LaTeX writing professional scientific texts by ykb15723

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									            LaTeX
writing professional scientific texts


        Toon Goedemé

     November '07, Nitra

                                        1
          Writing a scientific text
   Contents
       message
       structure
       language
       level
   Lay-out
       MS Word
       LaTeX
          Writing a scientific text
   Contents
       message
       structure
       language               Keep strictly
       level                  separated!
   Lay-out
       MS Word
       LaTeX
          Content

   Most important in your text:
    THE MESSAGE
       What is it about?
       What did YOU do?
       What result did YOU get?
   Message must be clear
       introduction
       middle
       conclusion
             Structure

   Readable text = structured tekst
       also understandable for
            fast readers
            lazy readers
            readers with limited time
              course text!
              book!
   How?
          Guide reader through text

   point the essence from the start
   give reader a
    structure overview
   repeat structure at the
       beginning of each chapter
       end of each chapter
   repeat the essence in
    the conclusion
Rule of three
     In one chapter, repeat
      everything three times
          Intro. We will show ...
          Body. Show them ...
          Concl. We have shown ...

     In the text, repeat the essence
      three times
          Introduction
          Middle
          Conclusion

     But... do not overdo!
      don't make it too boring
        Language

   language choice
   clear
   correct
          Language choice

   Attention if writing in English!
       correct spelling and grammatics
       consistent choice British or American
          Spelling diff.

   US                        UK
       analyze                   analyse
       color                     colour
       center                    centre
       analog                    analogue
       encylopedia               encylopaedia
       license                   licence
       program                   programme
       modeling                  modelling
       guarantee                 guarantee
          Clear language

   short, simple sentences
   No superfluous words
   No archaic language
   Active sentences are preferred
       make clear what YOU did
        Correct language
 Hoeveel    fouten staan er in deze zin?
     De systeem klok van het test bord word
      geïmplementeert met behulp van een
      bidirektionele electronische hoge troughput
      buffer.
         Verbetering
 Negen    fouten!
     De systeem klok van het test bord word
      geïmplementeert met behulp van een
      bidirektionele electronische hoge troughput
      buffer.
     De systeemklok van het testbord wordt
      geïmplementeerd met behulp van een
      bidirectionele elektronische
      hoge-throughputbuffer.
          Scientific level

   adapt to the scientific level of the
    audience
       jury of master thesis
       make introductions readable to non-experts
   Scientifically correct
       words, terms, symbols, concepts
       method, experiments, proofs
   References
             References

   Bibliography:
       list of all texts you read/used
       Give as much information as possible, in
        order to easily find it back
            T. Goedemé, T. Tuytelaars, G. Vanacker, M. Nuttin and L. Van
             Gool, Feature Based Omnidirectional Sparse Visual Path
             Following, IEEE/RSJ International Conference on Intelligent
             Robots and Systems, IROS 2005, pp. 1003-1008, Edmonton,
             Canada, July 2005.

       refer from within your text to this
        bibliography
            proving what you wrote
            extra reading material for interested ones
          Writing a scientific text
   Contents
       message
       structure
       language               Keep strictly
       level                  separated!
   Lay-out
       MS Word
       LaTeX
        What is LaTeX?
   X = capital letter chi (χ)
   Pronounced: “Lah-tech”
   S/W package that uses the TeX
    typesetting engine
   TeX: computer program released in 1982
    by Donald E. Knuth and written for
    typesetting digital documents
       MS Word vs LaTeX


What
You
See
Is
What
You
Get
             How layout is done

   the classic way:
       writer hands in manuscript
       professional lay-outer 'sets' text
       printer prints
   Wysiwig:
       writer does:
            the writing
            the lay-out
            printing
         Wysiwyg

   Wysiwyg (MS WORD) is not suited for
    large and scientific documents
       non-professional layout
       inconsistence
       automatic numbering
       crashes,
        unwanted moving
        images, ...
          Automatic lay-out

   Writer (you)
       types text
       gives elemental lay-out hints
   Lay-out programme
       contains all professional lay-out rules
       does lay-out according to hints
       professional result (PDF)
   Separation contents and lay-out!
             LaTeX

   Open Source                Once small learning
       Windows:                curve
            MiKTeX            Lots of time saved
            WinEdt or          at critical moments!
             TeXnicCenter
       Linux
            Latex
            Kile
       Mac
            TeXShop
     Example: Hello World

Text & Commands       Typeset Document
 hello_world.tex           hello_world.pdf



                   LaTeX
          Overview of LaTeX
   Class Files
   Macro Packages
   Special Characters
   Commands
       Section Headings, Citations, Cross-References
       Figures, Tables, Equations
       Miscellaneous commands
   Many examples throughout
             Class File
   Defines what your document will look like
   Selected by \documentclass
       \documentclass[options]{class_name}
   Example:
       IEEEtran.cls (download from [4])
            Specify font size, number of columns, format, etc
            \documentclass[10pt,conference]{IEEEtran}
Class Files - Examples
          Macro Packages
   Allow you to use special commands
   Packages are activated by:
       \usepackage[options]{package_name}
   Examples:
     cite.sty       \usepackage{cite}

     graphicx.sty   \usepackage{graphicx}

     geometry.sty   \usepackage[margin=1in]{geometry}

     url.sty        \usepackage{url}
            Special Characters
   The following symbols are reserved:
       #    $   %   &   _   {   }   ^   ~   \
   To include them in your text:
       \# \$ \% \& \_ \{ \} \^{} \~{}
   Note: you cannot just do \\ (which is a
    linebreak) , but instead:
       $\backslash$
        A few more notes…
   Consecutive whitespace characters (blank
    or tab) are treated as one space.
   Paragraphs must be separated by at
    least one line in the .tex file.
   Comments can be added using %. Any
    text on a line after % will be ignored by
    the TeX compiler.
A Quick Review



        LaTeX
          Commands
   Used to help organize the document
       Section headings
       Labels and Cross-References
       Figures
       Tables
       Equations
       Listing Options
       Miscellaneous: newpage, pagestyle, include…
       Bibliographic Referencing
          Section Headings
   Use commands to define sections:
       \section{Section Name}
       \subsection{Sub-section Name}
       \subsubsection{Sub-sub-section Name}
       \tableofcontents
       \appendix
       OR using the appendix.sty package:
        \begin{appendices} … \end{appendices}
   Note: commands are case sensitive
          Labels and Cross-Referencing
   Tired of re-numbering your section or figure
    numbers in MS Word by hand? Solution:
   Each section, figure, table, equation, and so on
    can have its own label:
       \label{label_name}
   You can recall that label in the text:
       \ref{label_name}
   LaTeX assigns the correct section, figure, table
    and equation numbers to the labels when you
    compile the document.
Label Example
        Figures
   Require graphicx.sty package
   Figure type: eps (encapsulated postscript)
   Sample code:
    \begin{figure}[options]
    \includegraphics[options]{figure_name.eps}
    \caption{Figure Caption would go here}
    \label{fig_label}
    \end{figure}
Example




          Warning: ind.eps must
          exist in the same file
          directory as the TeX file,
          unless \graphicspath{}
          command is used.
        EPS images?
   conversion to EPS images:
      The GIMP (www.gimp.org)

         Linux

         Windows

      convert

         Linux
        Tables
   A little awkward to use, but they work:
   Sample Code:
    \begin{table}[options]
    \renewcommand{\arraystretch}{spacing_num}
    \caption{Table Caption would go here}
    \label{tab_label} \centering
    \begin{tabular}{column_scheme}
      row_info
    \end{tabular}
    \end{table}
           Tables- continued
   column_scheme
       ‘c’, ‘l’, or ‘r’ represent centered, left-justified or right-
        justified columns
       ‘|’(vertical bar) represents a vertical column line
       Example: ‘|c|c|c|’ represents three centered columns
   row_info
       Text in the rows is entered with the‘&’character used to
        separate the columns
       ‘\\’ indicates a line break
       ‘\hline’ adds a horizontal line
       Example: ‘\hline A & B & C \\ \hline’ represents a row with
        three entries and lines above & below
Example




            Table line spacing

          Column Scheme: one left-
          justified and three centered
          columns. Note the double „||‟

           Notice use of „&‟, „\\‟ and
           „\hline‟ to form the rows
          Equations
   Two ways to form equations
       Using ‘$’: $ equation syntax $
       Using commands:
         \begin{equation}
         \label{equation_label}
            Insert equation syntax here
         \end{equation}

   Syntax can be generated with software
    packages like MathType or TeXaide
Example


          Makes Eq‟n numbers appear
          on the right side of the page




               Syntax… refer to [1]
         Listing Options
   Lists: itemized, enumerated, descriptive
          Miscellaneous Commands
   Newpage: \newpage
   Header/Footer: \pagestyle{style}
       style: plain, headings, OR empty
   Nested TeX files:
       \include{filename}
       \input{filename}
   Quotation Marks:
       Use `` and ‟ ‟, rather than “ and ”
           Bibliographic Referencing
   BIBTeX: manages bibliographic databases
   Database files have .bib extension
   Example of bibliographic entry:
         @book{RFICtext,
           author          =   "J. Rogers and C. Plett",
           title           =   "Radio Frequency Integrated Circuit Design",
           publisher       =   "Artech House, Inc",
           address         =   "Boston, MA",
           year            =   "2003"
         };

   Style files (.bst) are used to format the entries
       IEEEtran.bst [5]
          Referencing - continued
   Entries can be referenced from the TeX file:
      \cite{RFICtext}

   The cite package will have to be included
   Example:




                               Numbers are automatically
                               assigned in the correct order

                            IEEEtran.bst bibliography style file

                     RFIC.bib must have an entry labeled RFICtext
             What you need to get started:
   Windows:
       Adobe Acrobat Reader
            http://www.adobe.com/products/acrobat/
       MIKTEX: TeX for Windows
            www.miktex.org
       WinEdt: or other (e.g. TeXnicCenter)
            www.winedt.com (30-day trial download)
       TeXAide: for equation editing:
            http://www.dessci.com/en/products/texaide/
       The Gimp: image editing: www.gimp.org
             What you need to get started:
   Linux:
       Adobe Acrobat Reader
            acroread, evince
       TeX engine:
            latex
       Kile: my GUI, but many others exist
            kile, lyx, texmaker
       eQe: for equation editing:
            eqe
       The Gimp: image editing: gimp
               References
   The best reference by far is Google Groups:
         Go to www.google.com and click on the Groups tab
         Type in some key words related to your question (include TeX)
         Click on the Google Search button and you should get some good hits


References:
   [1]   http://www.ctan.org/tex-archive/info/lshort/english/lshort.pdf?action=/starter/
   [2]   http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/TeX
   [3]   http://www.cs.cornell.edu/Info/Misc/LaTeX-Tutorial/Introduction.html
   [4]   http://www.ieee.org/portal/cms_docs/pubs/transactions/IEEEtran.zip
   [5]   http://www.ieee.org/portal/cms_docs/pubs/transactions/IEEEtranBST.zip
      Any Further Questions?
http://telescript.denayer.wenk.be/~tgo
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