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Myers-Briggs personality types

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					A Perfect Fit: Myers-Briggs’ personality types
Understanding personality types is useful for:
Understanding yourself and your own tendencies
Learning how to relate to others; especially getting along with people who are significantly different
Understanding why some professions and interests are more attractive to you than others
Understanding your less developed “shadow” or “dark” side, which is typically the undeveloped opposite
of your preferences; and this lack of awareness is a major reason why people engage in unhealthy and
dysfunction acts.

   Each preferred function is an indication of a person’s perceived comfort zone. (A person must have the
desire to change, or he will revert back his to the comfort zone.)
   People, of each of the 16 distinct “types,” tend to have their own way of living in contrast to the other 15
personality types. In that people of the same type tend to be much more alike one another in terms of
behaving alike, thinking alike, having a similar “sense of life,” and so on and so forth. Also, for each of
these types, there is a tendency for people of various types to interact more harmoniously with people of
some personality types better than with others.

The four basic preferences, or psychological dimensions, are:
Energizing: how and where you get your energy. (Either from outside of oneself or from within oneself.)

Attending: what you pay attention to when you gather information. (Paying attention to information to
information that is gathering directly through the five senses and focusing on what actually exists; as
compared to paying attention to information through a “sixth sense,” i.e. what could be). [The difference is
between what kind of information you gather and how you gather it.]

Deciding: what system you use when you make a decision. (Whether you prefer to organize and structure
information to decide in a “thinking,” logical and objective way; as compared to organizing and structuring
information to decide in a personal, values-oriented “feeling” way.)

Living: the type of lifestyle you adopt. (Whether you live a planned, organized, and structured life; as
compared to living a spontaneous and flexible life).



Psychological preferences do not represent an all-or-nothing
concept: we’re not all of one thing and none of the other for each
of the four basic personality-type functions.
     Of the 4 functions listed above, there are 8 possible preferences (compromised of 2 dichotomies from
each of the 4 functions), embodying all of human behavior, which are available to each of us to use at any
time; but each for each person, one dichotomy from each of the four functions typically seems more
natural, accessible, preferable, and comfortable. (The totality of a person’s preferences within a context of
each of the four function is what we call “personality type.”)
    Each general preference for a particular function/preference relates to your selected way of behaving in
most situations, and does not necessarily mean that you have more skill or ability to use the preference.
These preferences commonly reflect a person’s strengths; while the opposite, or the generally less preferred
strategy, typically represents what people are less familiar with, and hence, less capable (or weaker) at
doing. (Which is a good reason to study personality preferences in self/others: to understand why we do [or
don’t do], and well as to better understand one’s specific weaknesses, over the course of one’s life. People
tend to become more balanced individuals, in the process of living and experiencing life, as they age.
    The traits themselves (in and of themselves) are neither inherently better or worse than another, nor
necessarily healthy or unhealthy. What is healthy or unhealthy relates to thoughts and behaviors within a
given context; and is typically the result, to varying degrees, of a lack of balance in one’s life, in a given
context.

   Below is a list of various traits of each of 4 functions of the 16 personality types.
   The idea is to come up with a 4-letter “type,” one letter (out of two possible choices for each dichotomy
with the four basic functions, or preference categories, listed below; and it is that personality “type” (of 16
possible types) that helps a person to understand why he is are the way he is; why others are the way they
are; and how each personality type (in general) interact with the other (of similar and differing) types.

Note: A perfectly balanced person would be equally strong in each of the four functions. (In those rare
instances is balanced in one of the functions, an “X” is designated instead of an, e.g., an “E” or an “I.”) So
a perfectly balanced person in all four functions would have a personality type of XXXX. However, an
“X” designation in any of 4 functions for any individual is rare.

Energizing strategies: how and where you get your energy (a
preference for “E” or “I”)
    A person’s energy level can derive primarily from the external world or the internal world. Those that
get their primary source of energy from others and external events are called “Extroverts.” Those that get
their primary source of energy from being alone and from their own inner thoughts are called “Introverts.”
    While Extroverts generally talk a lot more than Introverts, there are exceptions. When Introverts are
talking about something very important to them, they can easily monopolize a conversation, and may even
seem oblivious to how they are being perceived by the people with whom they are speaking. For the same
reason, some very strong Introverts may be unaware of the amount of physical space others need in order to
feel comfortable, and may unknowingly violate that space by standing or talking too close.
    The tendency to not focus on people and things around them also contributes to Introverts’ sometimes
being socially awkward.

Energizing preferences for Extroverts (E)
Energy is externally-oriented (tend to draw energy more from outside of oneself )
Have a high (or “loud”) energy level
Project energy outward, for others to see
Focus on external events (seek stimulation from outside of oneself)
Get energy from people, activities, and things
Expend energy freely
More likely to use the pronoun “we”
Absorb self in activities
Seek breadth
Have an outgoing, enthusiastic demeanor
Forever “on the go,” involving people and activities
Find a lot of quiet and solitude uncomfortable
Are more likely to be easy to “read”
Value sociability and interaction with others
Prefer a public role
Talk freely and vocally about what is on their minds
Share personal information
Need to share with others as things happen
Talk more than listen in public
Talk fast and usually louder
Think out loud, interact with others, reach conclusions
Enjoy a public arena, tolerate crowds and noise
Meet people easily and participate in many activities
Communicate outwardly with energy/excitement
Respond quickly to questions and outward events
Communicate one-on-one or in groups with ease
Need to moderate oneself to allow others to speak
Prefer face-to-face verbal communication
Often seek center stage
Seek stimulation, interaction
Gets restless without involvement with people/activities
May talk without thinking
Act, then think (do-think-do)
Are usually more animated
Are easily distracted
Change subjects quickly from one topic to the next
Act first and think about it later
Tend to interrupt and finish another’s sentences
More likely to move quickly
More comfortable escalating their volume
Have more energy at social gatherings at the end, so they stay longer
Have many acquaintances and may have many close friends
Believe “What you see is what you get!”
Maintain less eye contact because they are easily distracted
At their worst, act superficially and make off-the-cuff statements without thinking about the consequences
More likely to be considered flamboyant, highly fashionable
More likely to talk to strangers
Gravitate toward team sports

Energizing preferences for Introverts (I)
Energy is internally-oriented (tend to draw energy from one’s own thoughts)
Have low (or “quiet”) energy
Keep energy inside, making it more difficult for others to see
Focus on internal reactions (seek stimulation from within oneself)
Get energy from ideas, emotions, impressions
Conserve personal energy
More likely to use the pronoun “I”
Absorb self in thoughts
Are able to focus their attention
Seek depth
Have a calm, self-contained, reserved demeanor
Like to spend a lot of time alone, which is rejuvenating
Finds crowds and noise uncomfortable
Are more likely to be hard to get to know
Value solitude, privacy, and avoid unnecessary interaction
Prefer privacy and working behind the scenes
Are inclined to keep ideas and thoughts to themselves
Hesitate about sharing personal information
Need to internally review experiences before sharing them
Listen more than talk in public
Talk slower and usually more quietly
Reflect and think prior to presenting conclusions to others
Enjoy a private arena, more likely to avoid crowds and seek quiet
Proceed cautiously in meeting people and participate in selected activities
Tend to keep energy and excitement to oneself
Pause and take time to think before responding to questions and outward events
Prefer communicating one-on-one
Need to be drawn out and invited to speak
Prefer written communication over verbal
Often shun the limelight
Seek peace, reflection
Gets restless without enough time alone
May think without talking
Think, then act (think-do-think)
Are usually more reserved
Are able to more easily focus their attention
Stick with one subject at a time, discussing one subject in depth before moving to the next
Are more cautious and hesitant
Less comfortable escalating their volume
Have more energy at social gatherings at the beginning
Tend to have fewer acquaintances and few close friends
Believe “Still waters run deep.”
Maintain more eye contact because they devote attention to one thing
Generally less comfortable in the spotlight and more subdued
At their worst, defend themselves against the external world and withhold their contributions
Less likely to talk to strangers
Gravitate toward individual sports


ENERGIZING STRATEGIES IN RELATIONSHIPS
Energizing traits in Relationships for Extroverts (E):
Meet most dates while doing things in the outside world
Prefer to go to a place where there are lots of people
Quite talkative on a date
Partners complain that they can’t be quiet
Know many people superficially
Enter and leave new relationships easily
Talk about their primary relationship with others
Feel in their element when dating
Discuss most thoughts readily with their partner
Make contact with most everyone at a social event
Tolerate partner’s absence relatively well
Share personal space and time easily with others

Energizing traits in Relationships for Introverts (I):
Meet most dates through more private methods
Prefer staying at home and doing something special
More quiet and reserved until you feel comfortable
Partners complain that they don’t come out of their shell
Know few people, but know them deeply
Show caution beginning a new relationship
Mostly keep relationship experiences to oneself
Feel out of their element when dating
Sort through one’s thoughts before sharing conclusions with partner
Make contact only with a few at a social event
Become lonely quickly when partner is absent
Require own personal space and plenty of private time


ENERGIZING STRATEGIES AT WORK
Energizing traits at Work for Extroverts (E)
Like working with people and things
Become impatient and bored when work is slow and unchanging
Seek a variety of action-oriented tasks
Can focus on both work and what is happening at work
Respond quickly to requests with advance thinking
Enjoy phone calls as a welcome diversion
Develop ideas through discussion
Use outside resources to complete tasks
Need frequent changes in pace and seek outside events
Like occupations that encourage activity and interaction

Energizing traits at Work for Introverts (I):
Like working with facts, ideas, and thoughts
Become impatient and annoyed when work is interrupted and rushed
Seek quiet in order to concentrate
Focus more on the work itself and less on what is happening at work
Think through requests before responding
Find phone calls intrusive, especially when trying to concentrate
Develop ideas through reflection
Use self as a resource to complete tasks
Get caught up in work and disregard outside events
Prefer a work environment that has necessary space and solitude



Attending strategies: What do you pay attention to when you gather
information? (a preference for “S” or “N”)
    For a “Sensor” (S), it is the actual facts and details of situations that are noticed and believed. They rely
on information that is practical and has useful applications. Sensors are oriented to the present and focus
living life as it is.
    For an “Intuitive” (N), it is the possibilities of a situation and its various meanings that are noticed and
believed. They are future-oriented and focus on making changes.
    All people have a need for balance in their lives. As people approach midlife, Intuitives (who spend
most of their time and energy in more intellectual pursuits) may find doing physical things, such as playing
sports or cooking, very gratifying. Likewise, Sensors who operate in the physical world most of the time
may enjoy engaging their Intuition by reading a good mystery or learning a new computer program.
   Intuitives who are also Extroverts will frequently finish other people’s sentences for them, because they
mentally anticipate the point the speaker is making. And their assumptions are often correct. (Although
this habit is not always appreciated.)
   Standardized entrance exams are written by Intuitives. (Which helps explain why Intuitives do better; as
the emphasis is not based on memorized facts, but on drawing inferences from facts and understanding
theoretical concepts. (As disproportionate percentage of faculty members are also Intuitives.)

Note: 65% of American population is comprised of Sensors; 35% are Intuitives

Attending preferences for Sensors (S):
Gather information directly through the 5 senses more through here and now
Rely on information that is practical and useful
More comfortable dealing with the here-and-now
Have a strong orientation to the present and the past
Emphasize “I do.”
Emphasize realism, things with practical utility
Focus on facts and details first
Notice details and remember facts
Tend to be precise
Are pragmatic; they see what is
Trust five senses and actual experience to know what is
More comfortable with the known tried and true
Insights are used to support data gathered
Use a realistic, pragmatic, exact standard for information
Like to use established skills
Like step-by-step instructions
Learn new things through imitation and observation
Value solid, recognizable step-by-step attainments
Admire practical solutions
Appreciate tradition and familiar ground
Have a matter-of-fact style
Tend to be practical and realistic
Trust direct observation and hands-on experience
Prefers to dwell in the here and now over imagination
Emphasize practical issues
Emphasize theoretical issues
Emphasize the more literal
Emphasize details, facts, and figures
Emphasize systematic approaches
Emphasize applied knowledge
Emphasize sensibility
Emphasize familiarity with procedures
Emphasize cost, time, profit, usefulness
Seek utility
Want to know the practical and realistic applications
Emphasize past experiences to illustrate and clarify
Tend to communicate in a straightforward manner
Sentences are short, containing a single thought
Are direct and to the point
More literal, say what they mean and mean what they say
Present evidence, facts, details, and examples first
Use detailed descriptions
Want others’ suggestions to be straightforward, feasible and practical
Are orderly and step-by-step in presentations
Refer to specific examples in discussions
Use language as a tool
Get annoyed when too much is left to chance
Behave practically
Become creative through effort and perspiration
Have sequential thoughts – one follows the next
Are more aware of their bodies
Are less likely to have graduate degrees
Often prefer non-fiction reading because they like facts
Like physical comedy
Tend to listen until others complete a thought
Remember the past accurately
Take play seriously and imitate real-life events
Draw objects as they are in life
Invite trouble when they focus too much on details
Can’t see the forest for the trees
More likely to be coordinated and graceful
Tend to have a more highly attuned fashion sense
Are more likely to wear the right clothing for the activity

Attending preferences for Intuitives (N):
Gather information indirectly, via inspiration and interpretation through imagination and expectation of what is
   possible
Pay attention to their insights and look for underlying meaning or relationship
Look toward future possibilities
Have a strong orientation toward future implications
Emphasize “I create.”
Emphasize idealism, what could be, the theoretical
Focus on the big picture first
Notice anything new or different
Tend to be imprecise
Are imaginative; they see what could be
Trust inspiration and hunches to reveal what might be
Are intrigued by experimenting on things yet untested
Data gathered is used to support insights
Use an imaginative, insightful, and approximate standard for accepting info.
Prefer to learn new skills
Like to figure things out for themselves
Learn new things through general concepts
Value different or unusual attainments achieved by inspiration
Admire creative ideas
Appreciate and enjoy new and different experiences
Have an enthusiastic style
Tend to be impractical, imaginative, and creative
Tend to trust leaps of intuition
Prefers to live in one’s imagination over the here and now
Emphasize more figurative, using analogies and metaphors
Emphasize broad concepts, global issues, and the big picture
Emphasize creative approaches
Emphasize abstract knowledge
Emphasize genius
Emphasize novelty of assignments
Emphasize conceptual value
Seek newness
Want to know the challenges and future opportunities of data
Emphasize hunches, imagination, and future optimism to embellish points
Communicate in a more complicated, circuitous manner
Sentences are long, compound, rambling, and can trail off unfinished
Repeat themselves, recap, and rephrase
Are more figurative, and they enjoy liberal use of analogies and metaphors
Present insights, concepts, and ideas first
Use metaphors and analogies
Want others’ suggestions to be novel, unusual, and challenging
Have a roundabout approach to presentations
Refer to general concepts in discussions
Use language as an expression of self, and are aware of the power of vocabulary
Get annoyed when things are too clearly defined, preferring approximations
Behave imaginatively
Become creative through insight and inspiration
Have roundabout thoughts – leap from one thought to the next
Are more in their heads
Are more likely to have graduate degrees
Often prefer fiction reading because they like to use their imaginations
Appreciate cerebral humor dealing with language and free-association
Tend to finish others’ sentences
Envision the future
Creates a fantasy world in play
Embellish drawings
Invite trouble when they focus too much on the big picture
Can’t see the trees for the forest
More likely to be uncoordinated
Are more likely to dress according to their own personal identity
Are less interested in and aware of the details of a situation


ATTENDING STRATEGIES IN RELATIONSHIPS
Attending traits in Relationships for Sensors (S)
Tend to believe “If it ain’t broke don’t fix it”
Talk about practical, concrete here-and-now subjects
View relationships realistically, even pessimistically
Want explicit signs of commitment, such as a ring
Seek predictability
Listen to and factor in friends’ input about partner
Daydream, but know what is realistic in the relationship
Face facts directly when things go wrong
Have clear roles and expectations for the relationship
Expect the couple’s spoken plans to become realities

Attending traits in Relationships for iNtuitives (N)
Tend to believe there is always room for improvement
Talk about the future, the possibilities, improving or creating things
View relationships unrealistically, and optimistically
Value subtle signs of commitment, such as special gifts and cards
Value change
Discount or ignore friends’ input about partner’s character
Daydream about the ideal relationship, and overlook reality
Face difficulties as challenges for changing the relationship
Believe roles or expectations are negotiable
Expect to continue to dream about what is possible between them


ATTENDING STRATEGIES AT WORK

Attending traits at Work for Sensors (S)
Choose work that produces practical, useful products
Engage in steady work
Attracted to jobs that require practicality and prefer work that has a practical aspect to it
Prefer work that allows them to learn and master a new skill
Use previously acquired work experience to solve problems
Appreciate standard ways to solve problems
Apply skills that are already developed
Distrust and ignore inspirations
Like things to be concrete and factual
Want to understand how details make up big picture
Prefer tried-and-true and make adjustments to that
Choose work that require hands-on and direct experience
Choose work that involves mastery of detail
Follow the agenda and its time frames in meetings

Attending traits at Work for iNtuitives (N)
Choose work that produces new products or services
Engage in inspired work
Attracted to jobs that involve creativity and prefer work that has an innovative aspect to it
Prefer work that meets future needs or has new possibilities
Do things differently than previous work experience may dictate
Use new and different ways to solve problems and reach solutions
Enjoy learning new skills for the challenge and novelty involved
Follow inspirations regardless of facts
Like things to be generally stated and are less concerned with specifics
Want to see what is involved in the big picture first, then fill in the details
Prefer change, often with major readjustments, than to continue with what is
Choose work involving seeing relationships and patterns and dealing with them
Choose work that attends to underlying meanings and anticipating future needs
Digress from the agenda when it gets in the way at meetings



Decision-making Strategies: How do process information to make
a decision? (a preference for “T” or “F”)
    The Thinking (“T”) preference works well for evaluating and deciding an impersonal issue; reaching a
conclusion based on pros and cons or on truth and falsehood.
    The Feeling (“F”) preference works well for evaluating and deciding on personal issues based on liking
and disliking or agreeableness or disagreeableness.
    Because Thinkers don’t have the Feelers natural drive to please people, they are less inclined to
inconvenience themselves when they do notice that others need help.
    Thinking and Feeling preferences can be thought of as two trains going down separate tracks yet both
arriving at the same destination – a decision or a conclusion.

NOTE: The population is about evenly divided between Thinkers and Feelers; about 65% of Thinkers are
men; and 65% of Feelers are women.

Decision-making strategies for Thinkers (T)
Make decisions with logic, then (perhaps) with the heart
Organize and structure information in a logical way
Focus attention on universal principles
Seem to be more logical
More likely to be objective
First ask themselves, “Does this logically make sense?”
Objectify a decision, weighing pros and cons
Are not typically convinced unless its logical
Feelings are valid when they are a logical reaction
Derive satisfaction from their ability to analyze
Are keen on the principle of one standard applied to all
Smile less and less likely to show pain and discomfort
Less likely to see age lines around mouth and eyes
Engage in fewer physical expressions with another
Less comfortable with public displays of affection
Act cooler, more reserved and distant towards others
Seem to be cold and insensitive to others’ feelings
Deal with people firmly, as required
Expect the world to run on logical principles
Use logic and reason to support their values-oriented conclusions
Tend be system-oriented
Use an impersonal, objective ordering system to find a standard of truth
Have truth and principles as primary objectives
Choose truth over tactfulness
Decide more with one’s head, employing reason
Prefer on principle to question others’ findings
More likely to ignore interpersonal climate
Deal impersonally in most aspects of life
Get right to the point and may be blunt and tactless
Critique and point out the negatives, overlook positives
Present themselves reasonably
Are honest and direct, often appear businesslike
Make decisions objectively
Are most convinced by rational arguments
Note the pros and cons of each alternative
May argue or debate for fun
Have a more emotionally even demeanor
Are more “thick-skinned,” take few things personally
Seldom ask if timing (for another) is inconvenient
Appear low-key and matter-of-fact
Are usually very assertive
Acts of kindness are impersonal
More likely to critique
Prefer brief and concise communication
Focus communication on tasks and impersonal events
Show objectivity and readily critique ideas and people
Quick to tell others where they need improvement
Are more comfortable arguing and enjoy a heated debate
Give praise and compliment sparingly
Forget to thank or congratulate
Tend to see flaws
Use impersonal language
Ignore non-verbal communication
Use people’s names sparingly
Are often engaged in jobs of strategy
Need reasons to follow you
Are motivated by achievement
Value honesty and fairness
More likely to mete out swift justice
Better at noticing when others are being illogical
Decisions can be flawed when using an irrelevant standard
Will announce the number of points they’re about to make

Decision-making strategies for Feelers (F)
Make decisions first with the heart, then (perhaps) use logic
Organize and structure information in a personal, values-oriented way
Focus attention on personal motives
Appear to be more illogical
More likely to be subjective
First ask themselves, “How do I feel about this?”
Need to be emotionally convinced of something
Personalize a decision, how they and others will be affected
Feelings are valid because they feel them
Derive satisfaction from understanding and helping others
Are more concerned with mercy and harmony than with justice
Smile more and are more likely to show pain and discomfort
More likely to see age lines around eyes and mouth from emotional expressions
Engage in more physical expressions (kisses, hugs, pats on back)
More comfortable with public displays of affection
Act warmer, friendlier towards others
Are warm and very sensitive to others’ feelings
Deal with people compassionately, as needed
Expect the world to recognize individual differences
Use values and emotions to support logical conclusions
Tend to be people-oriented
Use what is of value or important to themselves or others as a standard
Have harmony as primary objective
Choose tactfulness over truth
Decide more with one’s heart (emotions), employing empathy
Prefer to agree with others’ findings
More likely to attend to interpersonal climate
Deal personally in most aspects of life
Engage in small talk first and are usually very gentle and diplomatic
Overlook people’s negatives, stressing areas of agreement
Present themselves sincerely
Are more diplomatic and tactful, engage in social niceties
Make decisions based on their values and feelings
Are most convinced by how they feel
Note how a given alternative has value and how it affects people
Go to great lengths to avoid arguments, conflict, and confrontation
Exhibit more emotional highs and lows
Have feelings hurt more easily (“thin skinned”), take many things personally; more likely to become hostile
    and/or violent if values are violated
Will ask if timing (for another) is inconvenient
More likely to appear excited and emotional
Are less assertive, as they shun conflict and disharmony
Acts of kindness are personal: gift-giving, visiting sick people, emotional support
More likely to compliment
Prefer sociable, friendly, and even time-consuming communication
Focus communication on relationships, people, and personal happenings
Show appreciation and readily empathize with people and their idea
Are more likely to be affirming
Are not comfortable arguing as it means people are angry at each other
Are generous with compliments and praise
Master the art of appreciation
Are quick to compliment others
Use lots of “value” words
“Tune in” to non-verbal communication
Use people’s names frequently
Are involved in “helping” jobs
Need trust to follow you
Are motivated by appreciation
Value mercy; are more diplomatic and tactful
More likely to show mercy
Better at giving emotional support
Decisions can be flawed when values are immature, self-centered ones
Rarely use such an organizational system when talking
Less likely to make jokes at others’ expense
Less likely to find situations where others are hurt funny and amusing
Less likely to enjoy entertainment involving violence
More likely to be sentimental, nostalgic, and cry at movies


DECISION-MAKING STRATEGIES IN RELATIONSHIPS
Decision-making strategies in Relationships for Thinkers (T)
View encounters with others as having a purpose
Identify logical reasons for relationships
Focus more realistically or critically on partner
Are less likely and less frequently to feel hurt
Control expressions of love
Show caring more impersonally
Give “improvement” messages out of regard for partner
Separate out and possibly ignore the emotional aspects of messages
Tolerate occasional queries as to my emotional state
Tend to value intellectual compatibility, discussing ideas
Can feel hurt when breaking up, but then let go
Will speak up when they disagree and set partner straight
Think it’s more important to tell the truth, even if it hurts
Can come across as mean and cruel by appearing tactless
Pride themselves on their ability to remain dispassionate, and yet, will steadfastly contend they care about people
Less likely to go out of their way to help others
Less likely to reveal information of their personal lives
More reluctant to share their feelings, even to those close

Decision-making strategies in Relationships for Feelers (F)
View encounters with others as being friendly and important in itself
Identify personal reasons for relationships
Focus more positively or favorably on partner
Are more likely and more frequently to feel hurt
Freely offer expressions of love
Show caring through personalized words and actions
Find “improvement” messages unloving
Look for emotional meanings in seemingly straightforward messages
Appreciate frequent queries as to one’s emotional state
Tend to value emotional compatibility, being sensitive to each other’s needs
Let feelings linger and find it hard to let go
Are less likely to speak up, for fear of hurting partner’s feelings
Have a strong need to be liked, and go to great lengths to please others
Will tell white lies and avoid unpleasant subjects if they can get away with it
Take pride themselves on caring about people, and are often unyielding when it comes to personal convictions
    (which are often “irrational” to thinkers)
More likely to go out of their way to help others, including strangers
More likely to reveal information of their personal lives
More reluctant to share their feelings, even to those close
More likely to share how they feel



DECISION-MAKING STRATEGIES AT WORK

Decision-making strategies at Work for Thinkers (T)
Orient selves towards tasks
Like jobs that appeal to their ability to analyze problems logically and make objective decisions
Enjoy a competitive work environment
Like harmony, but can be effective at work without it
Use logic and analysis as a basis for work
Can hurt people’s feelings without being aware of it
Make decisions impersonally and can overlook others’ wishes in order to get work done
Manage and deal firmly with others
Readily offer criticisms or suggestions for improvement
Factor in principles and truths in making decisions
Choose careers that involve making bottom-line choices
Choose careers that involve goals
Decision-making strategies at Work for Feelers (F)
Orient selves toward relationships
Prefer work that is personally meaningful, involving helping others, makes them feel appreciated
Enjoy a cooperative work environment
Need harmony in order to work most effectively
Include others’ opinions in addition to personal values as basis for work
Pay attention to people’s feelings and enjoy pleasing them
Allow others’ likes and dislikes to influence decisions, which can take precedence over getting work done
Manage and relate sympathetically with others
Avoid and dislike giving and receiving unpleasant feedback, even if deserved
Factor in underlying values and human needs when making decisions
Choose careers that involve helping others
Choose careers that involve services, responding to people’s feelings


Lifestyle Strategies: How much structure and organization is in
your life (a preference for “J” or “P”)
  “Judgment” is the preference that relates to living in a planned and organized manner, with the ability to make
decisions confidently.
  “Judging” refers to an innate drive, to close things down, make a decision, to judge.
   “Perception” is the preference that related to living in a spontaneous and flexible way, with the ability to stay
open for new information.
  “Perceiving” refers to an innate drive to keep things open, to keep taking in information, to keep perceiving.
As there is great pressure to succeed in the working world (and act like a Judger), people are expected to follow
the rules and be on time.
    Therefore, many Perceivers typically develop some measure of Judging-like behavior on the job in order to
succeed. Judging behavior makes a lot of Perceivers appear to prefer Judging (especially true in work
environments).

NOTE: Judgers represent about 60 percent of the American population and Perceivers about 40 percent. The
strong cultural bias in favor of Judging behavior makes a lot of Perceivers appear to prefer Judging (especially
true in work environments).

Lifestyle personality traits of Judgers (J):
Lifestyle is more organized and planned
Think structurally
Are more formal, rigid, conventional, traditional
Prefer life to be decisive, imposing their will upon it
Prefer to plan
Set a course of action and run their lives accordingly
Feel more comfortable making a plan and sticking to it
Prefer to reach settled conclusions
Have strong black-and-white opinions
Feel anxious until and issue is decided
Alleviate tension by deciding
Require less information to make decisions
Can “hear” decisions being made even when they’re not
Want to be in control of situations and call the shots
Often appear as serious and no-nonsense
More likely to have a reputation of being “bossy”
Are more comfortable with well-defined rules
Are more comfortable with authority and hierarchy
Are comfortable asking for permission
Are much more likely to be unequivocal
Less likely to be patient and let things happen
Like to make lists and check off completed items
Like to set and reach goals
Like to work on one thing until completion
Are driven to, and feel energized by, finishing a project
Desire to be right, to do the right thing
Regiment selves to be purposeful and exacting
Resist change
Are more serious
Prefer to be deliberate
Prefer things to be regulated
Are more settled
More comfortable getting to the bottom line
Like to make up their mind and come to conclusions
Like to make decisions; decide quickly
Like to take charge and be in control
Are definitive and often express strong opinions
Prefer a life that revolves around schedules/organization
Prefer structured situations and responsibility
Have a stronger work ethic: work first, play later
Seek jobs that give them lots of control
Rush from one appointment or project to the next
Feel rules and regulations are essential
Value order
View life as simple
Use words such as “ought” and “should” liberally
Are usually well-organized
Prefer a hurried, rapid pace
Pay attention to time and are prompt
More likely to have a neat home and work space
Will throw things away that are not needed
Dress more for appearance
Have a more finished, neat, orderly and appearance
Clothing is typically formfitting and matching
Have straighter posture
Can have a problem with being too goal-oriented and thereby not allow new information to be processed
Have a car interior that is neat and clean
Hair is usually cut and styled to look its most flattering
Are well-organized, and easily find “lost” items
Respond quickly to questions, without clarifying questions
Are often adamant, and confident about their positions
Are more likely to be considered dogmatic
Tend to make declarative statements that end with an “!”
Movements are often quite deliberate, moving from A to B

Lifestyle personality traits of Perceivers (P):
Lifestyle is more spontaneous and flexible
Think globally
Tend to be more casual, flexible, adaptable, unconventional, and nontraditional
Seek to adapt their life and experience to what comes along
Prefer to react
Like to adapt and move with the flow of life, preferring to let life happen.
Feel comfortable without a definite plan and without pressure to stick to one
Prefer to keep things open
Have strong shades-of-gray opinions
Feel anxious when they’re forced to make definitive decisions
Alleviate tension by not deciding, keeping options open
Require more information to make a decision
Can “hear” firm plans in terms of merely options being considered
Are often more comfortable be compliant and letting others call the shots.
Often seem lighter, more fun-loving, playful, and even irreverent
More likely to have a reputation of being “adaptable”
View rules as unwanted restrictions on their freedom and spontaneity
Are more inclined to rebel against and to question authority
Feel it’s better to pardon someone after the fact than risk being denied permission
Are much more likely to be equivocal
May have to may decisions by default or based on a firm deadline
Are often disorganized
Like to gather information and are more liable to change their goals
Enjoy working on several things at once
Feel energized when they start a project
Desire to have many experiences and miss nothing
Are tolerant and adaptable
Embrace change
Like to limit information and input
Are more playful, silly
Prefer to be impulsive, spontaneous
Prefer things to just flow
Are more tentative
Like to hear all sides
More comfortable observing, listening, and taking in more information
Like to keep their options open and continue gathering information
Make decisions with difficulty
Will avoid public power struggles and find a way to do what they want
Are more tentative and wishy-washy
Prefer a life that revolves around spontaneity and flexibility
Prefer unstructured situations
Have a stronger play ethic: play first, work later
Seek jobs that are fun
Less harried, unhurried, more oblivious to time; become frazzled over deadlines
Dislike rules and regulations; view them as confining and limiting
Value freedom
View life as complex
Use words such as “perhaps,” “maybe,” and “could be” in regard to self/others
Have trouble finding things and keeping organized
Prefer a more leisurely pace
Are less aware of time and tend to run late
More likely to have a cluttered home and work space
Prefer to save things because one never knows when they might be needed
Dress more for comfort
Often have a more unfinished, rumpled look
Clothing is more likely to be loose-fitting and may not necessary match
Are more likely to slouch and rock back in their chairs
Can have a problem by not be adequately goal-oriented in order to accomplish meaningful objectives
Have a car interior littered with everything enabling them to keep options open
Hair is often unkempt
Are not well-organized and frequently misplace things
Will delay offering an opinion and frequently ask for more information
May appear less sure of themselves as they modify their positions
Are more likely to be considered wishy-washy
Often make statements that end with a “?” or they let their sentences drop off…
Often stroll, even when they are late going from one appointment to the next



LIFESTYLE STRATEGIES IN RELATIONSHIPS
Lifestyle strategies in Relationships for Judgers (J):
On a first date, get upset if the date is late
Prefer to know, in advance, what’s going to happen
If invited on vacation, would have to check the schedule
Feel bound to doing the activities on a social calendar
Seek to do the right thing for partner
Want designated time periods to work on relationship
Easily decide on the status of their relationships
Work first and other priorities first, then play
Feel comfortable with traditional forms of relationships
Like the security and stability of a committed relationship

Lifestyle strategies in Relationships for Perceivers (J):
Don’t worry if the first date is late, because they’re normally late as well
Prefer to let dates happen spontaneously without much advance planning
If invited, they would immediately pack their bags
Feel less committed to activities on a social calendar
Make no assumptions about what is the right thing and go with the flow
Deal with relationship issues as they arise
Agonize over deciding on the status of their relationships
Seek opportunities to combine work and play
Feel hemmed in and restricted by traditional forms of relationships
Like introducing change and new dynamics into their relationships


LIFESTYLE STRATEGIES AT WORK
Lifestyle strategies at Work for Judgers (J)
Prefer a work setting that is structured and organized
Like settings in which decisions get made
Like to plan their work and work their plan
Enjoy getting things finished and settled
Complete one project before starting the next
Go full steam ahead to accomplish a goal
Are attracted to systems, which provide a source of direction
Like checking items off their “to do” list
Will overlook new things in order to finish current job
Narrow down the possibilities and be satisfied with decision
Decide quickly and seek closure
Seek structure in scheduling self and others
Prefer to regulate and control their/others work
Tend to buy and use date books and organizers
More likely to be “filers”
Have a desk that is perpetually tidy
Seek jobs that give them lots of control

Lifestyle strategies at Work for Perceivers (J)
Prefer a work setting that is spontaneous, flexible, and open to change
Like setting where gathering information is part of their work
Like to deal with needs as they arise
Enjoy keeping things open for last-minute changes
Start many projects and have difficulty finishing
Consider how a job gets done, so they change goals as the process unfolds
Consider systems unnecessary and spend energy trying to circumvent them
May have a “to do” list, but they often don’t closely adhere to it
Will postpone current tasks to meet momentary needs
Will resist being tied down to a decision in order to gather more information
Put of decisions to seek options
Resist structure and favor changing circumstances
Prefer to free up their/others’ work
May create a system to get organized, but only temporarily enjoy its novelty
More likely to be “pilers”
Have a desk that is cluttered with works in progress
Seek jobs that are fun

				
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