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Blood Notes Anatomy



                      Blood Study Guide
              (Chapter 17 in new Honors Book,
                 18 in old Honors Book, and
                  Ch. 10 in Academic Book)

Basic blood flow-
Heart Arteries Capillaries Veins Heart Lungs Heart

Overview: Blood Composition and Functions
Blood is classified as ________________ tissue. It is made
of living cells, called ____________ elements, in a
nonliving matrix called _____________. Fibrous proteins
are visible when blood clots. If blood is spun in a
centrifuge, the less dense ________ will stay at the top
while the cells will sink to the bottom. A layer called
the _________ coat is found between the erthrocytes (red
blood cells) and plasma layers. This layer contains the
white blood cells and _____________, which help in blood
clotting. Red blood cells normally make up about 45% of
the total volume of blood; this is called the ____________.

Physical Characteristics and Volume
Blood has a __________ taste. Oxygen-poor blood is colored
_________, while oxygen-rich blood is the color __________.
The approximate pH of blood is _______________. A normal
adult male contains ____ L of blood, while a normal female
contains ___ L.

The three main functions of blood are:

Plasma mostly consists of _________ but also includes
nutrients, gases such as oxygen and carbon dioxide,
hormones, wastes, ions, and proteins (such as ___________).
Most plasma proteins are made by the ___________.

Erthryocytes (RBCs)
The most common cell type in blood is __________________.
The purpose of erthryocytes is to carry ___________ to
other body cells. Erthryocytes lack ___________, which
leukocytes (white blood cells – WBCs) have.   _____________
are simply cell fragments.
Draw a picture of a red blood cell.

Erthryocytes (RBCs) can be thought of as being mainly bags
of ____________, the protein responsible for carrying
__________.   RBCs outnumber WBCs by 1000 to 1. Hemoglobin
is made of four globin chains, each of which has an iron
atom in the center. This means that each hemoglobin
macromolecule can carry 4 atoms of oxygen.

Erthryocyte Disorders
A decrease in the oxygen-carrying capacity of blood is
called _______________. This may be due to low # of RBCs,
low hemoglobin content, low iron absorption, or abnormal
hemoglobin, such as ________ _______ ________, a genetic
disorder in which crescent-shaped RBCs block blood vessels.
Having too many RBCs is called _______________. This may
result from bone marrow cancer, living at higher altitudes,
or blood doping.

Leukocytes (WBCs)
The main function of leukocytes is _______________. They
are able to leave blood vessels and go out to surrounding
cells (referred to as ________________). High WBC counts
mean that your body is fighting off an __________________.
Leukocytes are classified into two main types:
_____________, which contain cytoplasmic granules, and
_____________, which do not. Granulocytes consist of
_____________, which have multilobed nuclei and stain pink,
_____________, which have nuclei that resemble old
telephone receivers and large red-staining granules, and
_____________, which are extremely rare in the blood and
stain dark blue.
Draw and label the 3 types of granulocytes.

_______________ release histamine, which attracts other
WBCs to an inflammatory site. ________________ increase in
number during allergies. _______________ are phagocytes at
sites of infection.
The agranulocytes consist of ________________, which have a
dark purple nucleus and are involved in the lymphatic
system, and ______________, which are the largest of the
WBCs. These later become macrophages which fight

Order of abundance: (most to least)
Never          Neutrophils
Let            Lymphocytes
Monkeys        Monocytes
Eat            Eosinophils
Bananas        Basophils

Leukocyte Disorders
In _____________, a cancer of the bone marrow, large
numbers of immature WBCs are made. _____________________,
or kissing disese, is caused by Epstein-Barr virus and is
most often seen in children and young adults.

Platelets are not really cells; they are fragments of cells
called _______________. Platelets are involved in blood

Hematopoesis (Blood Cell Formation)
Blood cells are formed in the _________ blood marrow. This
type of marrow is found in the flat bones of the skull and
pelvis, sternum, and ribs, as well as the ends of the
humerus and femur long bones. The common stem cell for
blood is called the ___________________. This then forms
two descendants called the lymphoid stem cell (makes
lymphocytes) and the myeloid stem cell (makes all other
formed elements). ____________ are unable to divide since
they lack nuclei. Their fragments are recycled in the
____________, which is basically a bag of blood. A young
RBC is called a __________________. RBC production is
controlled by hormones, especially ____________, and iron,
amino acid, and B vitamin supplies. The production of WBCs
also depends on hormones such as _______________ and
colony-stimulating factors.

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