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Analyzing the Effectiveness of Municipal Solid Waste Reduction and by tpx76171


									                                     Analyzing the Effectiveness of Municipal Solid Waste
                                     Reduction and Recycling Promotion Policies
                                     Shaufique Sidique1, Satish Joshi1 and Frank Lupi1,2
                                     1 Department of Agricultural Economics, Michigan State University
                                     2 Department of Fisheries and Wildlife, Michigan State University

Introduction                                                  Methods                                                                                       Results                                                       Results (cont’d)
• Annual municipal solid waste (MSW) generation in            Data                                                                                          • Table 2 presents the 3SLS regression results.               Waste Disposal
  the United States has increased from 88 million             • We use county level data on MSW disposal, recycling, and various policy                                                                                   • Increased recycling per-capita deceases the
  tons in 1960 to 388 million tons in 2004 (BioCycle,           measures from the SCORE database, supplemented with data from the US                                                                                        amount of municipal solid waste disposed per
  2004).                                                                                                                                                     Table 2. RESULTS OF THE 3SLS OF THE DEMAND SYSTEM              capita.
                                                                Census Bureau.
                                                                                                                                                            Variable                                 Coefficient
• Concerns over this rising trend and increasing              • The final dataset consists of 639 observations from 86 Minnesota counties                                       Waste Disposal Function                   • Per capita waste has a significant positive
  scarcity of landfill capacity have prompted several           covering the period 1996 to 2004. Table 1 presents the description and means                VarPrice                                             -26.63     association with county income levels, education
  policy initiatives aimed at source reduction and              of the variables.                                                                           Income                                               0.01**     level and population density.
  increased recycling.                                                                                                                                      Age                                                    3.08
                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • A dollar increase in per capita cumulative
                                                                              Table 1. VARIABLE DESCRIPTION AND SUMMARY STATISTICS                          Educ                                                  -0.87
• Minnesota, a pioneer in waste management                                                                                                                                                                                  expenditure on source reduction education
                                                                    Variable Definition                                                             Mean    Popn                                                 0.09**
  reforms, started a statewide recycling effort in                                                                                                          SREduc                                              -46.98*
                                                                                                                                                                                                                            reduces MSW disposed per capita by
                                                                    Waste    Municipal solid waste disposal per capita (pounds)                     1029
  1989 following a new legislation based on                                                                                                                 Time                                                   4.33
                                                                                                                                                                                                                            approximately 47 lbs per year, or 0.5%.
                                                                    Recycle Total recycling per capita (pounds)                                      206
  recommendations by the Governor's Select                          Income Personal income per capita ($)                                           25045   Recycle                                             -1.03**
  Committee on Recycling and the Environment.                       Age      Median age (years)                                                     37.69   Constant                                           815.63**
                                                                    Educ     Percentage of population with 4 or more years of college education     12.03                         Recycling Function
• The legislation, referred to as SCORE, provides                                                                                                           Income                                              -0.002
                                                                    Popn     Population density per sq mile                                          142
  state funding for waste reduction, recycling
  program management, and household hazardous                       VarPrice
                                                                             Variable-rate pricing structure dummy (1=yes if any in county,
  waste management.                                                 SREduc Cumulative source reduction education expenditure per capita ($)         0.26    Den                                                  -0.02    • A variety of policy instruments such as, recycling
                                                                    RecExp   Cumulative recycling education expenditure per capita ($)              2.85    Curb                                                  0.11      ordinances, drop-off recycling centers, and
• Prior studies have focused mostly on the effects of
                                                                    Curbside Percentage of population with access to curbside recycling             54.7    Dropoff                                            81.39**      source reduction education appear to be
  variable garbage pricing and curbside collection,
                                                                    Dropoff   Number of drop-off recycling facilities per one thousand population    0.6    RecEduc                                              -3.10      effective in changing solid waste disposal and
  using cross sectional data. We analyze effects of a
                                                                    RecOrd    Number of residential recycling ordinances                            0.76    RecOrd                                             31.23**      recycling rates.
  number of policies such as recycling ordinances,                                                                                                          Time                                                 -2.73
  curbside recycling, drop-off recycling and                                                                                                                Constant                                            40.62
                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • However, the cost effectiveness of these
  educational expenditures. We use a unique panel                                                                                                           n = 639, R2 (waste) = 0.23, R2(recycling) = 0.17
                                                                                                                                                                                                                            measures needs to be assessed separately.
  data enabling us to analyze effects of policy                                                                                                             **Statistically significant at the 5% level                   • The presence of variable pricing does not appear
                                                              Econometric Specification
  variables and cumulative education expenditures.                                                                                                           *Statistically significant at the 10% level                    to affect per capita waste disposal. However this
                                                              • The amount of solid waste disposed and the amount of recycling are modeled
                                                                as a system of equations (Callan and Thomas, 2006) to allow for the                                                                                         finding is based on a coarse measure of variable
                                                                simultaneity of waste disposal and recycling decisions.                                                                                                     pricing.
                                                              • The econometric specification of waste disposal and recycling models is as                  Recycling
                                                                below:                                                                                      • Availability of drop-off recycling centers and
                                                                                                                                                              recycling ordinances have significant positive
Objectives                                                                                                                                                    effect on recycling.                                        References
                                                                     Wasteit = α 0 + α1VarPriceit + α 2 SREducit + α 3Time +                                • Addition of one drop-off center per thousand
                                                                                                                                                                                                                          BioCycle. 2004. The state of garbage in America. pp: 31-41.
• To examine the factors that affect MSW disposal                                                                                                                                                                         Callan, S.J. and J.M. Thomas. “Analyzing demand for disposal and
  and recycling.                                                               α 4 Recycleit + θX it + vit
                                                                                                                                                              population can increase annual per capita                      recycling services: A systems approach.” Eastern Economic
                                                                                                                                                              recycling by 81 pounds                                         Journal Spring 32(2006):221-239
• To assess the impact of policy variables on
                                                                                                                                                            • Increases in the coverage of curbside recycling
  recycling and waste disposal. The policy variables                Recycleit = β 0 + β1 RecEducit + β 2Curbit + β 3 Dropit +                                 and expenditures on recycling education do not
  of interest include county recycling ordinances,
                                                                                   β 4 RecOrd it + β 7Time + λX it + vit
                                                                                                                      r                                       significantly affect recycling.
  variable rate garbage pricing, curbside recycling
                                                                                                                                                            • While age has a positive influence on recycling,            Project Support
  and drop-off recycling facilities, and cumulative
  expenditures on source reduction and recycling                where Xit is a vector of demographic characteristics, Time is the time trend,                 college education has a negative influence.                 Michigan State University
                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Michigan Agricultural Experiment Station
  education.                                                    and vitwand vitr represent the unobserved error for county i and time t.                                                                                  Environmental Science and Policy Program, MSU

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