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					                                            Vienna Boys’ Choir
                                         Conductor: Nikolaus Müller

                                                 USA Fall 2007

                                                Programme Notes

Henry Purcell (1659 – 1695)
Excerpts from Come Ye Sons of Art
Ode for the birthday of Queen Mary II (1694) Z 323,
for soprano, two altos and bass solos, four part mixed chorus and baroque orchestra.
Text probably by Nahum Tate (1652 - 1715).

Henry Purcell was a chorister with the Chapel Royal. After his voice changed, he held a number
of musical posts at the court, including organ maker and keeper of the king‟s instruments,
composer-in-ordinary for the king‟s violins and organist of Westminster Abbey, and of the Chapel
Royal. During his lifetime, he served three consecutive kings of England: Charles II, James II and
William III.

It was part of Purcell‟s duties to compose works for royal occasions, coronations, weddings,
birthdays and funerals. Come Ye Sons of Art is the last of six birthday odes composed for Queen
Mary II, who loved music. Come Ye was written for the popular Queen‟s 30th birthday on
30 April 1694; her last, as it turned out.

The text, probably by Nahum Tate who was Poet Laureate at the time, is flowery and highly
complimentary of the Queen, although it leaves something to be desired for poetic merit. One
line in Sound the Trumpet deserves comment; “you make the listening shores rebound” is a play on
the word “shore” and the name of the Sergeant Trumpeter to the English king, a Matthias Shore,
whose abilities on the trumpet sparked a number of virtuoso compositions for that instrument.

1. Come Ye Sons of Art
Come, come, ye sons of Art, come, come a way.
Tune all your voices and instruments play,
to celebrate this triumphant day.

2. Sound the Trumpet
Sound the trumpet till around
You make the listening shores rebound.
On the sprightly hautboy play.
All the instruments of joy
That skilful numbers can employ
To celebrate the glory of this day.

Jacobus Gallus (~1550 - 1591)
Pueri concinite.
Nativity motet.

Jacobus Gallus, also known as Jacob Handl, was born in Slovenia. He was educated in the
Cistercian monastery in Sittich, and possibly in Fiume or Triest. He arrived in Austria as a

Patrons please note: the program is subject to change                                           1
                                           Vienna Boys’ Choir
                                        Conductor: Nikolaus Müller

                                                 USA Fall 2007

                                               Programme Notes

teenager, singing first in the Abbey at Melk and then in the Hofmusikkapelle in Vienna. For most
of his life, he was in the service of the Roman Catholic church.

Gallus‟s music combines ideas and elements of the Franco-Flemish, German, and Italian
Renaissance styles. Contemporaries admired his music for its beautifully woven counterpoint and
compared him to Palestrina (1525-94). This was high praise indeed, as Palestrina‟s music was
considered “pure” in the sense of the Platonic ideal of music.

Gallus differs from Palestrina in his use of rhythm. He deftly moves between double and triple
meter, he uses word accents to change rhythm, and creates moments of emotional drama and

Pueri concinite nato regi psallite.
Voce pia dicite: Apparuit quem genuit Maria.
Sunt impleta quem predixit Gabriel
Eja! Virgo Deum genuit quem divina voluit clementia.
Hodie apparuit in Israel.
Ex Maria virgine natus est Rex. Alleluia.

Boys, begin to sing of the king‟s birth,
Say with a pious voice: He has appeared whom Mary conceived.
It has happened what Gabriel has foretold.
Eja. Through the virgin God is born as divine mercy wanted.
Today he has appeared in Israel.
Out of the virgin Mary the King is born. Alleluia.

Jakob Arcadelt (~1505 - 68), Pierre Louis Philippe Dietzsch (1808 – 1865)
Ave Maria
Motet for four part mixed chorus

The Ave Maria is perhaps the most popular of all the Marian prayers. It is composed of two
distinct parts, a Scriptural part and an intercessory part. The first part, the Scriptural part, is taken
from the Gospel of St. Luke and joins together the words of the Angel Gabriel at the
Annunciation (Lk 1:28) together with Elizabeth's greeting to Mary at the Visitation (Luke 1:42).
The joining of these two passages can be found as early as the fifth, and perhaps even the fourth,
century in the eastern liturgies of St. James of Antioch and St. Mark of Alexandria. It is also
recorded in the ritual of St. Severus (538 AD). In the west it was in use in Rome by the 7th
century for it is prescribed as an offertory antiphon for the feast of the Annunciation. The great
popularity of the phrase by the 11th century is attested to in the writings of St. Peter Damian
(1007-1072) and Hermann of Tournai (d.c. 1147). Later, probably by Pope Urban IV around the
year 1262, Jesus' name was inserted at the end of the two passages.
The second half of the prayer (Holy Mary) can be traced back to the 15th century where two
endings are found. One ending, Sancta Maria, Mater Dei, ora pro nobis peccatoribus, is found in
the writings of St. Bernardine of Siena (1380 - 1444 AD) and the Carthusians. A second ending,

Patrons please note: the program is subject to change                                                  2
                                           Vienna Boys’ Choir
                                        Conductor: Nikolaus Müller

                                                 USA Fall 2007

                                               Programme Notes

Sancta Maria, Mater Dei, ora pro nobis nunc et in hora mortis nostrae, can be found in the
writings of the Servites, in a Roman Breviary, and in some German Dioceses. The current form of
the prayer became the standard form sometime in the 16th century and was included in the
reformed Breviary promulgated by Pope St. Pius V in 1568.
This motet is an adaptation of Arcadelt‟s Chanson Nous voyons que les hommes (published in 1554)
by Pierre Louis Philippe Dietsch (1808 - 1865). It was first performed in 1842, and is a popular
piece with choirs to this day. The original chanson praises the virtues of love and the nature of
love against the rigid laws of society.

Ave Maria, gratia plena, Dominus tecum. Benedicta tu in mulieribus, et benedictus fructus ventris tui, Jesus.
Sancta Maria, Mater Dei, ora pro nobis peccatoribus, nunc, et in hora mortis nostrae. Amen.

Hail Mary, full of Grace, the Lord be with you. Blessed are you among women, and blessed is the
fruit of your womb, Jesus.
Holy Mary, Mother of God, pray for us sinners, now and in the hour of our death. Amen.

Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart (1756 – 1791)
Dies Irae, from: Requiem in d minor K. 626
Arr. for boys‟ choir: Raoul Gehringer

Mozart‟s Requiem, his famous last work, is well-known, not just since Peter Shaffer‟s Amadeus.
Conspiration theories abound about the dying composer and the anonymous employer. Still, the
Requiem remains a shattering and emotional work which has a deep impact on performers and
listeners alike.

Dies irae (“Day of wrath”) is the beginning of a medieval hymn about Jugdement Day; from the
14th century until 1970, it was officially part of the Mass for the dead in the Roman liturgy. The
complete hymn contains 17 stanzas; on this occasion, the choir performs the first two.

Thomas of Celano (c. 1190 – 1260), St. Francis of Assisi‟s biographer, is traditionally thought to
be its author; however, a codex dating to the end of the 12th century makes this unlikely: Thomas
would have to have penned it as an infant. Formally, it marks a radical departure from antique
hymns. Instead of relying on the length of and stress on certain syllables, the Dies irae uses end
rhymes and word rhythm. The text is based on Zephaniah 1: 14-18.

The reference to the Sibyl is interesting: the author wants to lend credence to his words by
referring to a very old authority indeed, older than the Bible and at home in a non-Christian
culture. This would underline the general validity of his words – there is no escaping, not even if
you think you are a heathen. He is probably thinking of the Delphic Sibyl.

Dies iræ! dies illa
Solvet sæclum in favilla
Teste David cum Sibylla!

Patrons please note: the program is subject to change                                                           3
                                           Vienna Boys’ Choir
                                        Conductor: Nikolaus Müller

                                                 USA Fall 2007

                                               Programme Notes

Quantus tremor est futurus,
quando judex est venturus,
cuncta stricte discussurus

Day of wrath, on that day
the world will dissolve into ashes,
as David and the sibyl have prophesied.

What quaking there will be,
When the Judge will appear
to judge everything.

Felix Mendelssohn-Bartholdy (1809 - 1847)
Veni Domine op. 39/1

Felix Mendelssohn, the second of four children, studied piano with Ludwig Berger and theory
and composition with Karl Friedrich Zelter. At the age of nine, he gave his first publi c recital, at
the age of ten, he became a member of the Berliner Singakademie. He was eleven when his own
first compositions were publicly perfomed. A year later, he met Goethe, Carl Maria von Weber
and Cherubini.

Thereafter, he turned out sonatas, concertos, string symphonies, piano quartets and Singspiele
which revealed his increasing mastery of counterpoint and form.

In 1829 he directed a pioneering performance of Bach's St. Matthew Passion at the Berlin
Singakademie (with a reported chorus of 600 singers): this one performance (an “event”) put Bach
firmly on the repertoire list for choirs. Mendelssohn was also famous as a festival organiser, he
was associated especially with the Lower Rhine and Birmingham music festivals. Mendelssohn‟s
most significant achievement as a conductor and organiser was in Leipzig (1835-47), where he
conducted the Gewandhaus Orchestra to great acclaim. In 1843, he founded the Leipzig
Conservatory and managed to recruit Robert Schumann and Moritz Hauptmann as teachers.

His death at the age of 38, after a series of strokes, was mourned internationally.

Mendelssohn's music shows influences of Bach (fugal technique), Handel (rhythms, harmonic
progressions), Mozart (dramatic characterisation, forms, textures) and Beethoven (instrumental
technique). He clearly liked to be inspired by his surroundings; his music often has literary,
artistic, historical, geographical or emotional connotations and the underlying ideas are easily

Veni Domine takes up the advent theme set by the opening chant of this program. Mendelssohn‟s
version of the text, composed in 1830, is a three part motet for women‟s or children‟s voices
accompanied by organ or piano in g minor.

Patrons please note: the program is subject to change                                              4
                                           Vienna Boys’ Choir
                                        Conductor: Nikolaus Müller

                                                 USA Fall 2007

                                               Programme Notes

Veni Domine et noli tardare.
Relaxa facinora plebi tuae et revoca dispersos in terram tuam.

Excita Domine potentiam tuam et veni ut salvos nos facias.
Veni Domine et noli tardare.

Come, Lord, and do not hesitate,
Forgive your people their transgressions and gather the dispersed in your land.

Exert your power and come to save us.
Come, Lord, and do not hesitate.

César Franck (1822 - 1890)
Panis angelicus (The bread of angels)

César Franck was born in Liège in 1822 and discovered his true vocation fairly late in life, writing
his first major work at the age of forty. His father had envisaged a career as a piano virtuoso for
his son, and Franck dutifully studied at the conservatories of his native Liège (1830-1835) and
Paris (1837-1842). However, his first love was the organ; he was an extraordinary organist, and
held appointments at a number of churches. In 1858, he became the organist in the church
Ste. Clothilde. His playing, and in particular his skills at improvisation, attracted many admirers
and students. In 1871 Franck, who was known around Paris as “Pater Seraphicus” on account of
his seraphic disposition, became professor at the Conservatory.
Franck‟s musical style owes elements to Beethoven, Liszt and Wagner; he in turn had considerable
influence on contemporary French music.

Panis angelicus was written in 1871, the year Franck received his professorship; the original version
was for tenor, organ, harp, cello and double bass.

Panis angelicus fit panis hominum, dat panis coelicus figuris terminum.
O res mirabilis manducat Dominum pauper, servus et humilis.

The bread of the angels will become the bread of men,
the heavenly bread sets a goal for the shadows.
O wondrous thing, through which the poor and lowly servant may taste the Lord.

Benjamin Britten (1913 - 1976)
Kyrie, Gloria and Agnus Dei, from the Missa brevis D-Dur opus 63

Patrons please note: the program is subject to change                                               5
                                             Vienna Boys’ Choir
                                          Conductor: Nikolaus Müller

                                                  USA Fall 2007

                                                 Programme Notes

Britten‟s Mass is a short setting of the Ordinary without the Creed; the text is Latin. It was written
in 1959 for the choristers of Westminster Cathedral Choir. Britten treated the boys‟ voices much
as a reedy wind instrument, and introduced everyday noises into the composition. The overall
sound is cheerful, almost jaunty, certainly in the Gloria which is dominated by D major. The
dramatic Agnus by contrast moves to d minor, countered by B-flat major. While the boys sing of
the peccata mundi, the sins of the world, the organ imitates the honking of car horns. The final
prayer for peace ends in a whispered plea and thus, uncertainty.

Kyrie eleison. Christe eleison. Kyrie eleison.

Lord, have mercy upon us. Christ, have mercy upon us. Lord, have mercy upon us.

Gloria in excelsis Deo, et in terra pax hominibus bonae voluntatis.
Laudamus te, benedicimus te, adoramus te, glorificamus te.
Gratias agimus tibi propter magnam gloriam tuam.
Domine Deus rex coelestis, Deus Pater omnipotens.
Domine Fili Unigenite, Jesu Christe. Domine Deus, Agnus Dei, Filius Patris.
Qui tollis peccata mundi, miserere nobis.
Qui tollis peccata mundi, suscipe deprecationem nostram.
Qui sedes ad dexteram patris, miserere nobis.
Quoniam tu solus sanctus, tu solus Dominus, tu solus altissimus, Jesu Christe, cum Sancto Spiritu, in gloria Dei
Patris. Amen.

Glory be to God on high, and on earth peace to men of good will.
We praise Thee; we bless Thee; we adore Thee; we glorify Thee.
We give Thee thanks for Thy great glory, O Lord God, heavenly king, God the Father almighty,
O Lord Jesus Christ, the only-begotten Son.
O Lord God, Lamb of God, Son of the Father,
Who takest away the sins of the world, have mercy on us.
Who takest away the sins of the world, receive our prayer.
Who sittest at the right hand of the Father, have mercy on us.
For Thou alone art holy; Thou alone art the Lord; Thou alone, O Jesus Christ, together with the
Holy Ghost, art most high in the glory of God the Father. Amen.

Agnus Dei
Agnus Dei, qui tollis peccata mundi, dona nobis pacem.

Lamb of God, who takest away the sins of the world: grant us peace.

Patrons please note: the program is subject to change                                                              6
                                           Vienna Boys’ Choir
                                        Conductor: Nikolaus Müller

                                                 USA Fall 2007

                                               Programme Notes

Orlando di Lasso (~1532 - 1594)

The well-travelled composer is also known as Orlandus Lassus; some sources use his French name
Rolande. He sang as a boy in the church of Saint Nicolas in his native Mons, and was even taken
„on tour‟ by Ferdinand Gonzaga, who became viceroy of Sicily in 1545. Lasso travelled through
France and Italy, and stayed at a number of European courts. Under the impression of court
festivities and the Comedia dell‟Arte, he wrote much secular music. From 1553 to 1554, Lasso did
a brief stint in the Vatican, where he encountered the masses of Nicolas Gombert. He might have
travelled to England, and in 1555, he worked for influential merchant families in Antwerp.

In 1556, he took up a post at the Bavarian Court in Munich; eventually he became the director of
the Bavarian court music. The court musicians were required to perform a daily Eucharist, at the
duke‟s table, and at family and state occasions.

Fun-loving di Lasso was a bit of a prankster: He occasionally participated in theatrical comedies,
not always to the unadulterated delight of his employers. When he dressed up as a donkey, he was
severely told off. He was, in spite of this, a famous and highly regarded composer, who remained
easy-going and modest throughout his life. The Echo illustrates di Lasso‟s sense of humor.

O la, o che bon echo! Pigliamo ci, piacere!
Ha ha ha ha ha, ridiamo tutti!
O bon compagno! Che voi tu? Voria che tu cantassi una canzona.
Perchè? Perchè si? Perchè no? Perchè non voglio. Perchè non voi?
Perchè non mi piace! Taci dico!
Taci tu! O gran poltron! Signor, si!
Orsu non più! Andiamo! Addio bon echo! Addio bon echo!
Rest' in pace! Basta!

O, what a good echo! Call it, try it if you please.
Ha ha ha ha ha, let us all laugh!
What a good companion! What do you want? I want you to sing us a song.
Why? Why yes? Why no? Because I don‟t want to. Why not?
Because I don‟t want to. Be quiet, I say.
Be quiet yourself! You large imbecile! Yes, sir!
Enough now. Let‟s go! Good bye, good echo! Good bye, good echo!
Rest in peace! Basta.

Franz Schubert (1797 - 1828)
Ständchen D 920
Text: Fanz Grillparzer (1791 - 1872)

Ständchen D 920 was written in 1827; at Anna Fröhlich‟s request, or rather, behest. Ms. Fröhlich
was also the driving force behind Grillparzer‟s poem, as evinced by a contemporary account.

Patrons please note: the program is subject to change                                            7
                                           Vienna Boys’ Choir
                                        Conductor: Nikolaus Müller

                                                  USA Fall 2007

                                                Programme Notes

“Grillparzer, I cannot help you. You were supposed to have written a poem for me, for
Miss Gosmar‟s birthday.” One can almost see Grillparzer cringing, trying to get out of the
assignment with a tentative “Well, if I have an idea”. Ms. Fröhlich, however, wasn‟t to be
deterred: “Well then, make sure you have an idea”. A few days later Grillparzer brought her
Ständchen (serenade), and Fröhlich, who was a pupil of Schubert‟s, handed it to the composer,
informing him, “You, Schubert, you must put this to music.”
“You Schubert”, propped on his piano, read the poem, exclaiming several times, “but that is
beautiful, that is beautiful”. Three days later, Schubert delivered his composition to Fröhlich. It
was scored for mezzo soprano solo and four part men‟s chorus. Ms. Fröhlich was not pleased,
“No, Schubert, it is no good like that, it has to be an ovation from Ms. Gosmar‟s girl friends only.
You must make it for women‟s chorus”. Schubert obliged; how could he not?

Grillparzer‟s poem certainly appealed to Schubert, who was forever wrestling with the romantic
topos of unrequited love, both in his work and in real life. Ständchen is a poem about the meaning
of friendship; the sage mentioned in the text is Diogenes, who went around the agora in Athens
in broad daylight, shining a light into people‟s eyes. Most Athenians tended to ignore him, much
as modern passers-by would, probably dismissing him as a nutter; but one caring and enlightened
fellow finally asked him why he was doing this. “Ah”, cried Diogenes, brandishing his lantern, “I
am looking for a human”. He meant a real, caring human. If real humans are rare, real friendly
humans are a dying breed, therefore you should not ignore a friendly knock on your door.
Grillparzer might as well have saved his breath. His adored prefers to sleep through it all, dead to
the world, ostensibly in a coma. He can only turn to sarcasm, like cynic Diogenes. And take the
flowers with him. One wonders what Miss Gosmar made of her birthday ovation.

Zögernd leise in des Dunkels nächt’ger Stille sind wir hier;
Und den Finger sanft gekrümmt, leise, leise,
Pochen wir an des Liebchens Kammerthür.
Doch nun steigend, schwellend, hebend
Mit vereinter Stimme, laut
Rufen aus wir hochvertraut:
Schlaf du nicht,
wenn der Neigung Stimme spricht!
Sucht’ ein Weiser nah und ferne
Menschen einst mit der Laterne;
Wieviel seltner dann als Gold
Menschen uns geneigt und hold?
Drum wenn Freundschaft, Liebe spricht
Freundin, Liebchen, schlaf du nicht!
Aber was in allen Reichen
Wär’ dem Schlummer zu vergleichen?
Drum statt Worten und statt Gaben
Sollst du nun auch Ruhe haben.
Noch ein Grüßchen, noch ein Wort,
Es verstummt die frohe Weise,
Leise, leise schleichen wir uns wieder fort!

Patrons please note: the program is subject to change                                             8
                                           Vienna Boys’ Choir
                                        Conductor: Nikolaus Müller

                                                 USA Fall 2007

                                               Programme Notes

Softly, quietly in the dark silence of night we approach;
with a gently bent finger, quietly, quietly
we knock on darling‟s door.
Presently, rising, swelling, lifting
our voices, loudly
we exclaim, intimately:
Do not sleep,
when love‟s voice speaks.
Did not a wise man once look high and low
for humans with a lantern?
How much rarer than gold
are people who like us?
So when friendship, love are speaking,
dearest, darling, don‟t you sleep.
But what in all the world
could be compared to slumber?
So instead of words and gifts
you shall have your peace.
One more greeting, one more word,
The cheerful song falls silent,
softly, quietly we slink away.

Robert Schumann (1810 - 1856)
Zigeunerleben op.29/3
Text: Emanuel Geibel (1815 - 1884)

Schumann, a bookseller‟s son, showed early ability as a pianist. He tried composing and writing at
a young age. In 1821, at the grand old age of 11, he went to Leipzig to study law, but actually
spent his time on music and literature. After a brief intermezzo in Heidelberg (more law), he was
finally able to convince his family that he should become a pianist. He moved back to Leipzig, to
live with the Wieck family.
In 1834 Schumann founded the Neue Zeitschrift für Musik, a music review. Schumann was a
perceptive critic, and his writings helped a number of young composers along in their career. A
child of his time and certainly into cloak-and-dagger stuff, he would occasionally write under two
noms de plume. When he felt lyrical and thoughtful, he was Eusebius; when he felt fiery urges, he
called himself Florestan.
He fell in love with Wieck‟s daughter Clara, who was a gifted pianist. Clara‟s father, however,
objected to their marriage, and it took the couple five years before they were finally able to marry.
Schumann continued to compose. He was less successful in other things: he tried teaching at
Mendelssohn‟s conservatory in Leipzig and tried his hand at conducting, but lacked conviction.
He may have also felt insecure with regard to Clara, who had become something of a pop star (the
Romantic period basically invented the concept). Depressions followed, possibly worsened by
syphilis. From 1854 onwards Schumann suffered hallucinations, which scared him into checking
himself into an asylum where he died in 1856.

Patrons please note: the program is subject to change                                              9
                                             Vienna Boys’ Choir
                                          Conductor: Nikolaus Müller

                                                       USA Fall 2007

                                                  Programme Notes

Schumann‟s output includes a piano concerto, a cello concerto, symphonies and large choral
works as well as more than 150 lieder; but he is especially known for his introvert piano and
chamber music.

Zigeunerleben (Gypsy Life) was written in 1840, the year Schumann married Clara Wieck; a year in
which he wrote the grand total of 138 lieder. Zigeunerleben is the third of three poems by Emanuel
Geibel that make up Schumann‟s opus 29; the others are “Ländliches Lied” (Rural song) and
“Lied“ (Song). Zigeunerleben is a very lively, dramatic piece of music, with optional parts for
tambourine and triangle to create “gypsy” effects.

German Romantic composers and poets had a fascination with the „exotic‟. Enigmatic gypsies and
noble savages inspired countless stories and legends. Zigeunerleben describes a night in a gypsy
camp. The gypsies, who are portrayed in fantastic epithets, “suckled by the sacred waters of the
Nile” and “bronzed by the southern heat of Spain” gather around the campfire for stories, spells
and food, served by an old crone: a witch? They listen, spellbound; they dance, entranced; they
sing, probably, and the fire casts a mysterious glow, but the whole is an illusion. In the morning,
the magic is gone, it is grey, and cold, and the nightly revellers slink off to an unknown
destination and an unknown future: gypsy life wasn‟t and isn‟t all it is cracked up to be.

Im Schatten des Waldes, im Buchengezweig,
da regt’s sich’s und raschelt und flüstert zugleich,
es flackern die Flammen, es gaukelt der Schein
um bunte Gestalten, um Laub und Gestein.

Das ist der Zigeuner bewegliche Schar,
mit blitzendem Aug’ und mit wallendem Haar,
gesäugt an des Niles geheiligter Flut,
gebräunt von Hispaniens südlicher Glut.

Um’s lodernde Feuer da lagern die Männer
Verwildert und kühn,
da kauern die Weiber und rüsten das Mahl
und füllen geschäftig den alten Pokal
und Sagen und Lieder ertönen im Rund
wie Spaniens Gärten so blühend und bunt
und magische Sprüche für Not und Gefahr
verkündet die Alte der horchenden Schar.

Schwarzäugige Mädchen beginnen den Tanz
Da sprühen die Fackeln den rötlichen Glanz.
Es lockt die Gitarre, die Cymbel erklingt,
wie wild und wilder der Reigen sich schlingt.

Dann ruh’n sie ermüdet vom nächtlichen Reih’n
Es rauschen die Buchen in Schlummer sie ein,
und die aus der glücklichen Heimat verbannt,

Patrons please note: the program is subject to change                                           10
                                           Vienna Boys’ Choir
                                        Conductor: Nikolaus Müller

                                                   USA Fall 2007

                                                  Programme Notes

sie schauen im Traume das glückliche Land.

Doch wie nun im Osten der Morgen erwacht
verlöschen die schönen Gebilde der Nacht
es scharret das Maultier bei Tagesbeginn,
fort ziehen die Gestalten: wer sagt dir, wohin?

In the shadow of the forest, among branches of beech,
something stirs, and rustles, and whispers all at once,
flames flicker, and their light casts a spell
around colourful figures, foliage and stones.

That is the tribe of agile gypsies:
eyes flashing, hair flowing;
   suckled by the sacred waters of the Nile
bronzed by the southern heat of Spain.

The men lie around the fire
Wild and brave,
Where the women squat to prepare the meal.
They fill the old chalice
And legends and songs resound in the circle
Blossoming and colourful like the gardens of Spain
And magic spells against need and danger
The old woman tells the listening group.

Black-eyed girls start the dance
Torches cast the reddish reflection.
The guitar seduces, the cymbals sound,
And the round dance spins wilder and wilder circles.

At last they lie down, tired from the nightly round,
The beeches rustle them to their slumber
And those that are banished from their happy homeland,
May see it in their dreams.

As morning wakes in the east,
The night‟s beautiful fancies expire.
The mule paws the ground at daybreak,
The figures move away: who can tell you where?

International Folk Songs

Pedro Elías Gutiérrez (1870 – 1954)

Patrons please note: the program is subject to change                11
                                           Vienna Boys’ Choir
                                        Conductor: Nikolaus Müller

                                                 USA Fall 2007

                                               Programme Notes

Alma llanera
Text: Rafael Bolívar Coronado (1884 – 1924)
Joropo from Venezuela.
Arr: Andy Icochea Icochea

Alma llanera, Venezuela‟s unofficial “national anthem”, is a joropo (a type of Venezuelan dance)
from the zarzuela by the same name. It was first performed to great acclaim in Caracas in 1914.

The waltz-like joropo originated in the Venezuelan and Colombian llanos (plains); it shows
influences of European and African music. Joropo is usually played as well as sung. The word,
which can mean “party”, also denotes a performance of joropo.

Yo nací en una ribera del Arauca vibrador
Soy hermano de la espuma de las garzas de las rosas y del sol

Me arrulló la viva diana de la brisa en el palmar
Y por eso tengo el alma como el alma primorosa del cristal!

Amo, lloro, canto, sueño, con claveles de pasión
Amo, lloro, canto, sueño para ornar las rubias crines del potro de mi amador

Danny Boy
Irish folk song (17th century).
Tune: Londonderry Air (Rory Dall O‟Cahan?). Text: Frederick Edward Weatherly (1848-1929)

The tune made its first appearance in print in George Petrie‟s (1789-1866) Ancient Music of Ireland
(1855). Petrie‟s source was Jane Ross of Limavady, County Londonderry (hence the name), who
claimed to have heard it from an itinerant piper. Both Ross and Petrie thought that the tune was
“very old”.
As the tune grew in popularity, people began to doubt Ross‟s story. There were no additional
versions of the melody. The structure of the tune is unlike any other traditional Irish tune, and it
is not suited for words in any of the known Irish song meters. Ross was unable to provide any
supporting evidence (the name of the piper, for example), and the suspicion grew that she had
composed it herself and was trying to pass it off as a genuine Irish tune (although by doing so she
would have deprived herself of considerable royalty payments). Ross maintained the truth of her
original account.
In the meantime, researchers have speculated that the unknown piper had been using extreme
rubato, and this might have disguised the original rhythm and might have led Jane Ross to note
the tune in common instead of triple time. If the prolonged notes occurring on the first beat of
the bar are shortened, the tune falls at once into a rhythm typical for Irish folk music. Others have
drawn attention to the similarity between Londonderry Air and Aislean an Oigfear, a tune published
by Edward Bunting (1773 - 1843) in 1796. Bunting had collected it from Denis Hempson (1697 -
1807), a harpist from Magilligan, County Derry, very near Limavady where Jane Ross lived. There

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is some indication that the tune was composed by Rory Dall O‟Cahan (also known as Rory Dall
Morison) in the 17th century.

There are more than 100 poems set to Londonderry Air; Thomas Moore (1770 - 1852) wrote My
Gentle Harp to the tune. The text of Danny Boy is by Frederick Edward Weatherly, an English
lawyer who apparently never set foot in Ireland. He wrote the poem in 1910. He encountered the
tune in 1912, and decided to fit them together. His song proved especially popular in the United
States. The song is about a poor farming family in Ireland whose only remaining son, Danny,
follows in the footsteps of his two older brothers who went to war and never came back. He does
not know that his father is seriously ill, and as he leaves, his father‟s heart is heavy, because he
knows he will probably not see his son again.

O Danny boy, the pipes, the pipes are calling
From glen to glen, and down the mountain side
The summer's gone, and all the flowers are dying
'Tis you, 'tis you must go and I must bide.
But come ye back when summer's in the meadow
Or when the valley's hushed and white with snow
'Tis I'll be here in sunshine or in shadow
O Danny boy, o Danny boy, I love you so.

And if you come, when all the flowers are dying
And I am dead, as dead I well may be
You’ll come and find the place where I am lying
And kneel and say an Ave there for me.
And I shall hear, tho’ soft you tread above me
And all my dreams will warm and sweeter be
If you'll not fail to tell me that you love me
I’ll simply sleep in peace until you come to me.
I’ll simply sleep in peace until you come to me.

A Dudule
Chassidic Song.
Text and tune: Levi Yitzchok of Berditschev (1740 - 1810)
Arr.: Gerald Wirth

Chassidic song is a particular type of Jewish music. It originated in Poland and the Ukraine in the
18th century, and it reflects the mystic ideas of Chassidism. The leaders of the chassidic
movement were called tzadikim (singular tzadik), „righteous ones‟. A tzadik had a residence or
court where his followers, the chassidim „pious ones‟ would congregate to be instructed and
inspired. Chassidism put piety above learning, and regarded the expression of joy as chief duty.
Music, and vocal music in particular, played an important role: what better way to express joy?
Each tzadik had his own tunes, inspired from the divine and shaped to reflect his thoughts and
emotions. The tzadik either sang himself, or – if he did not have a voice to speak of – employed a

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                                        Conductor: Nikolaus Müller

                                                 USA Fall 2007

                                               Programme Notes

court singer. Some tzadik invented new tunes on a daily basis, but no one would sing tunes from
another court.

The tune of A Dudule starts in minor, and it ends in minor; it is partly rhythmical, partly
arhythmical. The text is a mixture of Hebrew and Yiddish. The title is a play on the German
words „du‟ (you, or rather, in this context, thou) and „dudeln’ (to tootle, compare the German
„Dudelsack‟, bagpipe). A „Dudule‟ might thus be a ditty on the word „du‟. The singer addresses God
twice, and adds the diminutive –le (=little, rather like English -kin), a term of endearment.

Ribono schel olom
Ich wel dir a Dudule singen, du du du du du.
Aye emzoechoh weaye lo em zoechoh
Wo kan man dich jo gefinen,
und wo kan man dich nit gefinen? Du du du du
as wo ich geh is doch du, un wo ich steh is doch du
rak du, nor du wieder du, ober du du du du du du du
is emizen gut, is doch du
wecholiloh schlecht oj du. Du du du du du.
Atoh du hoyoh du howe du yihye du
Atoh du moloch melech yimloch
Du du du du du
Schomayim du erez du, maloh du, matoh dudu , dudu, dudu.
Wo ich kehr mich, wo ich wend mich, du! Du!

O Lord of the world,
I shall sing you a „dudule‟.
Where can I find you, and where can I not find you?
For where(ever) I go, you are, and where(ever) I stand, you are.
You, only you and you again.
If life is good, it is you,
and if it is bad, it is also you. You . . .
You are, you have been, and you will be.
You did reign, you reign and you will reign.
You . . .
Heavens – you, earth – you, the high – you, low – you.
Where(ever) I turn from, where(ever) I turn to: you! You.

Charles Hubert Hastings Parry (1848 - 1918)
Jerusalem (1916)
Text: William Blake (1757 – 1827)

Parry wrote the music for an old poem by Blake written between 1800 and 1804. The first two
lines are sometimes attributed to John Milton.

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In Britain, it is especially associated with the Women‟s Institute and conferences of the Labour
Party. “Jerusalem” is sung during the Last Night of the Proms at the Royal Albert Hall in London.
Edward Elgar later added an orchestral score. There are a number of pop versions, and the piece
was used by Vangelis for the soundtrack of the 1981 film “Chariots of Fire”.

The text refers to a popular legend, according to which Jesus visited Glastonbury in the company
of Joseph of Arimathea; Blake apparently believed this.

And did those feet in ancient time
Walk upon England’s mountains green?
And was the Holy Lamb of God
On England’s pleasant pastures seen?
And did the countenance divine
Shine forth upon our clouded hills?
And was Jerusalem builded here
Among these dark satanic mills.

Bring me my bow of burning gold!
Bring me my arrows of desire!
Bring me my spear! O clouds unfold!
Bring me my chariot of fire!
I will not cease from mental fight
Nor shall my sword sleep in my hand
Till we have built Jerusalem
In England’s green and pleasant land!

La cucaracha (The cockroach)
Mexican traditional corrido
Arr. Raoul Gehringer

La cucaracha is a Mexican corrido (“running song”) in typical 4/4 time. The song opens with a
chorus (estribillo), followed by as many verses as singers or audience may wish. Verses would often
be made up on the spot. A verse of a corrido consists of four lines with eight syllables each. The
name refers to the fact that the syllables of one verse are sung without interruption.

La cucaracha dates to the early 20th century; it was sung (with a somewhat different text, and many
more verses) by Pancho Villa‟s guerrilla troops during the Mexican revolution. In the song, the
troops referred to themselves as “cockroaches”, a particularly irritating kind of insect.

La cucaracha, la cucaracha,
Ya no quiere caminar
Por que no tiene, por que le falta
Dinero para gastar.

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                                        Conductor: Nikolaus Müller

                                                 USA Fall 2007

                                               Programme Notes

Una cucaracha pinta
Le dijo a una colorada
Vamonos para mi tierra
A pasar la temporada.

Todos los muchachos tienen
En los ojos dos estrellas
Per las mejicanitas
De seguro son mas bellas.

German and Austrian Folk Songs

All mein’ Gedanken die ich hab’ (All my thoughts that I have)
From the Lochamer Liederbuch (Locham Song Book) c. 1450.
Arr. Gerald Wirth

The so-called Lochamer Liederbuch was written by probably six musically versed people; very
likely acquaintances of the composer and organist Conrad Paumann (~1415-1473) with whose
works for keyboard instruments it was bound together around 1455. One of the copyists was
Brother Judocus of Windsheim, a small town near Nuremberg. Among the authors are Oswald
von Wolkenstein, the Monk of Salzburg and Gilles Binchois.

The gesenngk püch (as is written on the manuscript itself) was named after its first owner, Wolflein
von Locham(mer). It contains 46 songs in mensural notation, two in two part settings, seven in
three part settings. The songs range from coarse songs with churlish comments or glosses in the
margin, tender love songs such as „All mein Gedanken“, sacred songs for Corpus Christi, to
blessings for meals and dance songs. It might be called a sampler of music played in 15th century

Johannes Brahms wrote a setting of All mein Gedanken (WoO 33, Deutsche Volkslieder No. 30,
published in 1894).

All mein Gedanken, die ich hab’, die sind bei dir.
Du auserwählter einger Trost, bleib stets bei mir.
Du, du, du sollst an mich gedenken.
Hätt ich aller Wunsch Gewalt, von dir wollt ich nicht wenken.

Du auserwählter einger Trost, gedenk daran,
mein Leib und Seel, das sollst du gar zu eigen han.
Dein, dein, dein will ich ewig bleiben.
Du gibst Freud und hohen Mut, kannst all mein Leid vertreiben.

All my thoughts that I have, are with you.

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                                        Conductor: Nikolaus Müller

                                                 USA Fall 2007

                                               Programme Notes

You chosen as my only consolation, stay always with me.
You, you, you shall think of me.
If I had the power of all wishes, I would not sway from you.

You chosen as my only consolation, think of this,
My body and soul shall be in your possession.
Yours, yours, yours I will be forever.
You give (me) gladness and high mind, you can disperse all my pain.

Der Huljoi
Arr. G. Wirth
Austrian Yodel.

Folk songs are a tradition. Every country, every nation has it. Everyone who sings, carries the
tradition on, spreads it and changes it in the process. The origins of folk songs are notoriously
difficult to trace. There is a feeling that they are in some way “generated by the people” and
typical of a landscape.

Yodels are one of the chief elements of Alpine songs; they literally “reflect” the Alpine landscape .
The echo generated by the mountains helps finding more and more elaborate variations of a
yodel. Yodelling, which is an expression of a sentiment done on the spur of a moment, has no
text; instead, singers use various similar sounding syllables. There are a few standard yodels
popular throughout the Alps; the “Huljoi” has been claimed by a number of Austrian regions as

Und wanns amal schen aper wird (And when it starts to thaw again)
Alpine song with yodelling from the town of Eisenerz (Styria).
Arr. Gerald Wirth

A cheerful alpine song, which describes the ascent to the alpine pastures in summer and the jolly
relations between the herdsmen and women. The Austrian and Bavarian word “aper” literally
means “(partly) snowless”, from Latin apertus “open”.

Und wanns amal schen aper wird und auf die Almen grean,
wann der Goaßer mit die Goaßlen geht und Senndrin mit die Kiah.

Die Senndrin führt ihr frischer Muat schnurgrad der Alma zua,
sie sagt: „Juchhe, mir geht’s schon guat, wann kimmst das erschtmal Bua?“

Und wiari auf die Alma kimm, da brummelt schon der Stier,
da siach i schon di Hittn stehn und jauchz vor ihrer Tüa.

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And when (the ground) turns nice and snowless and (when) the pastures turn green,
When the goatherd goes with the goats and the dairymaid with the cows.

Her good cheer leads the dairymaid directly to the pastures,
She says, “Hello, I feel well, when do you come for the first time, boy?”

And as I reach the pasture, the bull bellows,
I see the hut standing and I shout before her door.

Der Summer ist aus (Summer is over)
Alpine autumn song from Upper Styria.
Arr. Gerald Wirth

Der Summer ist aus is a so-called ‚Brauchtumslied‟, a song which describes local traditions and old
customs. This one tells about the cattle drive from the alpine pastures, in the autumn. Herdsmen
and dairymen used to gather afterwards in an inn and sing.
Similar songs are known from the Tyrol and Upper Bavaria.

Der Summer is aus, i muaß abi ins Tal,
pfiat di Gott, mei liabi Alma, pfiat di Gott tausend Mal.
Schian stad is schon wordn, koa Vögerl singt mehr,
ja und es waht schon der Schneewind vom Wetterstoan her.

Ös Stoanwänd, ös Gamsberg, pfiat enk Gott all mitnand.
Ös tausend schöne Bleamerl, so liab und bekannt.
Mei Hüterl, mei kloans, ja kimmt mer nit aus’m Sinn,
ja, wo i oftmals so traurig, so glücki gwest bin.

So hart wia ma heut is, is ma a no nia gschögn,
als sollt i mei Alma heut s’letzte Mal segn.
Und miaßt i gar bald schon zur Erd und zur Ruah,
so deckts mi mit Felsstoa und Almbleamal zu.

Summer is over, I have to go down into the valley,
God bless you, my dear pasture, God bless you a thousand times.
It has become nice and quiet, no bird sings anymore,
Well, and already the snow bearing wind blows from the Wetterstoan.

You Stoanwänd (“stony walls”), you Gamsberg (“goat mountain”), may God bless you all,

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                                                 USA Fall 2007

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You thousand beautiful flowers, so dear and familiar,
My hut, my small one, won‟t leave my thoughts,
Where I was often so sad, and so happy.

So keenly as I feel it today, I have never felt before,
As if I were to see my pasture for the last time today.
And if I must go soon to the ground and to (my) peace,
So cover me with rocks and flowers from the mountains.

Johann Strauss son (1825 – 1899)
Sängerlust (Joy of singing). Polka française, opus 328
Arr. Gerald Wirth

Johann Strauss was the second Strauss with the first name Johann, but he is undoubtedly the most
famous. At least four members of the family were active as composers: his father Johann (1804 -
1849), Johann himself and his younger brothers Joseph (1827 - 1870) and Eduard (1835 - 1916).
When Johann was ten years old, his father became Hofball-Musikdirektor (Music Director at the
Court Balls). A high honour, but father Strauss did not want his sons to become musicians (a
rather suspect profession) and enrolled his son in a trade academy. Johann (aided and abetted by
his mother) had music lessons behind his father‟s back. At nineteen, he founded his own very
successful orchestra. Much of his work is influenced by gypsy music and Jewish Klezmer music.
There is an inherent ambiguity in it: Strauss, who made the entire city of Vienna dance, was a
nervous, ill-tempered and lonely man, and he could not dance.

On 12 October 1868, the Wiener Männergesangverein (Vienna men‟s chorus) celebrated its 25th
anniversary. Strauss, Liszt and Wagner were made honorary chorus members, and Strauss wrote
“Joy of singing” for the occasion. The polka was first performed that night by the chorus, with
Johann and Josef Strauss accompanying them on the piano. Apparently the audience would not
stop clapping and clamoured for Strauss to keep bowing, and someone shouted that this was a
worthy successor to Strauss‟s most famous piece, On the beautiful blue Danube.

Johann Strauss son (1825 - 1899)
Vergnügungszug (Amusement Train). Polka, opus 281
Arr. Helmuth Froschauer

Vergnügungszug is a typical Strauss polka painting a picture of contemporary life: It was a favourite
Sunday pastime in the nineteenth century to explore a city‟s surroundings by steam train; the rid e,
not the destination was the point of the exercise. Vergnügungszug (literally „pleasure‟ or „amusement
train‟), a cheerful polka, tells the story of such an outing, complete with pushing and shoving to
get on to the train, sandwiches, rabbits on the tracks, bird-calls and train whistles.

Johann Strauss son (1825 – 1899)

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                                           Vienna Boys’ Choir
                                        Conductor: Nikolaus Müller

                                                 USA Fall 2007

                                               Programme Notes

Wiener Blut (Viennese Spirits), waltz opus 354 (1873)
Arr. Helmuth Froschauer

Wiener Blut was written for and first performed at the court opera‟s annual ball on 22 April 1873,
by the opera‟s own orchestra conducted by its composer. Strauss donated the composition and its
proceeds to the court opera‟s pension fund. Later editions bear a dedication to King Christian IX
of Denmark, and Strauss reused the waltz in the eponymous operetta, which was discovered only
after his death.

                                                                     Notes by Tina Breckwoldt, 2007

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