Energy generated by fossil fuels by jsl16547


									Energy generated by fossil fuels
• Sources of fossil fuels
• Fuels and energies
• Coal and oil industry
• Global reserves of
  fossil fuels
• Processing and
  usage of fossil fuels
• Example
• Classical sources and
  human ecology      1
                            Fossil sources
                   ancient sources, originated a long time ago

  •coal                                  •petroleum
  primary source of energy               Origin – accumulated
  residues of dead plants and            residues of animals
  animals.                               (plants) in prehistoric
  process-long term exposure to          gulfs/marshes
  high temperatures and                  process- a million year
  pressures without air.                 long microbial
  •bituminous coal                       decomposition in under
                                         high temperatures and
  •brown coal
                                         •natural gas
                                         tails after oil and coal
                                         deposits                                           2
                            Coal mining                 3
                    Petroleum extraction                  4
   Global reserves of coal, petroleum
            and natural gas

                  Table 1: Global reserves of fossil fuels (the percentage in the brackets stands
                                              for the confirmed reserves)
                        bituminous coal:                               9.3 trillions t.m.p. (8 %)
                           brown coal:                                 3.8 trillions t.m.p. (6 %)
                           petroleum:                                  0.5 trillions t.m.p. (40 %)
                          natural gas:                                 0.4 trillions t.m.p. (38 %)
                  (one tamp. is the equivalent of one ton of specific fuel, i.e. coal with the calorific value of 29.3 GJ)

                         Table 2 : Estimated durability of the confirmed reserves of fossil fuels (in years)

           Coal                                                 250
           Petroleum                                            45
           Natural gas                                          65                                                                                                    5

  •coal                          • petroleum
  • Mechanical treatment –       • in oil refineries
    dewatering, crushing,        • process – atmospheric
    separating from non-           and vacuum distillation
    combustible impurities       • ingredients : oils,
                                   gasolines, gases,
  • chemical processes –           asphaldr
    coking, gasification

                                 • natural gas
                                 • purifying                                    6
                            Usage of coal                   7
           Usage of oil and natural gas                 8
    Equipment which uses fossil fuels
         for generating energy
• industrial furnaces
• boilers for local heating
• heat engines
• steam turbines – thermal
  power plants
• combustion engines - cars               9
                Exhaust and fossil fuels
  Purpose: to measure exhaust and to be aware of the connection
  exhaust and different kinds of damage on human and nature

  Equipment: gas collector, ampulla’s for different gases, plastic
    pots, exhaust

  How to do
  1. Test the exhaust from different kind of cars. Chose for example
     a new car, an old car and one which is driven by diesel oil.

  2. Measure the content of carbon-dioxide, carbon-monoxide,
     sulphur-dioxide and nitrogen dioxide in exhaust. Use a gas
     collector and follow the instructions on the apparatus. Fill in your
     results in a table.                                                   10
  Tasks                                About the equipment
  1. Study our results. Which          The gas collector and the
  substances are reduced by a          test ampulla’s can for
  catalyst?                            instance be bought
  2. How are people and nature
  influenced of the different
  substances in exhaust?
  Sum up in a table.

              Substance          SO2     NO2           CO2         CO
              Effect on human

              Effect on nature                                               11

1.     high efficiency of state-of-the-art technologies (up to
2.     accessible resources (only temporary)
3.     relatively low intial investment cost
4.     easy supply to the consumer                                        12

5.     reserves of fossil fuels are limited
6.     the least ecological alternative (largest percentage of
       pollution output)
7.     even the most up-to-date technologies produce a
       certain percentage of pollutants
8.     waste output : fly ash, sulphur oxides, nitrogen oxides,
9.     mining and processing of these fuels demands large
       quantities of water

Impact on human health : 6,7,8
Environmental impact : 6,7,8,9                                     13
      Thermal power plants of the future

• research aimed at finding cleaner and more efficient
• co-generation is a combined production of heat and
  electricity                                14

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