Using Reference Sources

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					Using Reference Sources




     By: Karla Murray and Cheryl Brinkley

                Fourth Grade
                Language Arts
Georgia Performance Standards

ELA4W3 The student uses research and technology to support
writing.
  The student
  a. Acknowledges information from sources.
  b. Locates information in reference texts by using
      organizational features
  c. Uses various reference materials (dictionary, thesaurus,
      encyclopedia,
      electronic information) as aids to writing.

SS4H2 The student will describe European exploration in North
America.
  a. Describe the reasons for, obstacles to, and
     accomplishments of the Spanish, French, and English
     explorations: John Cabot, Vasco Nunez Balboa, Juan Ponce
     de Leon, Christopher Columbus, Henry Hudson, Jacques
     Cartier.
Culminating Activity: Using Reference Sources

Essential Question of the Culminating Activity:

How do I use reference sources?

Paragraph Description of Culminating Activity:

Having learned to use various types of reference sources, create
a brochure for fourth graders about an early explorer. Use all of
the reference sources that you have learned about to complete
your brochure. Use the sample travel brochure as your guide.

Steps for Completing the Culminating Activity:

  1. Take a piece of paper and fold it into three equal sections.
  2. Use the sample brochure as a guide to create your brochure
     making sure that you include all components that are
     included in the sample brochure.
  3. Use various resources to compile information about the
     explorer that you have chosen to research.
  4. Use the dictionary to check the spelling of any words that
     you are unsure about, and use the thesaurus to strengthen
     your descriptions.
  5. Construct a brochure using your compiled information.

Resources
Dictionary, thesaurus, atlas, almanac, encyclopedia, computers
with Internet access, art supplies.
    Rubric: Brochure


    Student Name: ________________________________



Category               4                   3                    2                   1
               The brochure has     The brochure        The brochure         The
Visual         exceptionally        has attractive,     organization is at   organization of
               attractive and       neat formatting     a moderate level.    the brochure is
Elements and
               neat formatting,     and well-           (Either the          confusing and
Design         well-organized       organized           brochure is not      unattractive.
               information with     information with    neatly organized,
               appropriate          appropriate         or the pictures
               pictures.            pictures.           are
                                                        inappropriate).
               The brochure is      The brochure        The brochure is      The brochure
Quality of     interesting to       has many            difficult to         uses poor
               read and holds       interesting         understand.          grammar and
Writing
               the reader’s         things in it. The   Word choices         needs to be
               attention.           writing is          often don’t make     rewritten.
               Writing is simple,   understandable,     sense, or else it
               clear, and direct.   but there are       looks like the
                                    some places         author of the
                                    where the           brochure
                                    writing is          plagiarized.
                                    difficult to
                                    understand.
               There was clear      There was some      There was little     There was no
Content        evidence of          evidence of         evidence of          evidence of
               understanding of     understanding       understanding of     understanding
               the content.         of the content.     the content.         of the content.
               There was clear      There was some      There was little     There was no
Evidence of    evidence of the      evidence of the     evidence of the      evidence of the
               use of all           use of various      use of various       use of
use of
               reference            reference           reference            reference
reference      sources.             sources.            sources.             sources.
sources



                                                                           Total Score:
                                                           Name _____________
                            Reference Sources Quiz

Choose the best reference source that you would use to answer each question.
Write dictionary, thesaurus, atlas, almanac, or encyclopedia.

1. _________________ How many ways are there to pronounce the word envoy?

2. _________________       Name at least three countries that border Brazil.

3. _________________ What is a synonym for the word chuckle?

4. _________________ What was the total population of the world during

                          the year 2003?

5. ________________       What was the chief cause of the Civil War?

6. _________________       Name two famous people that have birthdays today.

7. ________________       How many syllables are in the word hallelujah?

8. ________________       What is an antonym for the word brilliant?

9. ________________       Name two states that the Great Lakes touch.

10. _______________       What is the average life span of a giraffe?

11. _______________       Who was Theodore Roosevelt?

12. _______________        In which ocean is Japan located?

13. _______________        What is the meaning of the word distress?

14. _______________        What is the diet of the blue whale?

15. _______________        Where is the tallest building in the world?

16. _______________        What is the part of speech for the word giggle?

17. _______________        Who is Molly Pitcher?

18. _______________        What is the name of the longest bridge in the world?

19. _______________        Whose picture can be found on the $100 bill?

20. _______________        What is the capital of Mongolia?
                                                       Name _____________
                      Reference Sources Quiz Answer Key

Choose the best reference source that you would use to answer each question.
Write dictionary, thesaurus, atlas, almanac, or encyclopedia.

1.    Dictionary           How many ways are there to pronounce the word envoy?

2.    Atlas                Name at least three countries that border Brazil.

3.    Thesaurus            What is a synonym for the word chuckle?

4.    Almanac              What was the total population of the world during

                           the year 2003?

5.    Encyclopedia         What was the chief cause of the Civil War?

6.    Almanac              Name two famous people that have birthdays today.

7.    Dictionary           How many syllables are in the word hallelujah?

8. Dictionary/Thesaurus    What is an antonym for the word brilliant?

9.    Atlas                 Name two states that the Great Lakes touch.

10.   Almanac               What is the average life span of a giraffe?

11.   Encyclopedia          Who was Theodore Roosevelt?

12.   Atlas                 In which ocean is Japan located?

13.   Dictionary            What is the meaning of the word distress?

14.   Encyclopedia          What is the diet of the blue whale?

15.   Almanac               Where is the tallest building in the world?

16.   Dictionary            What is the part of speech for the word giggle?

17.   Encyclopedia          Who is Molly Pitcher?

18.   Almanac               What is the name of the longest bridge in the world?

19.   Almanac               Whose picture can be found on the $100 bill?

20.   Atlas                 What is the capital of Mongolia?
Launch Activity

Explain to students that they will be learning about various types of
reference sources during the next week. Explain that a reference resource
is a tool that people use to find out more information about a particular
topic.
Turn to your partner and quickly make a word splash of as many reference
sources that you can think of.
Discuss as a class and create a class word splash on the board.
Turn to your partner and tell them when they would need to use the various
types of reference sources (in conducting a research report or project).
Lesson Planning Form

Essential Question Lesson 1 (GPS):
What types of questions could be answered using an atlas?
GPS: ELA4W3a; ELA4W3c

Activating Strategies: (Learners Mentally Active)
See Launch Activity

Acceleration/Previewing: (Key Vocabulary)
Political map
Relief map
Rainfall map
Resources

Teaching Strategies: (Collaborative Pairs; Distributed Guided Practice,
Distributed Summarizing; Graphic Organizers)

Today we are going to explore an atlas. An atlas is a book of various types
of maps. An atlas may include a political map, a relief map, a rainfall map,
and a map that shows the resources of the United States. Let’s review
these types of maps (see previewing section).

Tell students that they will work with their pair-share partner to complete
the following activity. Give each pair an atlas and have them look through
the atlas to see how it is organized. After looking through the atlas, have
the pair come up with one question that could be answered using an atlas.
After the pair has their question, have one student write the question on
the board. After all groups have submitted a question, begin going through
the questions with the class. Read one or two questions from the board and
model for students how they should search to find the answer. After
modeling one or two questions, allow pairs to work together to find the
answers to the remaining questions.




Summarizing Strategies: Learners Summarize and Answer EQ
Let students know that they will be making a reference guide flipbook for
their personal use. This project will be ongoing throughout the unit.

Give each student three sheets of paper to make a flipbook (Model first).
When students have the flipbook made instruct students to write
“Reference Guide” on the title tab using their markers, crayons, or colored
pencils. Students will then write “atlas” on the first tab. They will fold back
the title page and write a description of an atlas in their flipbook. Students
should also write one question that could be answered by using an atlas.

When enough time has elapsed, have students share their reference guide
with a partner. Remind students to keep up with the flipbooks because they
will be needed for lessons throughout the unit.

Resources
Atlases (one for every pair of students would be ideal)
8 ½ x 11 paper (3 sheets per child)
stapler
markers, crayons, colored pencils

*Lesson adapted from the GLC Website.
Lesson Planning Form

Essential Question Lesson 2 (GPS):
What types of questions could be answered using an almanac?
GPS: ELA4W3a; ELA4W3c

Activating Strategies: (Learners Mentally Active)
Ask students to get out their flipbooks from yesterday’s lesson. Have
students quickly review the information that they had written about an
atlas. Allow volunteers to share their work with the class.

Explain that today we will learn about another type of reference source.
Pretend that you forgot to put up the essential question for the day. Tell
the students that they are going to have to guess the EQ. Write on the
board: What types of questions could be answered using an _ _ _ _ _ _ _?
Play hangman to fill in the blanks.

Teaching Strategies: (Collaborative Pairs; Distributed Guided Practice,
Distributed Summarizing; Graphic Organizers)
Today we will be learning to use an almanac. An almanac is a really neat
reference tool because it contains up to date information because a new
almanac is published every year. Explain to students that almanacs contain
information about populations, current events, famous people, sports,
history, and various other subjects.

Give each pair of students an almanac, and have students work with their
pair-share partner to look through the almanac briefly. Bring the attention
back to you, and have students locate the table of contents and index in the
almanac.

Tell students that you would like to know which animal has the fastest speed.
Model how you find the answer.

Tell students that you would like to know who won the World Series that
year. Model how you would find the answer.

Pass out the practice activity and allow students to work with a partner to
complete the activity. Almanac practice activity can be found at
http://www.glc.k12.ga.us/BuilderV03/Attachments/12847.doc. Monitor and
assist groups as needed.


Summarizing Strategies: Learners Summarize and Answer EQ
 Revisit flipbooks. Using colored pencils, markers, or crayons students will
then write “almanac” on the second tab. They will fold back the first page
and write a description of an almanac and one question that could be
answered by using an almanac in their flipbook.

When enough time has elapsed, have students share their reference guide
with a partner. Remind students to keep up with the flipbooks because they
will be needed for lessons throughout the unit.

Resources
Recent editions of almanacs (one copy for every two students)
Student flipbooks
Markers, crayons, or colored pencils
Copy of Almanac practice activity

*Lesson adapted from the GLC Website.
Lesson Planning Form

Extending and Refining Lesson
Essential Question Lesson 3 (GPS):
How do I decide when to use an atlas or an almanac?
GPS: ELA4W3a; ELA4W3c

Activating Strategies: (Learners Mentally Active)
Give each student an index card with “atlas” written on one side and
“almanac” written on the other side (or students could write these words on
the cards themselves.

Give pairs of students or pods the following questions cut apart and have
students classify the questions into two categories (atlas/almanac). Have
students construct support for why they classified as they did. (E.g. "I
chose at atlas for finding out what continent is located North of Australia
because an atlas is book of maps.")

What kind of money do people in Spain use?
What continent is located North of Australia?
Name one body of water that touches Norway.
Did any American athlete win a gold medal in the 1996 Olympics?
How long is the longest bridge in the world?
What is the capital of the United States?
How many states border Texas?



Acceleration/Previewing: (Key Vocabulary)
persuade
justify
support

Extending & Refining Activity: Constructing Support
Explain to students that today’s lesson will involve trying to decide which
resource is best to use, an atlas or an almanac. Explain to students that if
they are a one, they will work with a partner create an ad to promote the use
of an atlas. If they are a two, they will work with a partner to create an ad
to promote the use of an alamanac. (Allow students to use both the atlas
and the almanac to construct support for their ad).




Summarizing Strategies: Learners Summarize and Answer EQ
After sufficient time has passed, have atlas pairs join with almanac pairs to
try to share the ads promoting both reference sources.

Guide discussion so that students realize that both resources are useful, but
useful for different reasons.
Lesson Planning Form

Acquisition Lesson
Essential Question Lesson 4 (GPS):
How do I use an encyclopedia?
GPS: ELA4W3a; ELA4W3c

Activating Strategies: (Learners Mentally Active)
Ticket in the Door: Have students write down two things that can be found
by using an atlas and two things that can be found by using an almanac. Ones
tell twos two things that can be found using an atlas. Twos tell ones two
things that can be found by using an almanac. Explain that today we will be
learning about another reference tool – the encyclopedia.

Teaching Strategies: (Collaborative Pairs; Distributed Guided Practice,
Distributed Summarizing; Graphic Organizers)
Explain that encyclopedias are a set of books that contain information about
many subjects. Each book is a volume, and it has information about many
subjects that are arranged in alphabetical order. Each volume is labeled
with one or more letters and contains subjects beginning with that letter.

Write the following on the board:
Thomas Jefferson
giraffes
rain forests
the Declaration of Independence
the Everglades

Ask student volunteers to tell which volume would have information on each
topic. Discuss answers.

Give each pair of students an index card with an animal written on it. Explain
that they will use the encyclopedia to find three strange, but true facts
about the animal listed on their card. Be sure to discuss what “strange, but
true” means. Fact- a walrus has tusks. Strange, but true fact- A walrus can
bellow so loudly that it can be heard a half-mile away. Allow students to use
the “Strange, but True Animal Facts” sheet to record their information.
Animal suggestions for index cards:
Grizzly bear
Pink flamingo
African elephant
Brown beaver
Baleen whale
Great horned owl
Red kangaroo
Great white shark
Harp seal
Polar bear

Summarizing Strategies: Learners Summarize and Answer EQ
 Add encyclopedia page to reference guides. Students will write a definition
of an encyclopedia and one question that can be answered using an
encyclopedia.

Resources
*Lesson adapted from the GLC Website.
Lesson Planning Form
Acquisition Lesson
Essential Question Lesson 5 (GPS):
How do I find information using the Internet?
GPS: ELA4W3a; ELA4W3c

Activating Strategies: (Learners Mentally Active)
 Have students pair-share to create a list of ways that they use the
Internet. After sufficient time has passed, have students share items from
their lists with the class as you create a word splash about the Internet.

Teaching Strategies: (Collaborative Pairs; Distributed Guided Practice,
Distributed Summarizing; Graphic Organizers)
Explain that today’s lesson will allow us to learn to use the Internet to
conduct research. Using the Promethean board (or a projector) take
students to www.yahooligans.com. Show students the “reference” link and
guide students through using the various reference tools that are available
(dictionary, thesaurus, encyclopedia, almanac, and maps). Also show students
these two sites that could be used during research.
http://www.worldalmanacforkids.com/explore/ and
http://www.factmonster.com/atlas/. In addition, show students how to use
a search engine such as www.google.com to search for a reference source.

Have ones tell twos one way to use the Internet to find information used for
research. Have twos tell ones another way to use the Internet to find
information used for research.

Allow students to work with a partner to complete the “Reference Sources
Internet Scavenger Hunt.”

Summarizing Strategies: Learners Summarize and Answer EQ
 Have students add an Internet page to their reference guide. Using
colored pencils, crayons, or markers, have students students will add an
"internet" page to their flipbooks. They will write a description of the
Internet and one question that could be answered by using the Internet.

Resources
“Reference Sources Internet Scavenger Hunt”
                                                    Name _____________

                    Reference Sources Scavenger Hunt

Type www.yahooligans.com in your address bar to find the answers to the
following questions. When you arrive at the website, click on the reference
link on the left side of the page. Choose the appropriate resource to answer
the questions.

1. What is Amelia Earhart known for? ___________________________

_________________________________________________________

2. What are synonyms for the word “scurry?” ______________________

3. During which years did the American Revolution take place? _________

4. What does the word “scamper” mean? __________________________

5. Give two synonyms for the word “irate.” ________________________

Type www.worldalmanacforkids.com/explore/ in your address bar to find
the answers to the following questions. When you arrive at the website,
click on the appropriate link to find the answer to the questions.

6. Which city in the United States has the largest population? _________

7. Who was the 22nd president of the United States? ________________

8. What is the fastest fish and how fast does it travel? ______________

9. Which animal lives for 100 years? _____________________________

10. Give the name of a famous person that was born on your birthday.

   ______________________________________________________
Type www.factmonster.com/atlas/ in your address bar to find the answers
to the following questions.

11. Libya is located on the continent of Africa. Name two countries that
    border Libya.
    _____________________________________________________

12. Which ocean is located north of Asia? _______________________

13. Which country is located to the south of the United States? ________

14. Brazil is located in South America. What is the capital of Brazil?

   __________________________

15. In which ocean is Japan located? _____________________________
                                                     Name _____________

              Reference Sources Scavenger Hunt Answer Key

Type www.yahooligans.com in your address bar to find the answers to the
following questions. When you arrive at the website, click on the reference
link on the left side of the page. Choose the appropriate resource to answer
the questions.

   1. What is Amelia Earhart known for? She was the first woman to make
      a solo flight across the Atlantic, and the first woman to cross the
      Atlantic by airplane.

   2. What are synonyms for the word “scurry?” run, scamper, sprint

   3. During which years did the American Revolution take place? 1775-
      1783

   4. What does the word “scamper” mean? To run or go quickly and lightly.

   5. Give two synonyms for the word “irate.” furious, ireful, rabid,
      wrathful



   Type www.worldalmanacforkids.com/explore/ in your address bar to find
   the answers to the following questions. When you arrive at the website,
   click on the appropriate link to find the answer to the questions.

   6. Which city in the United States has the largest population? New
      York, New York

   7. Who was the 22nd president of the United States? Grover Cleveland

   8. What is the fastest fish and how fast does it travel? Sailfish (68
      miles per hour)

   9. Which animal lives for 100 years? The box turtle
10. Give the name of a famous person that was born on your birthday.
    Answers will vary.



Type www.factmonster.com/atlas/ in your address bar to find the
answers to the following questions.

11. Libya is located on the continent of Africa. Name two countries that
    border Libya. Egypt, Chad, Niger, Algeria, or Tunisia.



12. Which ocean is located north of Asia? The Arctic Ocean



13. Which country is located to the south of the United States? Mexico

14. Brazil is located in South America. What is the capital of Brazil?
    Brasilia

15. In which ocean is Japan located? The Pacific Ocean
Lesson Planning Form

Acquisition Lesson
Essential Question Lesson 6 (GPS):
What types of information can I find in a dictionary?
How do I use guide words?
GPS: ELA4W3a; ELA4W3c

Activating Strategies: (Learners Mentally Active)
Ask students if they think that a barnacle would make a good pet. Ask twos
to tell ones their answer. Ask ones to tell twos what they think a barnacle
is. Ask students how we could find out whether or not a barnacle would
make a good pet. Distribute dictionaries and allow partners to find the word
barnacle in the dictionary and discuss whether or not a barnacle would make
a good pet.

Ask students to work with their partners to create their own dictionary
word splash. Allow students to use their dictionaries to create a dictionary
word splash with a partner. After ample time has passed create a class word
splash on the board about dictionaries (guide words, entry words,
definitions, multiple meanings, parts of speech, pronunciation key).

Teaching Strategies: (Collaborative Pairs; Distributed Guided Practice,
Distributed Summarizing; Graphic Organizers)
Explain that today’s lesson will allow us to use the various things that can be
found in a dictionary. Discuss entry words, definitions, multiple meanings,
pronunciation key, and parts of speech with students.

**Before beginning this activity, make a copy of the word cards document
and cut them apart.

Divide the class into three teams of 6-10 students. Give all students on each
team a word card except for one student. This student will be the guide.
Each guide will race against the clock to line his or her team members up in
alphabetical order according to their word cards. The guide who finishes
first with the correct order wins. After the race, call attention to the
cards that have the asterisk beside the words. These words would be the
guide words on a dictionary page with all of the words that the team has.
Switch cards among teams, choose a different student for each team as the
guide, and repeat two more times until all teams have used all three sets of
word cards.

Ask students to return to their seats, and have the students open their
dictionaries to any page. Point out where students would find guide words.
Tell students to share with their partner the guide words found on the page
that they have turned to. Explain that the entry words on a page are placed
alphabetically between the two guide words. Write these two words on the
board: life-lighter. Explain that these two words are the guide words on
your dictionary page. Write liberty, monkey, lift and lifesaver out to the
side of the guide words. Have ones tell twos which words that they think
would be found on this page. Explain that lift and lifesaver would be found
on this page because they fall in line alphabetically. For another example,
put all of the words in alphabetical order. Explain that the words between
life and light would be found on the page.
Give pairs of students sets of index cards with sets of words on each card
(similar to the lift-lifesaver example. Make sure that the guide words have
an asterisk by them. Allow partners to work together to decide which entry
words would fall on the same page as the guide words. Spot check student
answers.

Dictionary Relay Game- Divide students into two teams. Give each child a
dictionary. Give students an item to find. The first team with a person to
the board with a correct answer written on the board wins the point for
their team.
Examples:
   - Find the part of speech for the word “boy”
   - Write the guide words that appear on the same page as the word
       “peanut.”
   - Write the definition for the word “girl”
   - Write the pronunciation for the word “apple.”
   - How many definitions are there for the word “pot?”
   - How many syllables does the word “restroom” have?
   - Would an elephant in the cafeteria cause a hullabaloo?

Keep making up questions to ask them to get them to become familiar with
all parts of their dictionary.
Summarizing Strategies: Learners Summarize and Answer EQ
 After you feel that students are comfortable with finding all parts of the
dictionary, have them add a dictionary and thesaurus page to their
reference guide (they will add the thesaurus information after tomorrow’s
lesson). Using colored pencils, crayons, or markers, have students put their
own dictionary wordsplash on the page.

Resources
-Words Cards
*Lesson adapted from the GLC Website.
Lesson Planning Form

Acquisition Lesson
Essential Question Lesson 7 (GPS):
How do I use a thesaurus?
How can I use a thesaurus to strengthen my writing?
GPS: ELA4W3a; ELA4W3c

Activating Strategies: (Learners Mentally Active)
 Read and show the story “The Nation of Nice” on a transparency or
Promethean board.
                              The Nation of Nice
   Once upon a time, there was a nice place to live. It was known as the
Nation of Nice. In fact, nice was the only adjective the nice king would allow
anyone to use in the nice kingdom. The weather there was always nice.
People wore nice clothes and sang nice songs. There were nice parties, nice
babies, and nice bullies!
 (Taken from GLC Website)

Ask students if they enjoyed the story. Ask them what the problem with
the story was. Ask them how we could make the story better. Discuss and
make a list of words that we tend to overuse (good, nice, pretty, etc.)

Acceleration/Previewing: (Key Vocabulary)
synonym

Teaching Strategies: (Collaborative Pairs; Distributed Guided Practice,
Distributed Summarizing; Graphic Organizers)
Have a transparency prepared of this story or show this story on the
Promethean board. Guide students in making the story more exciting by
using a thesaurus. Complete the first three blanks together and allow
students to complete the remainder of the story individually.

Aunt Skeeter and the (bad) __________ Itch

It was a (very) __________ hot day at Bluebell Farm. Aunt Skeeter had
been (working) __________ in the garden since daybreak. She looked up at
the (hot) __________ sun and wished she could go swimming in the (cool)
__________ creek. All at once, Aunt Skeeter had a (good) __________
idea. She decided that a swim was just what she needed. So she (ran)
__________ down to the creek and (jumped) __________ in! A smile
spread across her face as she floated on the water. The (nice) __________
swim didn't last very long, however. All of a sudden, Aunt Skeeter let out a
(cry) __________ that could be heard in the next county. She jumped out
of the water as though she'd been shot from a cannon. She wiggled and
squirmed, trying to (find) __________ the source of her discomfort.
Finally, after one (big) __________ shake, a (fat) __________ catfish
came flopping out of Aunt Skeeter's overalls. Seeing the catfish made Aunt
Skeeter (laugh) __________ so hard that she had the hiccups for two days!

Upon completion, allow students to read their story to their partner.

Ask students to pick one journal entry to strengthen by using a thesaurus.
Allow students to use a thesaurus to improve the entry. Upon completion,
have students submit their strengthened story to you.

Summarizing Strategies: Learners Summarize and Answer EQ
Have students add the thesaurus information to their reference guides
using colored pencils, crayons or markers. Students should give the
definition of a thesaurus. They should also write a boring sentence and an
improved sentence using a thesaurus.

Resources
*Lesson adapted from the Education World Website.
  Aunt Skeeter and the (bad) __________
                   Itch
    It was a (very) __________ hot day at Bluebell
Farm. Aunt Skeeter had been (working)
__________ in the garden since daybreak. She
looked up at the (hot) __________ sun and wished
she could go swimming in the (cool) __________
creek. All at once, Aunt Skeeter had a (good)
__________ idea. She decided that a swim was
just what she needed. So she (ran) __________
down to the creek and (jumped) __________ in! A
smile spread across her face as she floated on the
water. The (nice) __________ swim didn't last
very long, however. All of a sudden, Aunt Skeeter
let out a (cry) __________ that could be heard in
the next county. She jumped out of the water as
though she'd been shot from a cannon. She wiggled
and squirmed, trying to (find) __________ the
source of her discomfort. Finally, after one (big)
__________ shake, a (fat) __________ catfish
came flopping out of Aunt Skeeter's overalls.
Seeing the catfish made Aunt Skeeter (laugh)
__________ so hard that she had the hiccups for
two days!