Name_____________________ Blood Study Guide (Chapter 17 in new Honors Book, 18 in old Honors Book, and Ch. 10 in Academic Book) Basic blood flow- Heart Arteries Capillaries Veins Heart Lungs Heart Overview: Blood Composition and Functions Blood is classified as ________________ tissue. It is made of living cells, called ____________ elements, in a nonliving matrix called _____________. Fibrous proteins are visible when blood clots. If blood is spun in a centrifuge, the less dense ________ will stay at the top while the cells will sink to the bottom. A layer called the _________ coat is found between the erthrocytes (red blood cells) and plasma layers. This layer contains the white blood cells and _____________, which help in blood clotting. Red blood cells normally make up about 45% of the total volume of blood; this is called the ____________. Physical Characteristics and Volume Blood has a __________ taste. Oxygen-poor blood is colored _________, while oxygen-rich blood is the color __________. The approximate pH of blood is _______________. A normal adult male contains ____ L of blood, while a normal female contains ___ L. Functions The three main functions of blood are: 1- 2- 3- Plasma Plasma mostly consists of _________ but also includes nutrients, gases such as oxygen and carbon dioxide, hormones, wastes, ions, and proteins (such as ___________). Most plasma proteins are made by the ___________. Erthryocytes (RBCs) The most common cell type in blood is __________________. The purpose of erthryocytes is to carry ___________ to other body cells. Erthryocytes lack ___________, which leukocytes (white blood cells – WBCs) have. _____________ are simply cell fragments. Draw a picture of a red blood cell. Erthryocytes (RBCs) can be thought of as being mainly bags of ____________, the protein responsible for carrying __________. RBCs outnumber WBCs by 1000 to 1. Hemoglobin is made of four globin chains, each of which has an iron atom in the center. This means that each hemoglobin macromolecule can carry 4 atoms of oxygen. Erthryocyte Disorders A decrease in the oxygen-carrying capacity of blood is called _______________. This may be due to low # of RBCs, low hemoglobin content, low iron absorption, or abnormal hemoglobin, such as ________ _______ ________, a genetic disorder in which crescent-shaped RBCs block blood vessels. Having too many RBCs is called _______________. This may result from bone marrow cancer, living at higher altitudes, or blood doping. Leukocytes (WBCs) The main function of leukocytes is _______________. They are able to leave blood vessels and go out to surrounding cells (referred to as ________________). High WBC counts mean that your body is fighting off an __________________. Leukocytes are classified into two main types: _____________, which contain cytoplasmic granules, and _____________, which do not. Granulocytes consist of _____________, which have multilobed nuclei and stain pink, _____________, which have nuclei that resemble old telephone receivers and large red-staining granules, and _____________, which are extremely rare in the blood and stain dark blue. Draw and label the 3 types of granulocytes. _______________ release histamine, which attracts other WBCs to an inflammatory site. ________________ increase in number during allergies. _______________ are phagocytes at sites of infection. The agranulocytes consist of ________________, which have a dark purple nucleus and are involved in the lymphatic system, and ______________, which are the largest of the WBCs. These later become macrophages which fight infections. Order of abundance: (most to least) Never Neutrophils Let Lymphocytes Monkeys Monocytes Eat Eosinophils Bananas Basophils Leukocyte Disorders In _____________, a cancer of the bone marrow, large numbers of immature WBCs are made. _____________________, or kissing disese, is caused by Epstein-Barr virus and is most often seen in children and young adults. Platelets Platelets are not really cells; they are fragments of cells called _______________. Platelets are involved in blood clotting. Hematopoesis (Blood Cell Formation) Blood cells are formed in the _________ blood marrow. This type of marrow is found in the flat bones of the skull and pelvis, sternum, and ribs, as well as the ends of the humerus and femur long bones. The common stem cell for blood is called the ___________________. This then forms two descendants called the lymphoid stem cell (makes lymphocytes) and the myeloid stem cell (makes all other formed elements). ____________ are unable to divide since they lack nuclei. Their fragments are recycled in the ____________, which is basically a bag of blood. A young RBC is called a __________________. RBC production is controlled by hormones, especially ____________, and iron, amino acid, and B vitamin supplies. The production of WBCs also depends on hormones such as _______________ and colony-stimulating factors.
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