STRENGTHENING WOMEN’S VOICE AND REPRESENTATION IN TRADE UNIONS

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					STRENGTHENING WOMEN’S VOICE
 AND REPRESENTATION IN TRADE
           UNIONS

                  Dimitrova
       by Dimitrina
             ILO/ACTRAV
           ETUC Conference
“Tools, Mechanisms and Instruments to put
  Gender Mainstreaming in the Heart of
    ETUC”, Berlin, 5-6 March 2007
                                            1
GOLOBAL CONTEXT: Women’s
Decent Work Deficit
   Women labour force participation on an
    increase
   Unemployment high and growing for both
    male and female workers
   Neither more but not better jobs for
    women?
   “Glass ceiling”, “glass walls”, “sticky
    floor”
   Persisting pay gap

                                              2
                                 0.0
                                20.0
                                40.0
                                60.0
                                80.0
                               100.0
                      World



                 Developed
                 countries
                  and EU


                 Central and
                  Eastern
                   Europe



                  East Asia



                 South East
                  Asia and
                   Pacific




    Women Men
                 South Asia



                   Latin
                America and
                 Caribbean


                 Middle East
                 and North
                   Africa
                                       Labour force participation rate, in % by sex, 2006




                Subsaharian
                   Africa
                                                                                            Global Labour Market Indicators (1)




3
                             0.0
                            20.0
                            40.0
                            60.0
                            80.0
                           100.0
                  World



             Developed
             countries
              and EU


             Central and
              Eastern
               Europe



              East Asia



             South East




    Women
              Asia and
               Pacific




    Men
             South Asia



               Latin
            America and
             Caribbean


             Middle East
             and North
               Africa
                                   Employment-to-population ratio in % by sex, 2006




            Subsaharian
               Africa
                                                                                      Global Labour Market Indicators (2)




4
                            0.0
                            2.0
                            4.0
                            6.0
                            8.0
                           10.0
                           12.0
                           14.0
                           16.0
                           18.0
                  World



             Developed
             countries
              and EU

             Central and
              Eastern
               Europe



              East Asia



             South East




    Women
              Asia and
               Pacific




    Men
             South Asia



               Latin
            America and
             Caribbean

             Middle East
             and North
                                  Unemployment rate in % by sex, 2006




               Africa


            Subsaharian
               Africa
                                                                        Global Labour Market Indicators (3)




5
GLOBAL CONTEXT: SOME FACTS
   1.37 billion working people live with less than 2USD a day, 70% of them
    women
   38.5 mln young women (aged 15-24) are involuntarily without work
   Women earnings range between 50 an 90 of man‟s earning
   The value of women‟s unpaid, invisible work in the „care economy‟ is
    estimated at appr. 11 trillion USD per year
   Women‟s share in managerial positions (in some 60 countries) range
    between 20 and 40%
   Worldwide less that 17 of members of parliaments are women
   10 “FORTUNE 500” companies are run by women
   2/3 of women in developing countries are in informal employment
   Almost half of the 120 mln migrant workers are women
   66% of world illiterate are women
   Between 40 and 50% of women in the EU countries report experience of
    some form of sexual harassment at the work place
   Estimated numbers of women forced or sold into prostitution is between
    700 000 and 4 mln per year. Profits from sex slavery are estimated from 7
    to 12 bln USD.

                                                                                6
Women in Trade Unions: present
challenges
   Women‟s under- representation in trade union membership
   Lack of representation and services for women in the
    informal economy
   Barriers to women‟s advancement to decision making
    positions in trade unions
   Rigid trade union structures
   Trade unions internal rules and policies discouraging
    women‟s participation at the various levels of trade union
    structures and activities
   Insufficient technical expertise on gender equality at work
   Trade unions‟ male-dominated culture
   Women‟s own attitudinal barriers



                                                              7
ILO Decent Work Agenda
   Promotion of employment opportunities for women and men to
    obtain decent and productive work on conditions of freedom,
    equality, security and human dignity

   Decent Work‟s Four Strategic Pillars:
-   Fundamental principles and rights at work
-   Greater employment and income
-   More social protection: safe work and security
-   Participation in social dialogue

   Gender as a cross-cutting issue
   Rights- based and development based approaches as
    complements
   From de jure to de facto gender equality


                                                                  8
ILO policies on promoting gender
representation and voice in unions
   ILO support aimed at strengthening capacity of trade unions to take
    effective policy and institutional measure to promote gender equality
    within their structures, in the world of work and in their societies.

   Strengthening Representation of Women in Trade unions:
-   Strengthening representation in the informal economy
-   Building capacity for promoting women in decision making positions
   Capacity building for gender sensitive collective bargaining
   Strengthening trade union expertise on gender equality in all areas of
    Decent Work:
-   Equal opportunity legislation (ILO Conventions 100, 111, 156,183)
-   Freedom of Association
-   Collective bargaining
-   Employment policies
-   Social Security coverage
-   Wage policies
-   Social Dialogue

                                                                             9
Approaches and Tools to promote
gender equality: lessons leant
   Combining gender mainstreaming with gender
    specific approaches
   Setting up clear objectives, priorities and targets
   Strengthening gender-analytical capacity of trade
    unions
   Applying integrated approach
   Combining traditional and new tools (gender
    audits, gender budgeting)
   Dissemination of good practices
   ILO advisory assistance for trade unions

                                                      10
Support for Trade unions in the ILO
Field Offices




          Trade unions

         ILO Gender Specialists
                                      11
ILO Support for Trade Unions: the
case of Central and Eastern Europe
  Supporting the ICFTU/WCL Trade Union Women Network
- Women workers‟ rights
- Women in informal economy
- Social security and pension reforms
- Maternity protection
- Workplace discrimination
 Promoting inter-union cooperation at national level
 Strengthening trade union expertise on gender dimensions
   of employment policies, pension reforms, collective
   bargaining, tripartite social dialogue
 Encouraging women participation in ILO activities


                                                         12
Interim Conclusions
   Man and women in trade unions: from partnership in
    progress to partnership for progress
   The argument of strength: Voice is not given, voice is
    taken!
   The strength of the argument: building technical expertise
   Trade union bureaucracy vs. trade union democracy:
    women can make a change
   Communicating successes: people follow the victors!
   Mobilizing resources: from „what we lack‟ to „what we have‟
   Building alliances: arithmetic of‟ ‟political exchange‟
   Women in leadership: mission and ambition




                                                              13

				
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