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									       Social Studies 8                           Lesson 9

              •        To begin to understand the concept of regions.

                        Regions ...

    are areas that are tied together
        by things that they have
               in common.

     Geographical Regions of Canada and the USA

                             The East
     If you were to take a trip to the East Area, you would find that
there are many differences from one place to another. These
differences help divide the East Area into its four regions:

                       The Atlantic Region
                       The Manufacturing Core Region
                       The Appalachian Region
                       The Southeast Region

    We will look at each region with regards to
    location, place, interaction, and movement.
        If you could go on a holiday in this
           region, where would you go??

         The Atlantic Region
1. Please read pages 68 - 74.
2. Answer the Comprehension questions #1-3, page 74 in your
    notebook. This is a self mark assignment - marked next
      Canada and the United States share this region

The Atlantic region was the first region of North America to be
explored by Europeans. It became a gateway to the interior of the
continent. Its first industries were based on the land and the sea.
Today, these industries are in decline, so many of the people of
the region must look for new kinds of employment.

                Issues Faced by the Atlantic Region

 •   Young people must move to other regions to find work.
•   Declining primary industries are leading to high unemployment and
•   There is increasing government control of the Atlantic fisheries.
    These controls, large boats and companies make it difficult for
    traditional fishers.
•   Acid rain from the Manufacturing Core is harming the lakes and
    forests of the Atlantic.

                             Key points

         Climate: wet with long, cold winters.
         First region of North America to be settled by Europeans.
         Fishing industry remains important but has problems
         Atlantic region is near the Atlantic Ocean
         The Atlantic region relies on natural resources.
         Secondary industry and, recently, tourism are important
The Atlantic Fishery - Mini-Study

     Fishing in the Atlantic region has changed since John Cabot first
fished off the coast of Newfoundland in 1497. The fishers still use
boats and nets. However, almost everything else has changed and
problems have resulted.

    There are more than 10 000 small boats in the inshore fishery. The
boats are built locally. Page 68 in A Geography of Canada and the United
States has a photograph of an inshore boat. New boats have many
electronic aids. Two-way radios, depth sounders and fish finders help
find the best fishing areas while new navigational instruments can
pinpoint exact location. This is helpful if the fishers stay out at night
or in foggy weather.

    For centuries many inshore fishers have used bait or lures to catch
the fish. This is called hand lining and jigging. Other fishers use nets
called purse seine, otter trawl, gill net or weir fishing. These nets can
scoop up over a tonne of fish at one landing.

    Offshore fishing has become more important. Large boats called
stem trawlers are 35 to 50 meters long and can fish year-round in all
types of weather. They often fish for two weeks with a crew of 12 to
15. They drag behind them a long cone-shaped net. As it scrapes along
the bottom of the ocean, it gathers up everything in its way. The net is
pulled aboard the trawler and is emptied of its thousands of fish. Many
trawlers have refrigerators on board so the fish can be cleaned and
refrigerated until a port is reached.

   For over 450 years, many people of the Atlantic region looked to the
ocean for their employment. However, in the 1970s, problems began to
appear. There was a significant drop in the cod stocks. The problems
were overfishing, foreign competition, pollution of fishing grounds, and
poor fishing methods.

   In 1977 Canada extended its control of the ocean to 370 km
offshore. This allowed the government to set fishing seasons, limit
quotas, and license foreign fishing boats. By 1982 the total catch rose
but by 1986 it had dropped again. Problems of illegal fishing and
overfishing continued. Fishers are catching 45 percent of northern cod
rather than the 20 percent needed to permit stocks to build up. One
boat captain was fined $170 000 for illegally fishing in Canadian waters.
Still, the Atlantic region's most important industry is declining.

                 Manufacturing Core
        1. Read in your text book pages 75-84.
        2. Answer the Comprehension questions #1-5 page 84 in
           your notebook. This is a self mark assignment - marked next week.
                  This region is in both Canada
                      and the United States

The Manufacturing Core is the region which has the greatest
concentration of manufacturing. It is different from the others

we have studied in that it is an   economic, rather than a
physical region. It has the most important ports, the greatest
number of cities, the main financial centers, and some of the best
farming areas. In the U.S, and Canada, manufacturing is an
important economic activity. Many towns and cities have
manufacturing; however, it is not spread evenly throughout North

           Issues Faced by the Manufacturing Core Region

 • The growth of cities has led to a decline in productive farmland.
 • The factories contribute to the North American pollution problem.
 • The Quebec culture creates a subregion within the region.

                              Key Points

   •       The largest number of manufacturing plants in North
   •       Agriculture: corn, dairy, fruit, and vegetable region
   •       There are many cities.
   •       Flat land except for the Appalachian Mountains
   •       Transportation and communications are important.
   •       The province of Quebec has a unique culture.
         Philadelphia, Pennsylvania - City Sketch

Location: Absolute: 40'N 75'W.
          Relative: on a peninsula between the Delaware and the
          Schuylkill Rivers

Place: Elevation: 134 m to sea level; flat, low-lying peninsula. Climate
is humid continental with no extremes in temperature. Precipitation is
spread evenly throughout the year, averaging 1050 mm. Population: 1
642 000, metropolitan area 5 963 300.

     Philadelphia was founded in 1682 by William Penn. The city was
important in the early beginnings of the United States. Three important
documents were written there. The first meetings of the U.S. Senate
and House of Representatives were held in Congress Hall. Philadelphia
was the capital of the United States from 1790 to 1800. Important
Americans, such as George Washington, Benjamin Franklin, James
Madison, and Thomas Jefferson, lived there. It is also the home of
the Liberty Bell.

      Philadelphia’s 64 km of river front provided an excellent harbor
for ships. It is the third largest port in the United States.
Philadelphia also has the Conrail Railroad which takes freight north and
west into the interior of North America. Interstate highways lead
inland to Pittsburgh and to the northwest.

      Industry was attracted to the port. It has important shipbuilding
and repairing facilities. Crude oil comes from Mexico, Venezuela, and
Texas to be refined. An iron and steel industry is located in the
harbor. Other manufacturing includes: automobile, machinery, and
chemical factories. Service industries, such as banking, publishing, and
insurance are important to the city. However, recently a number of
industries have moved out of Philadelphia to the suburbs.
      The older parts of Philadelphia were built on a grid or rectangular
pattern. Row houses were built in the 1800s to provide for the many
immigrants. There are over 100 neighborhoods in the city. Names such
as Germantown, Chinatown, and Italian Market indicate the
multicultural nature of Philadelphia. Unfortunately, the waterfront,
older neighborhoods, and the downtown fell into decay in the 1970s.
Recently efforts have been undertaken to redevelop these areas to
attract people to them.

      Philadelphia is a pretty city. As one resident said, "It is one of
the best-kept secrets in the world." Besides the many historic sites, it
is home to professional hockey, baseball, football, and basketball. The
world-renowned Philadelphia Orchestra plays here. There are public
gardens, a zoo, and museums.

People are friendly. They like to eat snapper soup, scrapple (a mixture
of ground meat and cornmeal), and soft pretzels. There are 10 Am and
22 FM stations and 8 television stations.
      Traveling in the city is made easier with buses, streetcars,
subways, and elevated railways.
      The city, which was the birthplace of a nation, is still thriving
300 years later.

             Have you ever been to a place
            that has its own special food ??

    The Appalachian Region
      1. Read in your text book pages 85-92.
      2. Answer the Comprehension questions #1-4,6 on page 92 in
         your notebook. This is a self mark assignment - marked next
            This region is only in the United States

The Appalachian Region is quite different from most other regions
of the United States or Canada. This region is not as economically
prosperous as its neighbor the Manufacturing Core. It is a very
beautiful region and one in which physical geography has played an
important part in influencing the lives of the people.
         Issues Faced by the Appalachian Region (85-92))

 Some of the issues faced by the Appalachian Region are listed

    • Cultural change has been forced on the inhabitants by the greater
      ease of communication.
    • A weak economic base keeps unemployment and poverty levels
    • Should land be used for resorts or kept in its natural state?

                              Key Points

    • This region has common physical factors of land forms, climate,
      vegetation, and soils.
    • Land forms have influenced the way of life of the people,
      particularly with respect to economic and cultural factors.
    • Isolation has encouraged particular cultural developments in the
    • Poor soils and rough terrain do not encourage the development of

             A Tale of Two Rivers - Excursion

      One summer our family went to the Appalachians for a two week
holiday. Two rivers stand out in my memory.

      The first was the beautiful Shenandoah River Valley, cradled
between the Blue Ridge Mountains on the east and the Alleghenies on
the west. The river rises in the Allegheny Mountains near Staunton,
Virginia, and flows north for 250 kilometers to its junction with the
Potomac River at Harpers Ferry, in West Virginia. To the north the
rich soil of the valley attracted many farmers from the early 1700s on,
including the Mennonites, a German people of strong religious beliefs
and a traditional way of life. Today, valley farmers grow fruit and
vegetables, and raise poultry, hogs, cattle, and horses. The limestone
country where the Shenandoah rises has meant the formation of many
deep and interesting caverns. This natural phenomenon attracts many

     The Shenandoah Valley was the scene of several battles during
the United States Civil War, ending with the North, under General
Sheridan, destroying many settlements.

      We also won't forget white water rafting on the Chattooga River,
in the Blue Ridge Mountains! Many adventure movies have been made on
this fast-flowing river. After the excitement of fighting with the
rapids and gorges we were glad to spend our last evening just sitting
and listening to banjo music. Here, we met people of the southern

      We found the people of the Appalachians interesting, friendly,
and hard-working. They are independent by nature, preserving a deep
respect for religion and family life, with many of them keeping their old
traditions and sometimes using expressions not found in modern English.

      However, we noticed that many people seemed to live in poverty.
Much of the good soil was overused and destroyed by erosion in the
past. The economy declined sharply in the 1930s and 1940s, and many
young people left the area. By the early 1960s two million people had
moved away, and one-third of the remaining 16 million lived in poverty.
In 1965 the government started a huge development scheme. You can
see many new factories there. As a result unemployment went down and
there are fewer poor people now.

           Have you ever been white water rafting?
      The Southeast Region
        1. Read in your text book pages 93-98.
        2. Answer the Comprehension questions #1-6 page 98 in
           your notebook. This is a self mark assignment - marked next week.

                  This region is only in the United States

The Southeast is a distinct region for a number of reasons. The
entire region has similar flat, low-lying land forms. Its climate is
warm and humid because the region is close to the ocean and in low
latitudes. The economy is dependent on agriculture and tourism,
with little secondary industry. Recent developments include
settlement by retired people and people who seek work in a
pleasant climate.

          Issues Faced by the Southeast Region (93-98))

 • Land use: to drain or not to drain the swamps?
 • Small farms are being taken over by large-scale farms.
 • Killer frosts damage the citrus trees; hardier varieties have to be
 • Greenhouse effect may cause wide-spread flooding.
 • Experiencing urban problems association with migrant populations

                               Key Points

  • Common land forms: flat, low-lying, and never far from the coast
    Climate: warm and humid due to its nearness to the ocean and low
  • Agriculture: important industry citrus fruits, vegetables, and
    cattle raising
  • Rapid increases in population
  • Recent, rapid growth of the tourist industry
That’s it for this week folks. I would like to wish you all
the best luck with your studies. :-)

Mrs. Carson

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