Household Water Treatment Introduction

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					Household Water Treatment
      Introduction
      World Water Forum 5
       Istanbul, Turkey
           Water Safety Plan


Water Source           Water         Safe Water
 Protection          Treatment        Storage




         Community       Household
         Scale           Water
         Treatment       Treatment
Microbiological Household Water Treatment
 Similar to community scale water treatment except on a household scale.
 • Involves 3 main stages
 • Incremental health risk reduction from each stage
 • Much health risk reduction can be achieved with little or no money

   Straining &                          Filtration                  Disinfection
  Sedimentation                   Removes smaller             Works best with clear or
  Removes larger                 particles and often >            filtered water
 particles and often              90% of pathogens               Final kill ~100%
 >50% of pathogens
                       Biosand Filter      Ceramic Filter   Chlorine       SODIS - Solar
                                                            Disinfection   Disinfection
    Successful Household Water
       Treatment Programs
Include:

• Creating Demand

• Development of a supply chain for Household
  Water Treatment products

• Availability of programs and technical assistance
  to support on-the-ground implementers
                        Creating Demand

•   Requires raising water
    awareness and increased
    water education with wide
    range of stakeholders
    •   At the village level, target
        Community Health Workers

•   Generally a public sector
    (government or NGO) activity
    •   Highly subsidised                       Household Water Treatment
                                                is not about products and
•   Start with smaller scale                    technologies but about
                                                community mobilization1
    pilots/demonstrations
    •   schools                        1.   UNICEF, Promotion of Household Water
                                            Treatment and Safe Storage, 2008
    •   health clinics                 2.   WEDC panel summary

    •   emergency purposes
                       Creating a Supply Chain
      Assurance of a local supply of Household Water Treatment
         products and services
      •      Variety of products are needed1
      •      Requires a creative combination of market,
             microenterprise, and community-based approaches2
      •      Differentiate between durable products e.g. biosand filters
             and consumable products e.g. chlorine solution
            •     Consumable products
                  -    Market-driven strategies
                  -    Generally no product subsidies;

            •     Durable products
                  -    Generally require subsidies for poorest
                  -    People should contribute something, however minimal (labour etc)
                  -    Users should be required to attend training on operation and maintenance and
                       hygiene
1.   WHO, Scaling Up Household Water Treatment: Looking Back, Seeing Forward, 2008
2.   CDC,, Woodrow Wilson Center for International Scholars, ND
               Support for Implementers
Programs to support on-the-ground implementers
   •       Start with the training
          •     Knowledge and skills lead to changes in attitudes and behaviours
          •     Engender community ownership
          •     Technology training is not enough. Organizations need to learn how to
                plan, implement and monitor programs 2
   •       Provide ongoing consulting services and progressive training
           workshops1
          •     Utilise existing systems and networks for knowledge transfer
          •     Encourage each organization to act independently using its own support
                networks
          •     Incent and Recognize Community Health Workers as much as possible
   •       Monitor results continuously
          •     Establish a feedback loop to enable continuous program improvement 2
          •     Measure success in terms of # people with better water

       1. CAWST, Summary Household Water Treatment Panel Discussion WEDC Conference; Sri Lanka, 2006
       2. CAWST, Power of Knowledge in Executing Household Water Treatment Programs Globally, Waterlines, 2008
                                      Challenges
• Complex Government Institutional Arrangements regarding
  water and sanitation service provision.
• W&S traditional focus on infrastructure.
• Traditional focus on tube wells as the water supply option of
  choice. Consequently, a limited understanding of water quality
  and water treatment.
• Introduction of Household Water Treatment programs are
  sometimes opposed by others in authority. These people
  include:
   – Those who believe that these solutions are not to same standard as
     community scale treatment or global standards,
   – Those concerned about the government regulator’s ability to monitor
     individual treatment in numerous households, and
   – Those not willing to devolve the power involved in supplying clean water.



     1. CAWST, Power of Knowledge in Executing Household Water Treatment Programs Globally, Waterlines, 2008
                   5 Basic Strategies
Make knowledge about water common knowledge
    • Every individual needs to take action

Build the capacity of NGOs (non governmental organizations)
   and governments
    • They have the mandate to provide
      services for the public good

Start with household water treatment
    • To improve health
    • To provide an entry point to better
      sanitation and hygiene

Lead with the training
    • Knowledge motivates action

Help community implementers overcome barriers to              India

  implementation
    • To facilitate execution
         It can be done!
Grassroots Mobilization through Water Literacy