Energy generated by fossil fuels by jsl16547

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									Energy generated by fossil fuels
• Sources of fossil fuels
• Fuels and energies
• Coal and oil industry
• Global reserves of
  fossil fuels
• Processing and
  usage of fossil fuels
• Example
• Classical sources and
  human ecology
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                            Fossil sources
                   ancient sources, originated a long time ago

  •coal                                  •petroleum
  primary source of energy               Origin – accumulated
  residues of dead plants and            residues of animals
  animals.                               (plants) in prehistoric
  process-long term exposure to          gulfs/marshes
  high temperatures and                  process- a million year
  pressures without air.                 long microbial
  •bituminous coal                       decomposition in under
                                         high temperatures and
  •brown coal
                                         pressures
  •peat
                                         •natural gas
                                         tails after oil and coal
                                         deposits
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                            Coal mining




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                    Petroleum extraction




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   Global reserves of coal, petroleum
            and natural gas


                  Table 1: Global reserves of fossil fuels (the percentage in the brackets stands
                                              for the confirmed reserves)
                        bituminous coal:                               9.3 trillions t.m.p. (8 %)
                           brown coal:                                 3.8 trillions t.m.p. (6 %)
                           petroleum:                                  0.5 trillions t.m.p. (40 %)
                          natural gas:                                 0.4 trillions t.m.p. (38 %)
                  (one tamp. is the equivalent of one ton of specific fuel, i.e. coal with the calorific value of 29.3 GJ)




                         Table 2 : Estimated durability of the confirmed reserves of fossil fuels (in years)



           Coal                                                 250
           Petroleum                                            45
           Natural gas                                          65
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                            Processing

  •coal                          • petroleum
  • Mechanical treatment –       • in oil refineries
    dewatering, crushing,        • process – atmospheric
    separating from non-           and vacuum distillation
    combustible impurities       • ingredients : oils,
                                   gasolines, gases,
  • chemical processes –           asphaldr
    coking, gasification

                                 • natural gas
                                 • purifying

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                            Usage of coal




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           Usage of oil and natural gas




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    Equipment which uses fossil fuels
         for generating energy
• industrial furnaces
• boilers for local heating
• heat engines
• steam turbines – thermal
  power plants
• combustion engines - cars




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                Exhaust and fossil fuels
  Purpose: to measure exhaust and to be aware of the connection
     between
  exhaust and different kinds of damage on human and nature

  Equipment: gas collector, ampulla’s for different gases, plastic
    pots, exhaust

  How to do
  1. Test the exhaust from different kind of cars. Chose for example
     a new car, an old car and one which is driven by diesel oil.

  2. Measure the content of carbon-dioxide, carbon-monoxide,
     sulphur-dioxide and nitrogen dioxide in exhaust. Use a gas
     collector and follow the instructions on the apparatus. Fill in your
     results in a table.

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  Tasks                                About the equipment
  1. Study our results. Which          The gas collector and the
  substances are reduced by a          test ampulla’s can for
  catalyst?                            instance be bought
                                       from www.wvr.com.
  2. How are people and nature
  influenced of the different
  substances in exhaust?
  Sum up in a table.



              Substance          SO2     NO2           CO2         CO
              Effect on human




              Effect on nature



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                            Summary
                               pros

1.     high efficiency of state-of-the-art technologies (up to
       40%)
2.     accessible resources (only temporary)
3.     relatively low intial investment cost
4.     easy supply to the consumer




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                            Summary
                              cons

5.     reserves of fossil fuels are limited
6.     the least ecological alternative (largest percentage of
       pollution output)
7.     even the most up-to-date technologies produce a
       certain percentage of pollutants
8.     waste output : fly ash, sulphur oxides, nitrogen oxides,
       CO2
9.     mining and processing of these fuels demands large
       quantities of water

Impact on human health : 6,7,8
Environmental impact : 6,7,8,9

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      Thermal power plants of the future

• research aimed at finding cleaner and more efficient
  technologies
• co-generation is a combined production of heat and
  electricity




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