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									                               California HighSpeedRail Series




                               High Speed Rail in Japan:
                               A Review and Evaluation of
                               Magnetic Levitation Trains


                               MamomTaniguchi


                               Working Paper
                               UCTCNo. I02




The University of California
Transportation Center
         of
Umversity California
Berkeley, CA94720
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              High Speed Rail in Japan:
A Review and Evaluation of Magnetic Levitation               Trains



                             Taniguchi
                        Mamoru
                Institute of Urbanand RegionalDevelopment
                     Universityof California at Berkeley
                            Berkeley, CA94720




              CALIFORNIA HIGH SPEED RAIL SERIES

                           Working Paper
                            April 1992




                           UCTCNo. 102


         TheUniversity of California Transportation Center
               University of California at Berkeley
                                     ACKNOWLEDGEMENT




        I wouldlike to express mythanks to director Peter Hall, who provided me with a chance to write
this paper. I am also thankful to the High Speed Rail Research members,who gave me helpful advice,
including DanLeavitt, Brian Sands, and Walt Streeter. Mythanks are also due to the staff of the Institute
,of Urbanand Regional Developmentat the University of California at Berkeley, who mademe a most
wek;omevisitor, including Martha Conwayand David Van Arnam, who helped produce this paper.

        I also extend my appreciation to those who provided me with useful information, especially
                                                at
Professor Kozo Amanoand Lecturer Dai Nakagawa the University of Kyoto.
                                                 PREFACE


        This is one of a series of reports nowbeing producedas the first output of our study of the
potential for a high-speedpassenger train service in California. Eachreport deals with a specific 1-dgh-
speed train technology; it attempts an evaluation, standardized as far as available data permit, of its
tedmical and economicviability.

            Specifically, each report assesses the particular high-speed technology against numberof
                                                                                          a
criteria:


                   1. Technical Performance:configuration of roadbed in terms of gradients, curvature,
                   and construction cost; powersources; capacity and speed; capacity to integrate with
                   existing transportation facilities.

                   2. Economic performance:traffic levels; revenues; financial appraisal and overall cost-
                   benefit analysis; level of public subsidy required, if any.

                   3. Resource consumption and environmental performance: type and amount of energy
                   required; impact on non-renewableresources; environmental impact, including
                   emissions, noise, visual intrusion and effect on local communities.


         The present series includes five studies. Twocompanion studies, on British Rail’s InterCity
125 and 225 services and on Tilting Trains (the Italian Pendolino and the SwedishX-2000service),
will follow shortly. Thereafter, a systematic comparativeanalysis will be published.

        The CaiSpeed study will continue with preliminary route alignments, also to be produced
shortly, followed by market assessments, to be completedin Fall 1992. These will bring to a close the
present phase of work, which will be the subject of an overall report also to be completedin Fall
1992o

        Wegratefully acknowledgethe support provided by the U.S. Department of Transportation and
the California State Departmentof Transportation (Caltrans) through the University of California
TrarLsportation Center. Of course, any errors of fact or interpretation should be assigned to us and not
our ,sponsors.



PETER HALL
Prhlcipal Investigator
            REVIEW AND EVALUATE EXISTING                     SYSTEMS: MAGLEV (JAPAN)



INTRODUCTION

        This report aims to show the detail of the Japanese Maglev system, and allow a comparison
wRhother High Speed Rail systems for use in California.         The Japanese Maglev system is a com-
pletely new technology, using superconducting magnetic levitation,        that aims at 313 mph
Ol:~ration passenger service.

       The following major subject areas are examined in this report:

1. Development History

2. Engineering:     Train and Track

3. Engineering:      Mechanism

4. Environment

6. Economic Issues

7. NewTest Track and Future Use

8. Summary

       The following abbreviations are used in this report:

MAGLEV            Magnetic levitation   vehicle

JNR               the Japanese National Railways

RTRI              the Railway Technical Research Institute

       This report is part of the work of the California High Speed Rail Group at the Institute   of
Urban and Regional Development>University. of California at Berkeley.
1. DEVELOPMENT HISTORY

          After the first     Shinkansen line was constructed in 1964 between Tokyo and Osaka in Japan,
JNRbegan to research the possibility       of a faster train in future. The development of a Maglev train
using linear motor propulsion and non-contact running was a focus from the start.          Table 1 shows
the history of Japanese Maglev development. In 1977, the 4.4-mile Miyazaki test track was opened.
In December 1979, the Magiev achieved 323 mph on this short test track.          To improve and test the
system for real use, construction of a long test track ha Yamanashiprefecture was decided upon in
I989. Thid new 26.9-mile test track has the possibility       of being incorporated into die Chuo (cen-
tral)    Linear Express that will be a future service line between Tokyo and Osaka (see Figure 1 and
Table 2).

          The development of the Japanese Maglev system is continuing.        Engineering information
                                                         type train at the Miyazaki test track. It
in this report is based on the data from the newest MLU002
should be noted that the Maglev train will be much improved after the opening of the new test
track in Yamanasiprefecture in 1994.


2.      ENGINEERING: TRACK AND VEHICLE

                         is
          Since the MLU002 the third-generation test vehicle running on the Miyazaki test track, it
was designed to fit the existing test track.

          The main features                                        vehicle are shown in Table 3 and
                                and general appearance of the MLU002
Figure 2. As this vehicle was designed as a test vehicle, seating capacity is limited to only 44. The
vehicle for commercial service will have about 70 seats.        Table 4 and Figure 4 show the planned
design for commercial service.        Under this new arrangement, magnets will be provided at both
ends of the vehicle. This type of vehicle has the following two merits:

1. A smaller sectional area caused by lowering the floor height makes for less air resistance.

2. The magnetic flux density in the compartment wiU be reduced because of the long distance
     between the passenger compartment and the superconducting magnets. Magnetic shielding
     x
     will be required only on the gangway above the magnet and machine room.



3.      ENGINEERING:        MECHANISM

*Propulsion      System

          The vehicle is propelled by mutual attraction      and repulsion of magnets. The on-board
superconducting magnets constitute       a linear synchronous motor. As the ground coils installed      in
                   z
                   Table 1. History of JapaneseMaglevDevelopment


Early 1960s           for          propulsion non-contact started.
               Research linear motor        and        run
1970                                                Maglev
               Basictest facilities for superconductive  completed.
1972                       experiment
               LSM-propulsion                        succeeds levitated run.
                                      vehicle (LSM200)      in
                          experimental
               UM-propulsion                          succeeds levitated run.
                                       vehicle (ML-100)      in
                        characteristicof cycloconverter
               High-speed                                    equipment)
                                                      (S00km/h         tested.
1975                     experimental
               LSM-pmpulsion                        succeeds perfect non-contact
                                    vehicle (ML-100A)      in                  run.
1977 April                  Test Centeropened.
               MiyazakiMaglev
     July            test         on
               Running of ML-500 inverted-T        starts at Mi~7*kiTestTrack.
                                            8uideway
1978 Nov.            run                     levitaUon).
               347km/h attained (with magnetic
1979 Jan.      Simulatedtunnel run tested.
     May       Runwith heliumrefrigerator onboardtested.
     Dec.             run
               517km/h attained(with magnetic  levitation).
1980 Nov.            test     on              starts at Miyazaki
               Running of MLU001 U-typeguideway                Test Track.
1982 Sept.         test
               Manned run starts.
1983 Aug.             run
               4001~n/h of a singlevehicleattained.
     Dec.            run
               352km/h of three vehiclescoupled attained.
1987 Feb.                 run
               400.81cm/h of two vehiclescoupled             attained.
                                                      (manned)
     April     RaiIway TechnicalResearch                     as         foundation,
                                         Institute reorganized a research
                                  wore
               taking over the R&D so far pursued.
       May     Test run of MLUO02starts.
       Sept,           run
               3S2km/h attained.
1989 Aug.            Prefecture selected construction new
               Yamanashi      was       for         of   test track.



                           Figure 1. MaglevTest Tracksin Japan
                                between
               Table2. Comparison     MiyazakiExisting Test Track
                          ~           New
                          and Yamanashi Test Track

                                ExistingTestTrack                     NewTest Track

Overall    of
      length testtrack      7kin(singletrack)                  43kin(partially doubletracks)

      speedattained
Maximum                     ML-500                             Target: manned500mk/h
                             (unmanned 517km/                      about3 minutes
                              instantaneous)
                            MLU-O01
                             (manned  400o8km/h)
                            MLU-002
                             (manned 307kin/h)

Test vehicle                MLUO02                             2 makeups: units, 5 units
                                                                        3
                             vehicle length 22m
                                                               vehide makeup Iength
                                                                (3 units) about 70m
                                                                (5 units) about120m

Test track                  Maximum gradient 5/1000            Maximum gradient 40/1000
                            Radiusof minimum curve             Radius of minimumcurve
                             r = 10,000m                        R = 8,000m



                         Table 3. MainFeaturesof MLUO024

                         Vehicledimension
                          Lengthx Widthx Height     22.0mx 3.0mx 3.7m
                          Seatingcapacity           44
                          Mass                      17t

                                      coil
                         Superconducting
                                 of
                          Number coils                               x
                                                    3 polesx 2 bogies 2 rows
                                      force
                          Nagnetomotive             700 kA
                          Polepitch                 2,100mn

                         Suspension
                          Uft                       196kN
                          Effectivegap              110mm

                         Guidance
                          Guidance force            83.3kNat 50ramshift
                          Effectivegap              More than 150ram

                         Propulsion
                          ThruLst                   0-79.4kN
                          Phase                     3
                          Frequency                 0-28Hz
                          Voltage                   5, 800V
                          Current                   900A

                         Maximumspeed               420krn/h
             Figure 2. Prototype MaglevVehicle, MLU0025




                                                                                 1
                                        I




                                      tl$oo
                                      |2=oe


         6
Table 4. DesignSpecifications of a MaglevSystem            Service
                                               for Commercial

              Maximum
                    speed                     SOOkm/h
              Vehicledimension
               Lengthx Widthx Height                x       x
                                              28.0m 2.8m 2.65m       (endcar)
                                                    x       x
                                              21.6m 2.8m 2.65m       (mid car)
                     capacity
               Seating                        67(end  car); 68(midcar)
               Mass                           27t (end car); 18t (midcar)

              Train
                     of
               Number vehicles                14
               Length                         315m
               Mass                           270t
               Seatingcapacity                950

                           coil
              Superconducting
                    x
               Length width;pole pitch        2.2mx 0.5m;2.7m
                           force
               Nagnetomotive                  700 kA
                     of
               Number coils per bogie         4 (2 polesx 2 rows)

                   coil
              Ground for suspension
               Length width; pitch
                    x                             x
                                              0.6m 0.3m;0.gin

                    coil
              Ground for propulsion
              and guidance
                     x
               Length width; pitch                x
                                              1.5m 0.61m;1.8m
               Voltage                           a.c.
                                              18kV

              Levitationheight                100mm
              Midway between tracks           5.4m
              Curve radius                               at
                                              over 6,000m S00km/h
              Gradient                        100% (*maximum);
                                              60%(continuous)
7             Vehiclefor Commercial
Figure3. Maglev                  Service




                           l




     @~liJl~lll
                  ,    ,       ,                b~,--~~ ..L. 1- I T
                                                             i -~
 0   0000000000

                                                             ~ _
                                                            ~..,t_..
                                                    0   l

                  %%,
                           ~       0000000000   ~



                      "" ~t~                                    1~
the guideway receive the alternating current, a shifting magnetic field is generated along ground
coi~. Figure 4 shows this principle of propulsion9


*Vertical    Suspension

         The vehicle is levitated    by mutual repulsion of magnets. As the vehicle with on-board super-
conducting magnets runs faster over the coils for levitation     laid on the ground, the magnetic fields
of the on-board magnets induce electric      currents in the ground coils (Figures 5 and 6). These
currents generate a levitation      force for the vehicle. The vehicle floats at more than 100ram above
the coil on the ground?


*Lateral    Guidance

         Maglevuses the mutual attraction     and repulsion of magnets to keep the vehicle at the center
of the guideway. Whenthe vehicle is deflected laterally      to one side, the ground coils for propulsion
on both sides generate a guidance force. This force is an electrodynamic force generated between
the ground coils for propulsion and the on-board magnets. The guidance force at the small gap
x°
side becomes a repulsion force, and the one at the large gap side becomes an attraction force,


*Braking    System

         The brake in normal service is a regenerative brake based on the linear synchronous
motor. Emergencybraking is provided by an electric        brake, sliding shoes, and an aerodynamic
brake. Sliding shoes are made of metal; skidding and wind pressure panels support an aero-
xx
dynamic brake,


*Superconducting        Magnet

         The vehicle carries     a superconducting magnet. Specific metals such as niobium and
titanium perform superconductivity, which nullifies     the electric   resistance at cryogenic tempera-
tures.   Coils made from such metals constitute      the superconducting magnets. Table 5 and Figure
7 show the details     of the main feature of a superconducting coil.     Development of new supercon-
ducting materials that perform superconductivity at higher temperatures will help to make a
12,15 and more compact magnet for Maglev, and will be available soon.
lighter
               4
               Figure4. Principle of P|’opulsioW



                   On-board    superconduc~inq coil




                                                        Shif ~in9 field
                                 " "         -~- --I
                              L.J-%-~tr--~-’-S
                 .~’~ L___N___~r--......                  ~ ....
                                         J ~- -’~,( N -4 L. ....
                                               .....




              3-phase   power source                  Ground col!
                                                      for propulsion




is                 of
Figure 5. Mechanism Ve~ical Suspensionand Lateral Guidance




                                                                          1




                Figure 16 Coll Arrangement
                       6.



                                       1: Superconducting coil,

                                       3.: groul~d coi~ for propulsion and guidance.

                                       ~: ground coiJ [or suspension -
        17
        Table 5. Main Features of Superconducting Coil



Coil     Dimension  (length × height)              1.7m x 0°5m
         Mass                                      77kg
         Cross-section  (thickness x width)        45ram x 71ram
         Magnetomotiveforce                        700kA
                 of
         Number turns                              1167
         Self-inductance                           1
                                                   3.04H
         Current density                           2
                                                   219A/mm
         Stored energy                             550kJ
         Maximum  field                            5.1T

Wire     Copperratio                               1.06
         Cross-section(thickness × width)          1.05mm x 2.12mm
                 of
         Number filaments                          2,382
         Diameterof filaments                      23 m
         Twist pitch                               4gram




       F~gure 7. Superconducting          Magnet for   the MLUO0218


                                                   RefrigerGtor
                      Liquid                       hel~



         Truck                   from~~                   ~~




                       ~Support     Outer vessel
                    Su)erconductingcoil
4.   ENVIRONMENT

*FAectridty      Consumption

          The energy consumption is proportional to the air resistarme,   which increases with speed.
For example, if the vehicle speed increases from 156 mph to 313 mph, energy consumption will be
eight times larger. However, the amount of electricity     consumption by the Maglev is estimated to
be about 90W/h per passenger for operation between Tokyo and Os21ra at 313 mph. An aircraft
19
consumestwice the electricity that the Magiev does.


*Noise and Vibration

          Maglev has no noise and vibration problems caused by roiLing friction   between the rail and
wheels. In addition, it is free from friction    noise between the trolley and pantograph. However,
Maglev may generate some aerodynamic noise. Presently, studies are being made in wind tunnels
° fred an optimum vehicle shape, and to smooth the ground coil surfacd
to


*Effect     of Magnetism on the Hurn~ Body

          There is a big debate about the effect of the magnetic field on the humanbody, and the
degree of its safety.    JNR and RTRIhave done many experiments since 1983 using rats and mice.
They found that a magnetic feld less than one tesla (10,000 gauss) occurring for several days exerts
a very weak reaction     on a mammalbody. The superconductive magnet used for the Maglev will
create a strong magnetic field (about 200 gauss) on the passenger floor surface. Accordingly, they
concluded that it will have no serious effect on the humanbody.2x However, several other papers
point out that problems may adse, and suggest that more regard will need to be taken to the care
22 magnetic fields.
of

          Whether the magnetic field will pose a serious problem or not, RTRIis continuing its effort
to reduce magnetic flux density on the passenger floor. Examples of effective devices are as
follows..23

1. Vehicle design: The train coil will be separated from the passenger compacm-,ent (see Figure 3).

2. Track design: Although in previous designs the track coil extended from a concrete wall in the
     guideway, new designs have the coil implanted in the wall, thereby decreasing magnet-wave
     range.

3. Shielding: Shielding will cut off the remaining magnetic fields.




                                                   10
               z4
               Figure 8. Strength of Magnetic Field




               SECTION
          MA GNET ~~
             Y,
          ARRA         0000                         CABIN
                                                    FLOOR
             ~..--             ~~~L
                               ¯ ....... , ° t.~.
                                       ,..


                                -       C MAGNET




                  ]
FLUX DENSITY [GAUSS                         .i---~.....     VEHICLE



                ,"/~11.-~4~~:~_~20@.O.   CABIN
              --/:      ~~~f==,~    F L 0 0 R

               ~oo kkS__
               ,Io1:1 _jooo-~\
                  U¯ .. .... GUIDEWAY COILS
      STA TOR WINDINGS MAGNET WINDING

                       SECTION C-C
 5.   ECONOMICISSUES

           Thoughit is difficult   to estimate the construction and operation cost ofMaglev, a cost-
revenue balance analysis has already been attempted. Construction and operational costs are
2~
presently estimated by the Transport Research Center as foUows


*Construction       Cost

           The construction cost of Maglev is assumed to be $35.2 million per mile. Chuo Linear
Express will be approximately 250 miles long. Accordingly, total construction cost will be $8.8
billion.     However, other estimates by the Transport Economic Rese~ch Center predict a cost of
$10 to $20 billion.


*Operational      Cost

           The operational cost consists of both fixed cost and variable cost. Variable cost increases
with the service level of Maglev. As Maglevs will not require rail maintenance, fixed cost will not
be as expensive as that for the Shinkansen.

  Fixed Cost: $326.4 thousand/mile

  Changeable Cost at 313 mph Operation:         $0.08/person/mA

  Changeable Cost at 188 mph Operation:         $0.054/person/mi


*Case Study of Chuo Linear         Express

           The test adopted two cases for passenger numbers between Tokyo and Osaka: 15,000 per-
sons/day and 20,000 persons/day. Table 6 shows total operational cost in each case. The test is
conducted under two types of financial       assumptions (I and H). Assumption I allows no subsidy
for construction and $0.592 passenger fare per mile. Assumption II allows 30 percent subsidy for
construction and $0.48 passenger fare per mile. Table 7 and Table 8 show the results of the calcu-
lation.    Fromthese case studies, the key factor in achieving early balance is not speed, but demand.
20,000 person/day demandis enough to achieve a profit within six years under conditions of
$0.592 passenger fare per mile and 313 mph maximumspeed.




                                                    12
                     Table 26 EstimatedOperationCost in EachCase
                           6.

       Cost: SMillion: $1 = ¥135

 Passengers Max.speed        F~ed         Variable       Total Operational
            (kin/h)
 (persons/day)               Cost         Cost           Cost

 15,000       500            8.2          11.1           19.3

              300            8.2          7.4            15.6

 20,,000      50O            8.2          14.8           23,0

              3OO            8.2          9.6            17.8



Table7". EstimatedTime(Years) to AchieveFinancial BalanceAfter BeginningOperation
                                 27        !)
                                 (Assumption

               Passengers    Max. speed   a) AchieveBalance
               (persons/c~y)
                          (kin/h)                              Defidt
                                          b) Clear UpAccumulated

               15,000        50O          a) 19 years
                                          b) 31

                             300          a) 18
                                          b) 25

               20,000        500          a)
                                          b) 11
                             3OO          a)
                                          b)


    Table 8. EstimatedTime(Years) to AchieveBalanceAfter BeginningOperation
                               z8
                               (AssumptionIi)

               Passengers Max.speed       a) AchieveBalance
               (pemons/day) (km/h)        b) ClearUpAccumulatedDeficit

               15,000        500          a) 21 years
                                          b) 42

                             300          a) 29
                                          b) 33

               2~ooo         500          a)
                                          b) 19

                             300          a)
                                          b) 12
6.   NEW TEST TRACK AND FUTURE USE

*Details      of New Teat Track

            The requirements for the new test track are as follows:

I. There shall be continuous straight sections.

2. There shall be curves.

3. There shall be steep slope sections.

4. There shall be structures such as tumaels and viaducts.

5. The test track shall have a total length of some 25-32 miles.

            The Magnetically Levitated Train Study Committee selected Yamanashi Prefecture in
August 1989, as shownin Figure I. This site is the most suitable place to achieve the test
objectives and to demonstrate future use° Figure 9 shows a plan of the new test track design and
29~° 10 shows the future extension plan as Chuo (Central) Linear Express
Figure


*Regional       Impact

            The Maglev system will become one of the most convenient and comfortable transporta-
tion systems in Japan’s future. Maglev will bring not only transportation        improvements, but also a
great impact on urban and regional forms. Currently,        Japan is suffering   many urban problems
caused by the concentration of urban functions in Tokyo, such as high land price, congestion,
local decline, and so on. A high speed rail system such as Maglev should be planned together with
an effective     regional plan to relievethese urban problems. Amano, Toda, and Nakagawasuggest
using Maglev as a tool for the decentralization of urban function. 31 Their idea is to construct 200-
300 hectare new cities     on vacant land in Kofu, Nagoya, and Osak~ cities,     which will have Maglev
stations.     As shown in Figure 11, these areas are designated as Special Districts,    which compose
the quadruplet "Capital Special City" with Tokyo’s Kasumigaseki-Marunouchidistrict.




                                                     14
        -~2 9. Detail of New
        Figure             TestTrack
                                                         SMg|e
                                                         track
             track section . Double
         S;ngM                     track .sectioc~ ,. section ,

       i     Substation |
                          ~ectionfor higt~ s~’~ed
                                      I
                                                 pa’ngt"
                                                I ~’1Sub~Uonl
                                                               t

       L         i/               .                   \
      (Ve~icalcro~~cliion concet~tJ




ss    10.              (Central)LinearExpress
Figure FuturePlanof Chuo




           Note 1:
           As the ChuoLinear       willbe constructed
                             Express                        a          inland
                                                     through mountainous
                 i¢           to      the           cost
           area, is important reduce construction to overcome         natural
                                                                 severe
           features                  route
                    whenan appropriate                    Each
                                           willbe examined. station shouldbe
                     ata       place      to       cities th/s
           constructedsuitable inorder activate along line.




                                                          Note2:
                                                          Planned section: Tokyo-Osaka
                                                          Length of rail" Approximately500kra
                                                          Planned  maximum speed:5001an/h
                                                          Steepest grade: 40-70%
                                                          Construction        Approximately
                                                                        period:             ~ years
          ~4               of             Capitals Project with UnearExpress
          Figure 11. Concept the Quadrup|et
                                            Research
                               Ts~ubaAcademic      Park~



                                           ~ ~           -~ Narita International Airport

                                                Tokyo 23 boroghs
                                                    %"




                                 \

                                         Chiyoda      District
                                                Special
                          @                                 district)
                                         (Kasumizaseki-Marunouchi

                                                    KSfuCity

                         K5fuSpecial Distric

                                     k
                                    Express
                               Linear


                                           Academic
                                       Chubu           Park
                                                 Research
                                                                                ~
                                                                                ~a
                                                                                -


                                                                           Shinkausen
                                                                     Tokaido
                                                     . Nagoya
                                     District               .° ¯



                                                                        rail road.
                                                                   Access   or




Osaka Special District
                                                                   Airport
                                                   ChUbuInternational


                                                OsakaCity




                                           International
                                     l(ansai          Airport
7. RF.CENT DEVELOPMENTS

                   the
       The MLU002, most advanced version of the Japanese Maglev train, caught on fire at a
low speed on October 3, 1991. The cause of the fire was not ~high-tech n parts, but a very simple
qow-mch" friction    problem between the emergency landing cushion and the guideway. Accidents
of this nature can be prevented by the simple replacement of a few materials and a small change of
design; therefore,   the overall concept of Japanese Maglev will not change. The biggest problem
was only that the Japan Railway Research Institute lost one test car in the Miyazaki test line.
However, the full development schedule of the Maglev will be postponed at least one year.


8.   SUMMARY

        Japanese Maglev development reached a new stage in 1988 with the real possibility         of a
Chuo Linear Express between Tokyo and Osaka. The test car has achieved a speed record of 323
mph., and most mechanical systems have already been optimized.          However, system improvement
s,iU continues, resulting in future cost reductions.

        Thirty million people live in the TokyoMetropolitan Area and 15 million people in the
Osa~a Metropolitan area. This situation   assists   the construction of the ChuoLinear Express
through high demand, but compromises it on the other hand through the increasingly         high land
prices. In addition, Japm~’s severe topography requires expensive infrastructure.     Since the
Calflbrnia   corridor has enough space without high mountains, the construction cost of Maglev
would be lower there.

        To establish the correct solution for the California corridor is not easy. Most high speed
z~il l:echnologies are continuing to evolve and are difficult   to evaluate. Besides, they are designed
to fit conditions in their original countries. It will be necessary to improve the selected system to
fit c~nditions in the California corridor in order to establish an effective transportation system for
that environment.




                                                    17
                                                      NOTES


tHisashi Tanaka, "Maglev Approaches toward Practical Use,"fapanese Railway Engineering, No. 102, 1987.
21~diwayTechnical Institute of Japan, Linear Motor Car Maglev, 1988.
3Masahito M~oguchi and Fumino Olmmura, "Perspective of Linear Motor Car in 21st Century - Research
 and Development of Magnetically Levitated Train,’fapanese Railway Engineering, No. 113, 1990.
       3.
~Tanaka,
51bid., 3.
6E0id.,3.
7Ibid.,3.
~Iiroshi       Takeda, "Japanese Superconducting Mu#ev: Present State and Furore Perspective,"   Pbystca B, No.
 164, 1990.
~Asid,8.
x°Ibid., 8.
Xlibid., 8.
X2IbM.,1.
X~Ibtd.,8.
14Ibid., 8.
15Ibid., 1.
t6][bid., 8.
X~Ibid.,8.
x~bid., 8.
Xglbid.,2.
2°Ibid.,2.
2tlbM.,2.
x2Chri$ J. Boon, DCMagnetic Fields, ACElectrical Fields and Interaction Effects: Implications for High-
  Speed Passenger Systems, a paper presented to the 70th Annual Meeting of Transportation Research
  Board, 1991.
23Ibid., 3o
24Ibid., 22.
25Transport Economic Research Cenmr: Research Report, Practical Use Possibility        of Maglev Type Train,
  1990 (in Japanese).
26Ibid., 25.
27Ibid., 25.
~bid., 25.
29Ibid., 2.
3°Kozo Amano, Tsunekazu Toda, and Dai Nakagawa, The Rapid Transportation System and ~ Socio-
  Economic Restructuring offapan, a paper presented to the 1989 Congress of Regional Science in Europe.
5Xlbid., 30.
3~bido, 2.
331bid., 30.
3qbid., 30.




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