Urbanisation And Municipal Solid Waste Management: A Case Study Of Mumbai Sarika Kansal IGIDR, Mumbai Different types of Solid Waste Municipal Solid Waste Industrial Solid Waste Hazardous Solid Waste Present Scenario of Solid Waste Management in India • 100-500 grams per capita waste • Dirty streets and cities • Unhygienic conditions • Loss of reusable / recyclable material • Pollution due to burning of waste • Local as well as global air pollution Municipal Solid Waste Management in Mumbai • MCGB • Bombay Municipal Corporation (B.M.C.) Act 1888. • 6256 tones per day waste generated in Mumbai. • Per capita waste generated is 0.450 kg, highest in Indian cities • One of the best waste management systems in India. Map Showing Different wards (24) of Mumbai Waste Disposal Options • Sanitary Land-filling (Open Dump) method • Composting and Vermi-composting • Incineration • Pelletization • Gasification / Pyrolysis • Anaerobic treatment of solid waste • Conversion to biogas Landfill sites (Open dumps) in Mumbai Location Area(Hectar Quantity es) received in TPD Deonar 111 3140 Mulund 25.20 275 Chincholi 19.22 1163 Gorai 14.5 424 Formal and Informal sector in SWM • Formal sector: Municipality • Staff – 39,845 • Collection efficiency – 90% (Municipal Data) • Informal sector: Rag pickers • 1,00,000 rag pickers • Collect 25 % (excluding debris) • Sell reusable of value Rs. 900 million every year • No coordination between two sectors Composition of MSW in Mumbai 10.55% 0.75% 15% 0.80% Paper and cardboard 0.40% Plastics Metals (ferrous) Glass Sand & fine earth 37.50% Compostable matter 35% Others Composition of Municipal solid waste in Mumbai Budget Provision for Solid Waste Management Services in Mumbai 500 400 400 350 314 Rs. crore 300 250 247 200 100 0 1996-97 1997-98 1998-99 1999- 2000- 2000 2001 Year Problems of MSW Management in Mumbai • Overflowing Community Bins • Waste littering in many places • Waste Management services not satisfactory Reasons • Institutional deficiencies (Problem of Governance) – Lack of coordination between different departments for MSW management services. – Low Productivity of solid waste management staff • Lack of public participation Possible Environmental Impact of Waste • Open dumping: • Degradation of land resources • Health Impacts • Contamination of surface and groundwater supplies • Open burning: Urban air pollution • Decomposition of organic wastes: release of methane which contributes to greenhouse effect. Impact of SWM on Environmental Resources Environmenta Activities connected to SWM l Resources Collection + Dum Bur Sorting Transport ping ning Land -ve +ve +ve Air -ve -ve -ve +ve Water -ve +ve Future Research Direction • Estimation of health impact on Waste pickers and general public • How to encourage Community Participation (Economic instruments, Legislations, Force)? • Estimation of contribution of waste on global environment • How to promote efficient municipal government?
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