Grant Writing Essentials

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					                     Grant Writing Essentials


                          Lori-Anne Williams


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                           Learning Objectives
                     1. Students will learn how to write a
                        grant proposal; including:
                       •   Understanding terms used in the grant
                           writing field
                       •   The contents of a typical proposal and
                           budget
                       •   How to adapt a typical proposal outline
                           to the funding needs of their organization
                       •   What supplementary materials to attach
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                           to a proposal.
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                                                                    2
                     Learning Objectives (cont.)
                     2.       Students will learn how to select
                              appropriate prospective funders
                          •     How to organize a grant search
                          •     How to use resources in a Foundation Center
                                Cooperating Collection
                          •     How to read entries in a foundation directory or
                                on a Web site
                          •     How to read a funder‟s guidelines
                          •     How to approach funding organizations (e-mail,
                                phone, online, mail)
                          •     How funders process proposals
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                                                                                   3
                                Schedule
                     • 9:00 Syllabus and introductions
                     • 9:30 All about funders
                     • 10:00 Writing the grant proposal
                     • Noon Lunch
                     • 1:00 Writing the grant proposal
                       (Part 2)
                     • 3:00 Close
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                        Throughout the day…
                     • Ask questions anytime - this is
                       your class
                     • Share examples of problems and
                       successes
                     • Bathrooms:
                     • Lunch
                     • Stand and stretch
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                     • Cell phones outside, please.
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                                                         5
                            Introductions

                     • Name
                     • Job/Organization
                     • Grant writing experience, if
                       any
                     • Why this course? Why now?
                     • Expectations about the class
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                                                      6
                           All about funders…
                     •   Types of funders
                     •   Types of grants
                     •   What‟s great about Minnesota
                     •   Foundation directories
                     •   Online searches
                     •   Reading guidelines
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                                                        7
                         Coming to Terms
                     •   Governing Board
                     •   Staff Direction
                     •   Grant Administrators
                     •   Program Officers
                     •   Peer Review
                     •   Panels
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                                                8
                     Funding Agency
                       Structures
                       The Pretend Foundation


                         Board of Directors


                          Executive, CEO
                             President


                          Program Officer

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                                                9
                     Government Agency
                         Structure
                      The Benevolent Department


                               Voters


                             Legislators
                              President


                         Dept./Agency Head


                                Panel


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                                                  10
                       Private Foundations
                     • 80% + of Minnesota
                       Foundations
                     • Established by an individual, a
                       group of individuals, or a family.
                     • Family foundations (McKnight)
                       – Run by donor and/or donor‟s
                         family
                     • Independent foundations (Bush)
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                       – Few family members involved
                                                        11
                     Community Foundations
                     • Publicly supported through donations
                     • For the benefit of a geographic area
                       or special interest
                     • Raise money as well as give it away
                     • Have both unrestricted and
                       designated funds
                     • May have one or more “supporting
                       organizations”
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                               Corporations
                     • Corporate Foundations
                       – Separate 501(c)
                       – Endowed foundations
                       – Based on annual profits
                     • Corporate Giving Programs
                       – Straight from company
                       – Often from “community relations”
                       – Cargill - has a Foundation and Corporate
                         Giving
                               _____________________
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                                funding?           13
                         Corporations (cont.)
                     • Corporate Sponsorship
                       – Usually from the marketing budget
                       – Corporation gets something back: Visibility
                       – Guthrie performances, public
                         broadcasting, events
                     • Employee matching grants
                       – Common for higher education
                       – Some companies match many types of
                         organizations
                       – Some companies match volunteer hours
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                         (IBM)
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                          Who do you know?
                     • Where do you work?
                     • Where does your family work?
                     • Where do your friends/neighbors
                       work?
                     • How can you tap into your network?

          Many corporations deem employee
      volunteerism and/or support important when
        making philanthropic funding decisions
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                          Government Grants
                     • Federal: grants.gov
                       – Play with searches, get updates, take
                         online training
                     • State Register - MN Communications
                       – http://www.comm.media.state.mn.us/book
                         store/state_register.asp
                       – Get to know “your” agency.
                     • Counties
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                     • Cities
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                                                                 16
                       State Register



                            QuickTime™ and a
                             decompressor
                     are neede d to see this picture.




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                                                        17
                             Other Sources
                     • Churches
                       – Diocese, national giving,
                         congregational
                     • Civic Organizations
                       – Rotary, VFW, Lions Club
                       – Usually fund local activities
                       – No overall directory of civic
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                         Commerce.                       18
                            General Operating
                     • “Genop” is your whole mission - all that you
                       do.
                     • Example: Crimea River Council
                        – Three programs: River clean-up,
                          Environmental education, and public
                          policy
                        – One genop grant could fund any part of
                          their activities.
                     • Example: Prisoner Exchange Network
                       (PEN)
                        – Only activity is transportation to/from
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                          prisons.
                                                                      19
                             Program Support
                     • Program or project support focuses on one
                       aspect of your work
                     • Example: Crimea River Council
                        – Has school-based mentoring and off-site
                          recreational activities for teens
                        – Receives funding from Great Big Foundation for
                          mentoring program in the Minneapolis schools.
                     • Many funding agencies prefer NEW
                       programs or projects, some will fund ongoing
                       programs.

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                                                                           20
                           Types of Projects
                     • Planning grants
                     • Start-up grants
                     • Management or technical
                       assistance
                     • Facilities and equipment
                     • Capital grants
                     • Endowment grants
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                        Minnesota Resources
                     • Minnesota Council on Foundations
                     • Minnesota Council of Nonprofits
                     • Management Assistance Project for
                       Nonprofits
                     • Charities Review Council
                     • Nonprofit Assistance Fund
                     • Universities and Colleges
                     More at:
                       www.loriannewilliams.com/links.html
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                                                             22
            National Sources of Contributions
                             Corporations ($12.7 billion)
Bequests ($22.9 b)                  4.3%
                             7.8%
        Foundations
       ($36.5 billion)   12.4%
                                                          Individuals
                                           75.6%
                                                          ($222.9 billion)

Total giving:
$295.02 billion
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                                            Source: Giving USA 2007 data of 2006 giving
                                                                               23
                           Minnesota Giving
                                                                   3%
                     • Individual giving:                        8%
                       $4.1 billion                        9%
                     • Foundation and
                       corporate:
                       $1.02 billion
                        – Private:                                   80%
                          $466 million
                        – Corporate:
                          $424 million               Individuals
                        – Community:                 Private Foundations
                          $132 million
                                                     Corporate Grantmakers
                                                     Community Foundations
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                                Based on 2005 giving. Source: Minnesota Council on Foundations, 2007
                                                                                         24
        Minnesota Grantmaking Snapshot
                    PERCENTAGE                                PERCENTAGE
                   OF FOUNDATIONS                            OF GRANTS PAID

                          6%
                                                                 13%
                     9%



                                                                41%           46%

                           85%



          Private                       Corporate                          Community
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                                 Based on 2005 giving. Source: Minnesota Council on Foundations, 2007
                                                                                          25
                     Grantmaking at a Glance
                                   GRANTS PAID
                                    (in millions)

                         $1,080
                         $1,060
                         $1,040
                         $1,020
                         $1,000
                          $980
                          $960
                          $940
                          $920
                                    '02    '03     '04
                                  2005: $1.02 billion     '05
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                             Based on 2005 giving. Source: Minnesota Council on Foundations, 2007
                                                                                      26
                          Giving in Minnesota
                     • 100 largest
                       grantmakers:
                        – 52 private
                          foundations
                        – 34 corporate
                          grantmakers
                        – 14 community
                          foundations

                     • 7% of all           Private
                       foundations and     Corporate
                       corporations make   Community
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                       Grants by Geographic
                           Service Area

                                                                   Twin Cities
                     42%            33%
                                                                   Greater MN
                                                                   Statewide
                                                                   Outside MN

                                   11%
                           14%



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                             Based on 2005 giving. Source: Minnesota Council on Foundations, 2007
                                                                                      28
                     Grants by Support Type

                                3%
                           7%
                                        25%
                                                                   General/Operating

                     14%                                           Program/Support
                                                                   Capital Support
                            51%                                    Student Aid Funds
                                                                   Research/Other

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                                  Based on 2005 giving. Source: Minnesota Council on Foundations, 2007
                                                                                           29
                          Trends for the Future
                     • Impact of economy – recession?
                          • Duration will have an impact on asset growth,
                            profitability and individual giving

                     • Impact of government priorities and
                       funding
                          • Increasing demands for philanthropy to fill gaps
                          • Increased attention from government on
                            oversight, regulation and potential legislation

                     • Increased competition for limited funds
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                            National Resources

                     • GuideStar Select & Premium (enhanced
                       online searchable database)
                       www.guidestar.org - click “products”
                     • Foundation Directory Online (national
                       online searchable database)
                       fconline.fdncenter.org
                     • Foundation Center Print and CD-ROM
                       Directories
                       foundationcenter.org/findfunders/fundingsour
                       ces/printcd.html

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                              Finding Funders
                     • Minnesota Guide to Grantmakers
                     • Foundation Center Cooperating
                       Collections
                     • Online information:
                       –   MN Grantmakers Online (Fee)
                       –   Foundation Search (Fee)
                       –   Foundation Directory Online (Fee)
                       –   Others: Access Philanthropy, GrantSpy,
                           etc. (see list)
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                          Searching
• Determine                  Determine feasibility:
  suitability:                  Deadlines
                                Recent grants
     – Geography                Contacts, Staff and
     – Area of Interest         Board
     – Type of funding
                             Make sure this funder is right
                             for you…
Make sure “you” are
 what the funder is
 looking for…
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                                                       33
                     Finding out about funders
                     • Websites
                     • Printed reports
                     • Ask your peers, your board, your
                       neighbors
                     • Read annual reports (and your
                       program at the theater!)
                     • Google, Wikipedia - be careful
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                                 The 990PF
                     • Tax forms available online
                     • Part III - Statement of
                       Accomplishments
                     • IV - Assets
                     • V - Officers
                     • XV - #2: Do they accept proposals?
                     • VI - #3: List of grants made (often
                       attached)
                     • http://www.guidestar.org/help/tutorial/
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                       Research made simple
                     1. Use directories and databases to
                        make a long list of prospects
                     2. Study the prospects for limitations,
                        giving patterns, geography, and
                        focus
                     3. Read the guidelines. Read them
                        again.
                     4. Contact the best prospects - ask
                        specific questions about guidelines.
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                            Letters of Inquiry
                     • This is the “first impression!”
                     • Keep it short but check the guidelines
                       for information on content and length.
                     • If you have a connection, mention
                       – Previous grants
                       – Personal contacts
                     • Your job is to help the Foundation
                       meet their goals and fulfill their
                       mission.
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                               Cover Letters
                     • Introduces the grant package
                     • Include summary of project and how it
                       fits their goals
                     • Ask for money!
                     • Keep it short (check guidelines).
                     • If you have a prior connection, mention
                       it.
                     • Your job is to help the Foundation
                       meet their goals and fulfill their
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                       mission.
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                           Proposal Writing

                     • Tips:
                       – Follow the guidelines
                       – Find a good writer
                       – Be clear and concise
                       – It‟s all right to have some
                         passion!
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                           Proposal Outline
                     • Introduction   •   Evaluation
                     • Organization   •   Sustainability
                       Description
                                      •   Budget
                     • Situation
                       Description    •   Attachments
                     • Project
                       Description
                     • Goals
                       – Objectives
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                       – Activities                        40
                              Cover Form
                     • Asks for basic information
                     • Have a very short description of
                       your proposal ready (75 words)
                     • Know your EIN and Legislative
                       District
                     • Complete as much of the
                       Common Grant form as you can,
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                                  Introduction
                     • AKA: Executive Summary, Abstract
                     • State your key information:
                       –   Problem
                       –   Solution
                       –   Funding Requirements (ask for money)
                       –   Why „you‟ are best suited for this work
                     • The reader should be tantalized
                     • Do this last (that works for me)

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                      Organization Description
                     • History
                     • Mission, Vision, Values
                     • Leadership
                       – Why YOU are most qualified to do
                         this work
                     • Where are you on your strategic
                       plan?
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                         Situation Description
                     • AKA: Need Statement, Problem
                     • Gather statistics, research and “proof”
                       – Needs assessments, surveys, focus
                         groups, interviews, usage, media
                         coverage, demographics, government
                         reports, projections for the future
                     • Authoritative
                     • Important to include your
                       CONSTITUENTS as part of this
                       section
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                         Situation Description
                                 (cont.)
                     • Keep it real: “poverty” can‟t be solved
                       by one grant, but instances of poverty
                       in a given area might be…
                     • Give the reader hope -- your
                       organization is ready to tackle this
                       problem (and fix something!)
                     • Determine if you are doing something
                       NEW, or replicating a “best practice”
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                         Making the problem
                              relevant
                     • Anecdotes - yank the heartstrings,
                       the funny bone, make them think.
                     • Use real examples (not real
                       names)
                       – Use quotes from beneficiaries
                     • This is what the proposal is
                       about: addressing a need. The
                       proposal is NOT about your
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                     Tell me your problems




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                                             47
                             The Work Plan
                     • Chart, graph it, sketch it, write it.
                     • Brainstorm with others
                     • You may not use every detail, but
                       the richness of your thinking will
                       come through in the grant
                       proposal.

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                          Project Description
                     • What is your goal?
                       – Hint: it should relate to the need!
                     • What will it take to reach your
                       goal?
                       – Activities
                       – Staffing and administration
                     • What will success look like?
                     • What happens after the grant?
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                     Goals & Objectives
Goal one: To make Objective One:        Activity 1: invent
things better for To make better
everyone          light bulbs           Activity 2: make

                                        Activity 3: market

                       Objective Two:   Activity 1:
                       To make better   research
                       watches.         Activity 2: design

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                                        Activity 3:
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                                Objectives
                     • Must be measurable
                     • Use a variety of objectives, but
                       only those you think you will
                       accomplish
                     • Each objective should move you
                       toward your goal, which will help
                       you address the situation or
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                       problem you stated.
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                           Types of Objectives
                     • Types of objectives: The Kitty-Cat Project
                        – Behavioral: Action
                            • 80% of cats will learn to use the litterbox
                        – Performance: Within a time frame
                            • 77% will pass the basic grooming skills test by Friday
                        – Process: Process is an end in itself
                            • Trainers will document which methods work best
                              with different kitty breeds
                        – Product: Tangible item will result
                            • We will produce a manual to assist others in training
                              their kittens.


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                                                                                  52
                        Activities or Methods
                     • Steps or activities you will
                       undertake to complete each
                       objective.
                     • Who, what, where, when, how
                     • Timeline
                     • Staffing
                     • Locations
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                     • Logistics
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                                                      53
                     Tell me your goals.




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                                           54
                                Evaluation
                     • How will you measure your
                       objectives?
                     • What mechanisms will be used?
                       – Surveys
                       – Observations
                       – Tests
                     • Who will do the evaluation?
                     • Will beneficiaries be involved?
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                                                         55
                       Evaluation (continued)
                     • What does the funder want to
                       know?
                     • How can you lay the evaluation
                       plan out -- so that you can follow
                       up on your reports!
                     • W.K. Kellogg Foundation
                       Evaluation Toolkit: www.wkkf.org
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                     Logic Models




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                                    57
                              Logic Models
                     • Have been in use since 1960s in
                       business.
                     • Being utilized in most United Way
                       proposals.
                     • A good planning tool for the entire
                       organization or specific programs
                     • Another way to look at evaluation
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                                    Inputs
                     •   Staff
                     •   Supplies
                     •   Space
                     •   Time
                     •   Equipment
                     •   The things you need to do the
                         work you do.
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                                  Outputs
                     • What do we do
                       – Conduct classes, workshops
                       – Serve meals
                       – Provide counseling
                     • Usually represented by numbers
                       – # classes, # students
                       – # meals served
                       – Hours of counseling.
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                               Outcomes
                     • Short term: changes in knowledge
                     • Medium term: changes in
                       action/behavior
                     • Long term: changes in conditions

                     • Indicators: what shows us these
                       changes?
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                       Sustaining the Project
                     • Long-term financial viability
                       – Are you building constituent
                         capacity so that this program won‟t
                         be needed?
                       – Are there earned income streams?
                       – Do you have an individual donor
                         base?
                       – Special events?
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                       – What resources can you use to
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                              Budget Basics
                     • What will the activities and the
                       evaluation cost?
                     • What sources of income can you count
                       on during the project?
                     • What costs will increase during the
                       grant period?
                     • Your budget should tell a story: make
                       sure it’s the same story you’re telling in
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                       the other sections…
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                                 Income

                     • Support
                      – Government grants
                      – Foundations
                      – Corporations
                      – United Way or other federated
                        campaigns
                      – Individual contributions
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                                     Income
                     • Support (cont.)    • Revenue
                        – Membership
                          income            – Government
                        – In-kind support     contracts
                        – Investment        – Earned
                          income              income
                                            – Other
                                              (specify)
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                                 Expenses
                     • Salaries            • Printing and
                     • Benefits              copying
                     • Consultants and     • Telephone and
                       professional fees     fax Postage and
                     • Travel                delivery
                     • Equipment           • Rent and utilities
                     • Supplies            • In-kind expenses
                                           • Depreciation
                                           • Other (specify)
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                        Program/Direct Costs
                     • Program Staff
                       – Benefits
                     • Supplies
                     • Program-related gatherings
                     • Space for program activities
                       (direct)
                     • Marketing and promotions
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                                                      68
                Indirect Costs (F&A)

          • Administrative            •   Rent
            staff                     •   Maintenance
              – Benefits              •   Utilities
          • Equipment                 •   Audit/Accounting
          • Fundraising               •   Board-related
            Costs                         costs
          • Legal fees
 Many funding agencies will allow a percentage of indirect costs.
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 Check guidelines or check with your program officer.
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                             Fund Accounting
        Item           Program 1       Program 2     Administration      Total
                               50%             40%            10%
 Salaries            $    490,000    $    392,000    $     98,000     $   980,000
 Benefits            $    171,500    $    137,200    $     34,300     $   343,000
 Travel              $       8,500   $       6,800   $      1,700     $    17,000
 Equipment           $       2,875   $       2,300   $        575     $     5,750
 Supplies            $       8,650   $       6,920   $      1,730     $    17,300
 Rent/Utility        $       7,500   $       6,000   $      1,500     $    15,000
 Mailing             $       4,750   $       3,800   $        950     $     9,500
 Total               $    693,775    $    555,020    $    138,755     $ 1,387,550
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                           Personnel
    Name/Title       % time on   (do the math)    Salary
                        task

    Kris/Program      100%       100% x $45,000   $45,000
    Manager
    Casey/Program      75%       .75 x 39,000     $29,250
    Asst.
    Alex/              10%       .10 x 42,000     $ 4,200
    Accountant
                                 TOTAL            $78,450


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                               Fringe
  Name/Title         Salary   Taxes @ Benefits @   Fringe
                              8% of   18% of
                              salary  salary

  Kris/Program       45,000   3600    8100         $11,700
  Manager
  Casey/Program      29,250   2340    5265         $ 7,605
  Asst.
  Alex/              4,200    336     756          $ 1,092
  Accountant
                                      TOTAL        $20,397

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                       Supplementary Material


                     • Budget Narratives
                       – Follow guidelines on this - otherwise your
                         budget should be self-explanatory
                       – Should “show your math”
                       – Give context and detail to your budget.


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                                    Appendices
                     • Financials        • Partner agreements,
                        – Balance Sheet    descriptions
                        – Audit
                        – Organizational • Organization History
                          budget
                        – Project Budget
                                         • Letters of agreement
                     • Board List        • Letters of commitment
                     • Staff Bios/Résumés Letters of support
                                         •
                     • Donors: past,
                       current and
                                         • Brochure/video (see
                       projected           guidelines!)
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                     Planning for Grant Seeking
                     • The Grants Calendar
                     • Plan to start “courting” donors 6
                       months before you submit a
                       proposal.
                     • Review Grants Calendar with your
                       Board and Staff -- are there
                       connections?
                     • Be aware of big due dates; plan
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                       work accordingly!
                                                       75
                         Communication with
                             Funders
                     • Follow guidelines
                       – Some Foundations don‟t have staff
                     • Call, e-mail -- CORRESPOND
                     • Ask questions up front, don‟t
                       make assumptions
                     • Know their timeline for turnaround
                     • Call AFTER you get an answer!
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                         The Grants Profession
                     •   Staff writers
                     •   Freelance writers
                     •   Networking
                     •   Certification



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                         Getting Grant Savvy
                     • Reviewing grants
                       – Metropolitan Regional Arts Council
                       – Minnesota Humanities Center
                       – State Grants (State Register)
                     • Professional development
                       – MN Council on Foundations, MN
                         Council of Nonprofits, and of course,
                         St. Thomas.
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                            Course Evaluation
                     • Thank you!
                     • All the links are at:

                       www.loriannewilliams.com/links.html

                     Please contact me if you have questions!
                              la.williams@mac.com
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