santoro
      Technical tests                        Dott.Agr.Roberto Fanigliulo
                                             Dott. Agr.Daniele Pochi
      Collaborators                          Mr. Gino Brannetti
                                             Mr. Cesare Cervellini
                               TABLE OF CONTENTS

                    DESCRIPTION OF MACHINE                             3

                    Installation procedure                             3


                    TECHNICAL DATA                                     3

                    TEST CONDITIONS                                    3

                    Tractor used                                       4


                    Instrumentation used                               4


                    RESULTS OF TESTS                                   5

                    NOTES ON FUNCTIONALITY                             7

      TO FACILITATE INTERPRETATION OF THE RESULTS, IT SHOULD BE REMEMBERED THAT:
                                                 2
♦     1 MPa = 1000 kPa = 10 bar ≈ 10 kgforce/cm
♦     1 daN ≈ 1.02 kgforce
♦     1 kW = 1.36 CV
♦     1 m/s = 3.6 km/h


               -1
♦     rpm =giri .


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DESCRIPTION OF MACHINE                              right knife and at a height of 60 and
                                                    130 mm from the bottom of the left
The tillage machine accessory “GB                   knife.
blades” consists of a pair of
rectangular steel blades.
The blades are designed to make a
better job of breaking up surface
lumps of earth during the rotary-
translational movement of the working
harrow blades and of removing weeds
through horizontal cutting of undesired
plants at the neck and root system
levels (fig. 1).
Installation procedure
The blades are welded perpendicularly
onto the outer side of each knife of a
rotary harrow, at a height of 70 and
140 mm respectively from the bottom
of the

                                                    Fig.1 – Close-up of GB blades and
                                                    welding points on knife.
TECHNICAL DATA

         type                                rectangular steel blade
           number per knife                  2
           number per rotor                  4
           total number                      80
           width (mm)                        29.5
           length (mm)                       36.5
           thickness (mm)                    6
         position                            perpendicular, on the outer side of each
                                             knife, welded at varying heights from the
                                             bottom of the knife;



TEST CONDITIONS
The accessory was subjected to                    (Experimental Institute for Farm
working tests, being fitted to a rotary           Mechanisation)       at    Monterotondo,
harrow produced by the firm Sicma                 Rome, in October 2002.
(Mod. ADLER ADS 5000), at the farm                Refer to certificate 03.038 for a
estate of the Istituto Sperimentale per la        description of the harrow used for
Meccanizzazione Agricola                          testing and relative technical data.

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Tractor used                                  The load cell used was calibrated by
                                              placing known masses onto the hookup
To pull the trailer a 4-wheel drive tractor   point after having hung the device in a
having the following characteristics was      vertical position, and making several
used:                                         readings, checking the reading with the
♦ rated power              205 kW             ad hoc configuration software of the
♦ total mass               11000 kg           data recorder.
♦ hookup device            cat. 3 ISO         The encoder was calibrated by making
                                              a full turn of the tractor’s rear drive
The PTO speed was selected at 1000            wheel, to which the encoder was
rpm (corresponding to 1974 rpm of             attached, checking the correct reading
drive shaft).                                 of pulses from the instrument using the
Instrumentation used                          ad hoc configuration software of the
                                              data recorder.
For field tests an instrument chain
formed by a series of sensors fitted to
the tractor was used: a torque-
speedometer with relative signal
conditioning unit to measure driving
torque and the speed of rotation of the
tractor’s PTO; a digital encoder to
measure the number of turns of the
tractor’s rear wheels, used to calculate
wheel slip; a strain gauge type mono-
axial load cell, in traction and              Fig. 2 – The test area prior to testing.
compression, to measure the pull
required by the trailer. The unit was         TEST GROUND
fitted between the tractor to which the       The test area was formed by a series of
trailer was attached and a brake-van,         strips of unploughed flat soil.
which pulled the former at a typical          The remains of wheat crops and weeds
working speed.                                were present on the surface (Fig. 2),
                                              with a mean terrain coverage of 78.8%.
The torque-speedometer was calibrated
                                              This index was calculated on the basis
in two stages, one to measure speed
                                              of the ratio: overlaps occurring between
and one to measure torque, using the
                                              grid nodes and the surface remains of
configuration software installed on the
                                              crops, with the total number of grid
tractor’s PC. It was thus possible to
                                              nodes having a size of 1 m2 and side
check,     at    several   points,   the
                                              meshes of 100 mm.
consistency of PTO rotation speed
                                              Prior to harrowing the following were
measurements with actual values
                                              measured: granulometric composition,
measured using a precision tachometer.
                                              relative humidity (from 0-0.2 m to 0.2-
With reference to the functioning of the
                                              0.4 m) and the apparent mean density
circuit to measure drive torque, it was
                                              of the soil; penetration resistance for
possible to ascertain the correct value
                                              the layer being harrowed (from 0 to 0.3
of the calibration signal from the
                                              m) (table 1).
transducer. The torque measuring
circuit was calibrated by placing known
masses onto an arm attached to the
shaft issuing from the same instrument.

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                                              soil improvement. Tractor wheel slip
         skeleton (%)                0        was modest and within normal limits for
           sand (%)                 2.3       the type of equipment being tested.
            silt (%)               43.4       In both tests it was seen that 98.8% of
           clay (%)                54.3       the maximum working width was used,
       liquid limit (%)            62.2
                                              while the thickness of the layer
                                              harrowed was 0.13 m for the test with
       plastic limit (%)           40.3
                                              GB blades fitted and 0.12 m for that
       plasticity index            21.9
                                              without GB blades.
  humidity 0 m ÷ 0.2 m (%)         19.3       It may be seen in figure 5 that the
 humidity 0.2 m ÷ 0.4 m (%)        21.0       passage of the harrow produced a good
        mean density                          soil improvement index of 0.848 for
                       3           1.35
      apparent (g/cm )                        harrowed soil using GB blades, as
 mean penetration resistance                  compared with 0.818 for the test
                                   0.97       without GB blades. It also removed the
            (MPa)
                                              first clod size classes and took clod
Table 1 – Physical-mechanical properties of   classes below 10 mm to 54% and 43%
test ground.                                  respectively of all crushed soil. The
                                              consequent “seed bed quality index”
RESULTS OF TESTS
                                              (ratio: mass of clods having a diameter
After having established the most
appropriate gear for the tractor (1st),       ≤    10 mm/mass of clods having a
inserted double traction and the              diameter > 10 mm) was calculated as
differential locking mechanism and            being 1.08 in the test with GB blades
moved the accelerator lever to the top,       and 0.88 in the test without GB blades,
the     functional    and      operational    thus ensuring an adequate substratum
characteristics    (referring    to   one     for      sowing      and     subsequent
hectare) of the tractor-trailer-accessory     germination.
system were determined. Table 2               The combined effect of rotary tools and
shows the results of two series of tests      the packer roller produced a good
performed on unploughed soil at the           levelling of the soil in all tests,
same tilling depth, with the rotary           determining a surface rugosity index of
harrow used firstly with tools endowed        1.937 in the 1st test and 1.856 in the
with GB blades and then with tools not        2nd.
having the same accessory.                    The quality of work performed, with
The results of soil crushing tests for the    particular reference to the use of GB
harrow working on unploughed soil             blades, was assessed by measuring
under various test conditions are given       also the degree of coverage of hard
in the diagrams in figure 5. The size         ground and harrowed ground, obtained
classes of lumps of earth are given in        from the ratio of the surface covered by
mm.                                           plant biomass and total soil surface,
Table 2 shows a specific traction force       thus determining the degree of biomass
of approximately 17.7 daN/m.cm and            interment, which in the test using GB
12.3 daN/m.cm respectively for the 1st        blades amounted to 84.3%, and in the
and 2nd tests, resulting in a significant     test without GB blades was 76.6%.
absorption of pull power of 10.9 kW and       Checks carried out 20 days later on the
7.1 kW respectively, operating at an          same strips of soil tilled by the rotary
adequate vehicle speed, such as to            harrow showed a significant increase in
obtain the best performance in terms of       the soil coverage index for the area in

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which GB blades were not used (from                               Sicma harrow was endowed with GB
18.58% to 52.43 %) (Fig. 3), while for                            blades (Fig.4), the rise in this index was
the test in which the                                             less marked (from 12.27% to 16.32%).


                                                                           st                      nd
                                                                         1 test – hard 2 test – hard
                            Elements                                    ground with GB ground without
                                                                            blades       GB blades
mean engine speed                                         (rpm)                 2012                    2022
mean PTO speed                                            (rpm)                 1019                    1025
mean rotor speed                                          (rpm)                 343                     344
theoretical working width                                   (m)                 5.00                    5.00
real working width                                          (m)                 5.03                    5.03
operational working width                                   (m)                 4.97                    4.97
use of working width                                        (%)                 98.8                    98.8
depth of harrowed layer                                     (m)                 0.13                    0.12
harrowed section                                           (m²)                 0.65                    0.60
hard ground coverage index                                   %                  78.24                   79.40
harrowed ground coverage index                               %                  12.27                   18.58
real working time                                         (h/ha)                0.59                    0.58
operational working time                                  (h/ha)                0.68                    0.67
operational performance                                     (%)                 87.6                    87.4
actual mean speed                                        (km/h)                 3.38                    3.46
operational field capacity                                (ha/h)                1.47                    1.50
hourly fuel consumption                                   (kg/h)                39.7                    32.3
unit fuel consumption                                    (kg/ha)                26.9                    21.5
mean traction force                                       (daN)                 1158                    740
mean PTO torque                                          (daNm)                 119.9                   98.1
mean PTO power                                             (kW)                 128.0                   105.2
mean traction power required by
                                                           (kW)                 10.9                     7.1
work*
total mean power required                                  (kW)                 138.9                   112.3
specific mean power                                   (kW/m.cm)                 2.15                    1.88
tractor wheel slip                                          (%)                  1.7                     1.0
 Table 2 – Mean results obtained using rotary harrow
 (*) Global power expended for machine traction, excluding losses of transmission due to idle state, wheel slip and the
 power required for the tractor’s hydraulic functions.




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 Figure 3 –Test area without GB blades              Figure 4 –Test area with GB blades 20
 20 days after test.                                days after test.
                                   >200                                        >200
                     9%            100÷200                       7%            100÷200
                                   50÷100                                      50÷100
   43%                             25÷50                               16%
                                                                               25÷50
           A               17%
                                   10÷25         B                             10÷25
                                   <10                                         <10

                                              54%


                                                                         23%

                          31%


   Figure 5 – Clod level of the soil after passage of harrow not endowed with GB blades
   (diagram A) and after passage of harrow endowed with GB blades (diagram B).

NOTES ON FUNCTIONALITY                         The     rotary   harrow,    furthermore,
The combination of the “GB blade”              endowed with GB blades, produced
accessory with the ADLER ADS 5000              good soil improvement, confirming
rotary harrow produced by the firm             results obtained in a previous test on
Sicma Macchine Agricole is a good              ploughed soil (ENAMA certificate no.
solution for the enhanced control of           03c-001), with a significant rise in the
weeds after tilling and for an adequate        percentage of clods less than 10 mm in
level of soil improvement.                     size (54% of total crushed soil), despite
The horizontal cutting action of these         working on unploughed soil.
blades removes weeds more efficiently.         This allows for an improvement in the
Crops sown after the soil has been             conditions needed to prepare a suitable
harrowed with GB blade-endowed tools           seed bed, even in working conditions
are thus at an advantage in relation to        deemed to be difficult, since a very fine
weeds which, having been removed by            layer of soil is created immediately
the harrow and cut up by the blades            beneath the surface, constituting an
under review, find it more difficult to re-    excellent ground for rapid seed
emerge, as shown by the soil coverage          germination. On the surface there
index 20 days after field testing. This        remained a greater degree of clod level,
aspect makes it possible to reduce the         important in reducing crust formation, in
use of chemical weed-killers, with a           the event of rain, during the critical
consequent drop in environmental               phase for plant growth.
impact.


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THE PRESENT TEST REPORT IS VALID FOR A PERIOD OF FIVE YEARS OR UNTIL
REFERENCE REGULATIONS FOR THE GB BLADES VERSION 2002 ARE ALTERED,
AND IS OFFICIALLY RECOGNISED BY ENAMA MEMBERS:
         ASSOCAP    (Associazione Nazionale dei Consorzi Agrari) (National
                                 Association of Farm Consortia)
         CIA (Confederazione Italiana Agricoltori) (Italian Farmers Confederation)
         COLDIRETTI (Confederazione Nazionale Coltivatori Diretti) (National
                                 Confederation of Independent Farmers)
         CONFAGRICOLTURA (Confederazione Generale Agricoltura) (General
                                 Farming Confederation)
         UNACMA (Unione Nazionale Commercianti Macchine Agricole) (National
                                 Union of Farm Machine Dealers)
         UNACOMA (Unione Nazionale Costruttori Macchine Agricole) (National
                                 Union of Farm Machine Manufacturers)
         UNIMA (Unione Nazionale Imprese Meccanizzazione Agricola) (National
                                 Union of Farm Mechanisation Enterprises)
AND BY MEMBERS OF THE    EXECUTIVE COUNCIL OF THE ENAMA, IN WHICH THE
FOLLOWING ARE ALSO REPRESENTED:
         MIPAF (Ministry for Agricultural and Forestry Policies)
         Regions and Autonomous Provinces
         ISMA (Istituto Sperimentale per la Meccanizzazione Agricola)
                               (Experimental Institute for Farm Mechanisation)




         ENAMA - ENTE NAZIONALE PER LA MECCANIZZAZIONE AGRICOLA
                     (Italian Farm Mechanisation Body)
           VIA LAZZARO SPALLANZANI, 22/A - 00161 ROME - ITALY
                 TEL. 06/4403137-4403872 FAX 06/4403712
                            email: info@enama.it
                             http://www.enama.it
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