Regional Approach for Disposal of Municipal Solid Waste in

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					                    SWM Learning Program
                          in India

  Regional Approach for
Disposal of Municipal Solid
      Waste in India

                                           In association
                                       SWM Learning Program
                                             in India

Module Description

This module provides an insight to the concept of
regional landfills

The regional approach minimizes the scope of
public objections, facilitates construction of large
landfill which can be managed professionally in a
cost effective manner.

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                                             SWM Learning Program
                                                   in India

Learning Objectives
Understand the technical and cost benefits of regional
landfills vs. construction and management of individual

To build the capacities of municipal authorities in finding
suitable locations for regional landfills

To create a mechanism to set up a common facility on a cost
sharing basis through the formation of a society by the
participating municipalities to manage the common facility.

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Mandatory requirement to set up Scientific
Engineered Landfills
   Restricted to non-biodegradable, inert waste and other waste
    that are not suitable either for recycling or for biological
   Should be carried out for residues of waste processing
    facilities as well as pre-processing rejects from waste
    processing facilities.
   Land filling of mixed waste not allowed.
   Should meet the specifications as given in Schedule –III of
    the rules.
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Criteria for identification of suitable land for landfill site.
            Place                Minimum Siting distance
          Habitation                      500 meters
   Rivers/lakes/water bodies              200 meters
    Non-meandering (canal,                 30 meters
         drainage, etc.)
     Highway/railway line         300 meters from center line.
   Coastal regulation zoning       No landfill site would be
                                     permitted in the zone.
       Earthquake zone             500 meters from fault line
       Flood prone area                 Not permitted.
           Airport                           20 Km                  In association
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Current Situation
Cities and towns having engineered landfills
Surat, Pune, AUDA, Ahmedabad, Puttur, Karwar and Navi
  Constraints faced                 High cost & NIMBY
  Non availability of suitable       syndrome
  land                              Lack technical
  Lack of technical know-how         manpower and adequate
  and finances to develop and        financial resources
  maintain the facility
                                    Approach of setting up
                                     the disposal facility in
  Current approach of                each town.
  municipal authority                                                 In association
                      SWM Learning Program
                            in India

Concept of Regionalisation

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                                                               in India

Regionalization refers to bundling of the waste
disposal needs of several towns/ cities and tackling
the problem of all of them through creation of one
regional facility.

1. Creating small facilities are thus usually not practical or viable.
2. Assuming per capita average waste generation to be 0.3 kg per day, this
   would correspond to a city with a population of at least 8 to 10 lakhs (0.8
   to 1 million).
3. For towns having population less than 5 lakhs, it would be economically
   unviable to construct disposal facilities.
4. The cost effective and viable solution lies in adoption of a regional
   approach to derive benefits of economy of scale.
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                                               in India

Financial Benefits of Regionalization

   Reduction in the fixed costs per unit of waste
   Cost saving due to sharing of O&M cost
   Cost Sharing of professional management
   Improved bargaining power to buy better
    equipment and systems at lower costs

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Technical benefits of regionalization
   Greater access to technical resources and professional
   Use of large and sophisticated equipment (e.g. compactors);
   Stacking of waste up to greater heights that provides larger
    waste disposal capacity per acre of land.
   Cost savings in disposal and treatment.
   Proper planning and development of the site will help reduce
    the public opposition and NYMBY syndrome.
   Increased distances require the use of transfer stations to
    increase the efficiency of the transportation systems.
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                                                          in India

Economies of Scale - Disposal
Economies of scale for treatment and disposal of waste: Indian
City           Classification Population Waste*     Estimated cost (per
(Revenue                      (2001)     Tons/day   ton) of waste treatment
Division)                                           & disposal (Rs.)**
Aurangabad     Corporation   1,000,000   300        191.73
(Aurangabad)   Class I        299,828    120        289.71
(Nagpur)       Class I        111,070    40         320.8
(Amravati)     Class I        120,763    25         562.72
(Hingoli)      B Class         69,552    15         617.19
                                                                           In association
(Nandurabar)   C Class         25,034    5          1154.71                with
                                                          SWM Learning Program
                                                                in India

Opportunities of regionalization in India

 The state of Gujarat had identified 44 sites to cover 172 cities and towns in
 the state, the state of WB has identifies 29 sites to cover 126 cities and the
 state of Rajasthan has identified 71 sites to cover 183 cities and towns
 using satellite imagery. Other states can follow same example to z
 economize the cost of landfills.

 There are large opportunities of regionalization as large
 parcels of waste lands are available in most of the states which
 are way from the towns and can be economically utilized for
 the construction of a common facility for a group of towns.

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                             in India

Methodology for Establishing
      Regional Facilities

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Access to satellite data for selection of         in India

appropriate large parcel of waste land

   Facilitate identifying regional landfill sites in the
    state using satellite imagery.
   Identify large parcels of waste land which meets
    the standards
   Prepare a state map showing various sites available
    in the state.
   Calculate the proximity to the cities from the large
    parcels of land available.
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                                                        in India

Clubbing of cities/towns
                                       Case Study
   Prepare cluster of cities that
                                       Ahmedabad Urban
    are closer to a suitable parcel.   Development Authority,
   Make each cluster of towns
                                       took an initiative to club 12
    totaling up to 5-10 lacks          municipalities situated
    population to make a viable        the city of Ahmedabad and
    landfill.                          creating a regional facility
                                       (common facility) for
   Larger the population more         integrated
                                       treatment and disposal of
    viable the landfill.               waste.
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MoU between the participating cities/Towns

   Facilitate the cities to sign MoU
   Authorize the society to fix the O&M cost
   Make it mandatory for the municipality to pay O&M cost.
   Create an Escrow account
   Review and revise the tariff from time to time.

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Role of society
   Invite bids to get the design and estimate prepared
    for the landfill.
   Get the bids evaluated through experts
   Invite bids for the construction of landfills from
    qualified agencies and award contracts.
   Invite bids for operation & maintenance for the
    landfill from qualified agencies evaluate through
    professional and award contracts.

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Cost sharing arrangements
   Fix tariff from time to time for disposal of waste.
   Ensure recovery from participating municipalities through
    an arrangement of escrow account.
   Have a panel clause for non payment or delayed payment.

 Reduced burden of finding suitable land for disposal of
 Cost saving for landfill site & towards the O&M costs.
 Cost effective management of facility through professional
 Long lasting Health and Environment benefits to the
  community at large                                                In association
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Regional landfill facility at AUDA, Gujarat
Cities clubbed
Chandkheda, Kali, Ranip, Chandlodiya, Ghatlodiya, Memnagar, Jodhpur,
Vejalpur, Sarkhej, Thaltej, Bodakdev and Vastrapur

 Name of Nagar Palika / Gram   Waste generation/day in MT as per   Estimated Waste Generated @
         Panchayat                     Municipal Record                 300gm/ Capita/Day
      Chandkheda N.P.                         15                              16.64
          Kali N.P.                           3                               10.27
         Ranip N.P.                           8                               27.65
      Chandlodiya N.P.                        8                               16.84
       Ghatlodiya N.P.                        35                              32.84
       Memnagar N.P.                          6                               11.19
        Jodhpur N.P.                          16                              13.31
        Vejalpur N.P.                         40                              33.99
        Sarkhej N.P.                          6                               6.93
         Thaltej G.P.                         4.5                             13.5
       Bodakdev G.P.                          8                               8.31
       Vastrapur G.P.                         4.5                             7.39
                                                                                            In association
          TOTAL                              154                             198.86         with
                                         SWM Learning Program
                                               in India

   Cost effective is replicable by all municipalities in
    the country.
   Use of satellite data for preferably waste lands.
   Forming a society having a membership of
    participating municipalities.
   Contract for operation and maintenance of the
    disposal facility
   O&M cost paid in proportion to the waste
    delivered at the landfill or integrated treatment and
    disposal facility.
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