French Adverbs by maclaren1

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									                                    French Adverbs

adverbs of frequency explain how often something occurs.


                          encore                            again
                   encore une fois                     one more time
                          jamais                            never
                          parfois                        sometimes
                         rarement                           rarely
                         souvent                            often
                         toujours                          always
                        quelquefois                      sometimes
             tous les jours (mois, etc)            every day (month, etc)
            une (deux, trois, etc) fois         once (twice, three times, etc)



Adverbs of manner explain how something happens.


The majority of French adverbs of manner end in -ment, which is usually equivalent to the
English ending -ly. These adverbs are formed from French adjectives, as follows:


  I.     If the French adjective ends in a vowel, add -ment to form the adverb
            Adjective          French adverb                  English translation
             absolu             absolument                        absolutely
            admirable          admirablement                      admirably
           confortable        confortablement                    comfortably
            passionné          passionnément                     passionately
               poli               poliment                         politely
            spontané           spontanément                     spontaneously
               vrai               vraiment                          truly


 II.          If the French adjective ends in a consonant, add -ment to the
                                      feminine form
         Masculine adj       Feminine adjective       French adverb           English
                                                                            translation
              franc                  franche           franchement            frankly
               lent                    lente             lentement             slowly
             naturel                naturelle         naturellement          naturally
             premier                première          premièrement             firstly
              rapid                   rapide            rapidement            rapidly
             sérieux              sérieuse            sérieusement             seriously
               vif                  vive                vivement            sharply, deeply
                                             Exceptions:
               bref                brève                  brièvement                briefly
              gentil              gentille                gentiment                 kindly


I/IIa.       Rules I and II ensure that French adverbs have a vowel immediately
          preceding the -ment ending. The following adverbs follow one of the above
                      rules, but require an acute accent on this vowel:
            aveugle            aveuglément                              blindly
            commun            communément                            commonly
              confus           confusément                          confusedly
             énorme            énormément                           enormously
             intense           intensément                            intensely
              obscur           obscurément                           obscurely
              précis           précisément                            precisely
            profond           profondément                          profoundly
            uniforme          uniformément                           uniformly


 III.    If the French adjective ends in -ant or -ent, remove the ending and add
                                 -amment or -emment
            Adjective          French adverb                   English translation
             apparent          apparemment                           apparently
              bruyant           bruyamment                             loudly
             constant          constamment                           constantly
            intelligent       intelligemment                        intelligently
              patient           patiemment                            patiently
             suffisant         suffisamment                          sufficiently
                                             Exception:
               lent              lentement                             slowly


There are a few French adverbs of manner that don't end in -ment:


                                   ainsi           thus
                                   bien            well
                                 debout        standing up
                                  exprès        on purpose
                                   mal         poorly, badly
                                  mieux           better
                                   pire           worse
                                 vite             quickly
                               volontiers         gladly
adverbs of place explain where something occurs.


                                ailleurs       elsewhere
                                 autour            around
                               d'ailleurs          besides
                                dedans              inside
                                dehors             outside
                                derrière           behind
                                dessous             below
                                dessus              above
                                devant             in front
                                 en bas       down(stairs)
                                en haut        up(stairs)
                                   ici              here
                                   là               there
                                 là-bas        over there
                                  loin             far away
                             n'importe où      anywhere
                               nulle part          nowhere
                                partout       everywhere
                                  près              near
                            quelque part      somewhere



adverbs of quantity explain how many or how much.


                         assez (de)                quite, fairly, enough
                         autant (de)                as much, as many
                      beaucoup (de)                    a lot, many
                          bien de*                     quite a few
                       combien (de)                 how many, much
                         davantage                           more
                         encore de*                          more
                           environ             around, approximately
                         la majorité de*                the majority of
                         la minorité de*                the minority of
                           moins (de)                      less, fewer
                          un nombre de                    a number of
                            pas mal de                    quite a few
                          (un) peu (de)               few, little, not very
                          la plupart de*                      most
                             plus (de)                        more
                        une quantité de                      a lot of
                            seulement                         only
                                  si                              so
                             tant (de)                so much, so many
                            tellement                             so
                                très                          very
                             trop (de)               too much, too many
                   un/e verre/boîte/kilo de          a glass/can/kg/bit of
                       (more quantities)


Adverbs of quantity (except très) are often followed by de + noun. When this happens, the
noun usually does not have an article in front of it; i.e., de stands alone, with no definite
article.*


        Il y a beaucoup de problèmes - There are a lot of problems.
        J'ai moins d'étudiants que Thierry - I have fewer students than Thierry.


*This does not apply to the starred adverbs, which are always followed by the definite article.


adverbs of time explain when something happens.


                     actuellement                      currently
                          alors                           then
                         après                            after
                    après-demain               the day after tomorrow
                      aujourd'hui                        today
                      auparavant                previously, beforehand
                        aussitôt                      immediately
    autrefois            formerly, in the past
      avant                      before
   avant-hier          the day before yesterday
     bientôt                      soon
   cependant                   meanwhile
     d'abord                  first, at first
 de bonne heure                   early
      déjà                   already, ever
     demain                     tomorrow
     depuis                       since
  dernièrement                    lately
   désormais               from now/then on
   dorénavant              from now/then on
      enfin                  at last, finally
     ensuite                      next
      hier                     yesterday
      il y a                       ago
 immédiatement                immediately
   longtemps                 for a long time
   maintenant                      now
n'importe quand                 anytime
 précédemment                  previously
      puis                        then
   récemment                    recently
      tard                         late
       tôt                        early
  tout à l'heure   a little while ago, in a little while
  tout de suite               immediately
 The placement of French adverbs depends to some extent upon the type of
adverb and the word that it is modifying.

An adverb modifying an adjective or another adverb (usually aussi, si, très, fort,
bien) is placed before the word it modifies.

Usually an adverb modifying a verb is placed after the conjugated verb (simple
tense), or after the helping verb (compound tense).

Nous mangeons bien.
Nous avons bien mangé.
Nous allons bien manger.

Il fait souvent la cuisine.
Il a souvent fait la cuisine.
Il doit souvent faire la cuisine.

When an adverb applies to the whole sentence, it can be placed at the beginning or
at the end of the sentence.

For your information these are more complete rules for adverb placement.
Adverbs of frequency are usually placed after the verb.
Exception: parfois is normally placed at the beginning of the sentence.
Je fais toujours mes devoirs.               I always do my homework.
Parfois, Luc ne fait pas ses devoirs.       Sometimes Luc doesn't do his homework.
Adverbs of time which refer to specific days can be placed at the beginning or
end of the sentence.
Aujourd'hui, je vais acheter une voiture.   Today, I'm going to buy a car.
Elles arriveront demain.                    They'll arrive tomorrow.
Long adverbs are usually placed at the beginning or end of the sentence.
Généralement, nous mangeons avant
                                            Normally, we eat before 5pm.
17h00.
Je ne l'ai pas trouvé, malheureusement.     I didn't find it, unfortunately.
However, if the long adverb specifically modifies the verb, it is placed after the
conjugated verb.
Il a immédiatement quitté Paris.            He left Paris immediately.
Adverbs of place are usually found after the direct object.
Il a mis ton sac à dos là-bas.              He put your backpack over there.
J'ai trouvé le livre ici.                   I found the book here.
Adverbs which modify adjectives or other adverbs are placed in front of the
word they modify.
Je suis très heureuse.                      I'm very happy.
Chantal fait assez souvent ses devoirs.     Chantal does her homework fairly often.
In negative constructions, adverbs which normally follow the verb are placed
after pas.
Je mange bien ==> Je ne mange pas
                                          I eat well ==> I don't eat well.
bien.
Tu travailles trop ==> Tu ne travailles   You work too much ==> You don't work
pas trop.                                 too much.

								
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