NASUWT REPORT 05 SEPTEMBER 2004 - DOC

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NASUWT REPORT 05 SEPTEMBER 2004 - DOC Powered By Docstoc
					       The Recruitment of Overseas Trained Teachers
Olwen McNamara and Sarah Lewis The University of Manchester and John Howson
Education Data Surveys Research Report Conducted on Behalf of NASUWT.

Preface
This country‟s reliance on the recruitment of overseas teachers is not new. For many
decades, public and private sector organisations have engaged in both small and
largescale operations to import teacher labour from overseas. Whilst in the past the
Caribbean and the Indian subcontinent provided an essential source of labour for the
post-war British economy, the trends are now changing.

The demand for overseas trained teachers reflects a wider context of fluctuating supply
and demand, uncertainty and job security, status and respect for public sector workers
such as teachers. Where the supply of British labour has been scarce, there has been a
corresponding demand for overseas labour. This is not new, and overseas workers have
made a vital contribution to the nation‟s public services. However, it is a cause for
serious concern that whilst overseas workers, such as teachers, have worked tirelessly
for our public services, the interests of these staff have not been served to the best, as
their commitment and hard work has been exploited for profit. NASUWT believes that
this has undermined the essence of the public service ethos and operated to the
detriment of overseas workers and their countries of origin.

It was because of these concerns that NASUWT commissioned this independent study
into the recruitment of overseas teachers. This report provides a valuable and generative
insight into the experiences of overseas teachers in England. In it, the researchers make
a series of important recommendations to improve the working conditions of overseas
teachers, and to develop better intervention by Government, employers, regulatory
bodies and trade unions in meeting the needs of overseas teachers in our schools.

Within a global knowledge economy, the international movement of teachers should be a
realistic proposition. However, the educational, cultural and economic benefits which
might arise from this are unlikely to be realised where such teachers face negative
experiences, discrimination, alienation and abuse in the countries where they seek to
teach. This report highlights the role which Government, working with a range of national
and international partners, can play in realising an effective global vision for education
which benefits pupils and teachers alike.

Chris Keates
General Secretary

The authors would like to acknowledge the work of Hilary Constable in compiling
a literature review which supported this report.
Executive Summary
1   Literature Review
      1.1 Background
      1.2 Teacher Supply and Recruitment
      1.3 Profile and Location of Overseas Trained Teachers
      1.4 Experiences of Overseas Trained Teachers
      1.5 Effectiveness of Overseas Trained Teachers
      1.6 Qualified Teacher Status
      1.7 Costs and Benefits to Source and Recruiting Countries
2   Methodology
      2.1 Definitions and Aims
      2.2 Quantitative Sampling Strategy, Process and Instruments
      2.3 Interview Sample, Process and Schedules
      2.4 Participants
      2.5 Analysis
      2.6 Limitations to the Study
3   Profile of Overseas Trained Teachers
      3.1 Biographical Profile
      3.2 Geographic Profile
      3.3 Teacher Status
      3.4 Data on Overseas Trained Teacher Programme
      3.5 Professional Affiliation
4   Recruitment of Overseas Trained Teachers
      4.1 Recruitment Practices, Length of Service and Type of Contract
      4.2 Information Provided on Recruitment
      4.3 Accuracy of Information on Point of Recruitment
      4.4 Global Recruitment Strategies
      4.5 Impact on Source Country
5   Experiences of Overseas Trained Teachers
      5.1 Induction and Further Professional Development
      5.2 Teaching in the UK
      5.3 Problems Encountered
      5.4 Support Structures
6   Employing Overseas Trained Teachers
      6.1 Attitudes and Perceptions about Recruitment
      6.2 Perceived Skill Levels
      6.3 Cost and Benefits
7   Discussion
      7.1 Discussion of Findings
      7.2 Further Research
8   Recommendations

References
Glossary

Appendices
   1. Headteacher Questionnaire
   2. OTT Questionnaire
   3. Local Association Secretary Questionnaire
   4. Regional Officer Questionnaire
   5. Interview Schedules
   6. Qualitative Thematic Analysis
   7. LEA and OTTs Experience
   8. Subject Specialisms Trained to Teach and Teaching in the UK
   9. Nationality Groups and LEA
   10. Maps to Show Location of Schools Who Have Employed OTTs
   11. Number of Overseas Teachers for Each Country and Year and LEA
   12. Local Association Secretaries‟ Perceptions
   13. Maps to Show the Number of OTTs on the OTTP
   14. Type of Assessment and Subject Specialisms Assessed on OTTP from January
       2001 to March 2004
   15. Reason for Asking Union for Support
   16. Other Support Those OTTs with Union Affiliation Would Like Their Union to
       Provide
   17. Headteachers Reasons for OTTs Non-Completion of Contracts
   18. Other Information OTTs Would have Found Useful
   19. Reasons for Deciding to Teach in the UK
   20. Most Challenging Issues About Teaching in the UK
   21. Most Rewarding Issues About Teaching in the UK
   22. OTTs‟ Advice to Others Considering Teaching in the UK
   23. OTTs‟ Reasons for Seeking Help
   24. Local Association Secretaries‟ Reasons Why Approached by OTTs
   25. Local Association Secretaries‟ Views on Current Trend of Levels of Problems
   26. Local Association Secretaries‟ Views on the Preparation of OTTs to Work in
       Schools
   27. Headteachers – Advantages of Employing OTTs
   28. Headteachers – Disadvantages of Employing OTTs
   29. Headteachers – View of OTTs as Staffing Resources
   30. Local Association Secretaries‟ Views on the Recruitment of OTTs to Work in
       Schools
   31. Commonwealth Teacher Recruitment Protocol

Tables
   1. Table 1: UK-Approved Work Permits Where Job Includes Teacher
   2. Table 2: Mean Number of Attempts Needed to Pass the QTS Skills Tests
   3. Table 3: Frequency of Sample in Each LEA
   4. Table 4: Frequency of LEA and Phase of Schools
   5. Table 5: OTTs‟ country of Origin and Age
   6. Table 6: Country of Origin and Experience of OTTs
   7. Table 7: Number of OTTs Country of Origin and Year Started Teaching in the UK
   8. Table 8: Subject Specialism of OTTs Teaching in Secondary Schools in UK
   9. Table 9: LEAs and Phase of School
   10. The Recruitment of Overseas Trained Teachers
   11. Table 10: Number of OTTs Employed in Schools Since 2001
   12. Table 11: OTTs by Country and Year for the 3 LEAs with the Highest Number of
       OTTs
   13. Table 12: Teachers‟ Experience and Professional Status in the UK
   14. Table 13: Number of OTTs Assessed for UK QTS from January 2001 to March
       2004
   15. Table 14: Country of Origin and Year Started OTTP
   16. Table 15: OTTs‟ Country of Origin and Teaching Phase Assessed
   17. Table 16: Union Membership and Teaching Phase
   18. Table 17: Table of Headteachers‟ Reasons for Recruiting OTTs

Figures
   1. Figure 1: Graph of Number of OTTs from the Northern and Southern
       Hemispheres and Month Started Teaching in the UK from January 2001 - March
       2004 15
   2. Figure 2: Percentage of OTTs Union Membership 21
   3. Figure 3: Percentage of OTTs Recruited by Each Organisation 23
   4. Figure 4: Percentage of OTTs and Type of Contract 23
   5. Figure 5: Box Plots of Amount and Quality of Information Provided. When First
       Recruited in the Areas of: Employment Status in the UK, Position/Job, Social
       Conditions, Discipline in School, Pay/Salary, Working Conditions and Standard of
       Living
   6. Figure 6: Box Plots of Accuracy of Information Provided When First Recruited in
       the Areas of: Employment Status in the UK, Position/Job, Social Conditions,
       Pupil Discipline, Pay/Salary, Working Conditions and Standard of Living 26
   7. Figure 7: Box plots of Accuracy of Information by Recruiter 26
   8. Figure 8: Box Plots of Support Received When First Arrived in the Areas of:
       Professional Expectations, Pedagogic Skills, Curriculum Knowledge, Housing
       Needs and Financial Advice 31
   9. Figure 9: Box plots of Support Received when First Arrived in the Areas of:
       Professional Expectations, Pedagogic Skills, Curriculum Knowledge, Housing
       Needs and Financial Advice for the 3 LEAs 32
   10. Figure 10: Box Plots for the 12 Statements 40
   11. Figure 11: Box Pots for the 13 Statements 41
   12. Figure 12: Graph to Show Countries which Seem to Produce „Better‟ Teachers
       than this Country 42
   13. Figure 13: Box plots of OTTs Rated Against UK-Trained Teachers in the Areas
       of: Curriculum Knowledge; Subject Knowledge; Pedagogic Skills and Classroom
       Management 43
   14. Figure 14: Box plots of Problems with Employing OTTs in the Areas of: Work
       Permits; Subject Knowledge; Discipline Issues; Knowledge of National
       Curriculum; Pedagogic Skills; Ability to Relate to Staff, Pupils and Parents; and
       Ability to Settle Down in the UK
EXECUTIVE SUMMARY
1. Preamble
The research was conducted on behalf of the National Association of Schoolmasters
Union of Women Teachers (NASUWT) by the University of Manchester in collaboration
with Education Data Surveys between January and July 2004.

2. Aims of the study
      To gather information about OTTs employed in England, their biographical and
       professional profile, and their experience of gaining Qualified Teacher Status.
      To examine the mechanisms used to recruit OTTs, the quality of information and
       contractual provisions offered to them, and the educational, economic and social
       impact of their recruitment on their countries of origin.
      To explore the reasons why OTTs came to the UK, their experiences and their
       needs in respect of professional, social, financial, induction and training support.
      To report on the union affiliation of OTTs, and the support they receive and
       require.

3. Definition of Terms
For the purpose of this research study, the term „overseas trained teacher‟ (OTT) refers
to teachers who were trained outside of the EU. This is independent of whether they are
working under the holiday visa scheme, employer-arranged work permits, or because
they had a right of abode for other reasons. We also excluded teachers on exchanges
and teachers trained elsewhere in the UK. Also excluded are teachers who came from
overseas with the intention of settling permanently in this country; for this reason
responses from OTTs who entered the country prior to 2001 are not included in the
sample reported upon in this study, as it was considered that these teachers had now
sufficient experience of teaching in England and that they did not fall within the compass
of the study.

4. Methodology
The research was primarily carried out by means of questionnaires sent to OTTs,
headteachers and NASUWT Regional Officers and Local Association Secretaries during
February and March 2004. Initially eight LEAs, which secondary data analysis indicated
had high densities of OTTs, were targeted. Seven further LEAs were added following
initial discussions with stakeholders.

Secondary sampling conducted through NASUWT Local Association Secretaries
ensured that some OTTs were picked up in areas that were relatively isolated from the
high-density areas in the main sampling frame. Interviews were also conducted with key
stakeholder representatives from: government departments, recruitment agencies, high
commissions, OTTs and NASUWT Regional Officers.

5. Findings
   1. Three quarters of the 136 OTTs in the sample originated from just three southern
      hemisphere countries (South Africa, Australia and New Zealand) in almost equal
      numbers. About half of the remainder originated from North America and the
     other half from various other areas such as Africa and Commonwealth Caribbean
     states. Similar to the gender split of the UK teaching force, 75% of OTTs were
     female and 25% male. The age profile of the sample showed that 16% were
     under 25, 40% between 26 and 30, a further 19% between 31 and 35, and the
     remaining 25% were over 35. In terms of experience just over 30% had less than
     4 years, whereas over 25% had over 11 years‟ teaching experience. Sixty-five
     per cent of OTTs were primary trained and 35% secondary, where the most
     common specialisms were English and PE. Interestingly none of these are
     „shortage‟ subjects. This pattern of specialism is further supported by the data for
     the OTT programme in which 24% were primary and the most common
     secondary specialism was English (18%).
2.   Geographically the OTTs were largely located in inner-city London schools. Of
     the 15 LEAs targeted the ones with the highest density of OTTs were Hounslow,
     Tower Hamlets, Waltham Forest, Haringey, Greenwich and Newham. Of the 277
     schools that responded 182 had employed 1,155 OTTs between September
     2001 and March 2004. This is in line with school workforce data (2003).
     However, neither this nor work permit data give an adequate picture with regard
     to numbers.
3.   Of the OTTs in the sample, 75% were recruited by agencies, nearly 50% by just
     six major players (TimePlan, Capita, Masterlock, Select, Protocol and Dream);
     schools and LEAs recruited just over 20%. Just over half of the OTTs were
     recruited for work in particular schools and 40% for supply work. Overall, 40%
     had permanent contracts and 27% annual contracts; the average length of stay
     was seven terms. Around three quarters of headteachers claimed they recruited
     OTTs because there were no UK teachers available at the time.
4.   The information received by OTTs at the point of recruitment was rated: „good‟ or
     „adequate‟ in respect of „employment status‟ (74%), „post/job‟ (69%) and „pay and
     working conditions‟ (65%); but less satisfactory in respect of „social conditions‟
     where over a third thought it was „poor‟ (35%). With regard to „discipline‟ and
     „standard of living‟, the quality of the information was regarded as very variable.
     Retrospective analysis of the accuracy of the information by OTTs showed that
     they thought it was „good‟ or „adequate‟ in all categories except „social
     conditions‟, where 25% deemed it „poor‟, and „discipline‟, where nearly 30%
     thought it „poor‟.
5.   The induction support OTTs received was rated „adequate‟ or „good‟ in respect of
     pedagogic skills by 83%; and professional expectations and curriculum
     knowledge by nearly 70%. Less well thought of and rated „adequate‟ or „poor‟ by
     about 80% were „housing needs‟ and „financial advice‟.
6.   Nearly 60% of the OTTs in the sample had the status and salary of unqualified
     teachers, and were not working towards UK Qualified Teacher Status, despite
     their overseas qualifications and the fact that 67% had over 4 years‟ experience
     as teachers. Only 15% of OTTs had UK Qualified Teacher Status and a further
     26% were currently working towards being assessed on the OTT programme.
     The assessment process itself was considered by the OTTs, and other
     stakeholders, to be time-consuming, onerous and demeaning, particularly by the
     OTTs who had considerable teaching experience. They also thought the
     similarity of teacher training programmes should make the mapping of
     equivalences possible in order to facilitate assessment for UK Qualified Teacher
     Status. The OTT programme is currently under review and it is planned to
     devolve it to Designated Recommending Bodies, but no fundamental changes
     are anticipated by the Teacher Training Agency, thus the issues surrounding UK
    Qualified Teacher Status will most probably continue to exist. The prospects for
    significant change seem further reduced since the General Teaching Council
    England, the regulating body for teachers, do not apparently see this as an area
    in which they have a meaningful contribution to make in respect of policy or
    practice.
7. Amongst the OTTs surveyed, 44% were members of professional associations in
    the UK. The pattern of affiliation was significantly different in the primary and
    secondary sectors in that there was a lower frequency of union membership in
    the primary phase. Thirty-nine per cent of primary OTTs were members of a
    union as opposed to 55% of secondary OTTs. Within these two phases there
    were again significant differences: in primary, 14% were members of NASUWT
    whereas 84% were members of the National Union of Teachers (NUT); in the
    secondary phase 74% were members of NASUWT whereas 22% were members
    of the NUT. Generally speaking, the data provided indicated that Local
    Association Secretaries were not well informed regarding issues relating to
    OTTs.
8. The problems encountered by OTTs were categorised as professional (53%),
    practical/social/ emotional (48%), legal/contractual (13%), financial management
    (10%) and discrimination (20%). Examples of professional issues reported by
    OTTs focused centrally around the UK education system (planning, assessment,
    curriculum, workload, discipline issues). Over half of the NASUWT Local
    Association Secretaries who responded had been approached by OTTs about
    professional issues. Social/emotional/practical issues reported by OTTs included
    stress, depression, transition to the UK and practical issues centred largely
    around accommodation, living in the UK, getting a bank account, etc. Over a
    quarter of Local Association Secretaries who responded reported that they had
    been approached by OTTs in relation to these issues. Legal/contractual
    problems encountered by OTTs included ending and changing contracts, legal
    issues in relation to contracts and work permits. Over half of the NASUWT Local
    Association Secretaries had been approached by OTTs about legal and
    contractual matters mainly in respect of issues relating to Qualified Teacher
    Status and general contractual matters. Twenty-seven OTTs (20%) claimed to
    have encountered discrimination; of these, 9 felt they were not treated the same
    as UK teachers, a further 4 felt they were discriminated against by school staff,
    and 6 claimed racial discrimination. Only one NASUWT Local Association
    Secretary reported that an episode of discrimination had been brought to their
    attention. Overall, 40% of the Local Association Secretaries who responded
    thought the problems experienced by OTTs were increasing and 25% thought
    they were decreasing.
9. The headteachers thought that OTTs were the same as UK-trained teachers in
    respect of: subject knowledge (74% of heads); pedagogic skills (65%); classroom
    management (58%); curriculum knowledge (54%). Twenty-one per cent of
    headteachers thought that OTTs‟ pedagogic skills were better than those of UK-
    trained teachers. However, 37% thought curriculum knowledge, and 23% thought
    classroom management, were worse than UK trained teachers.
10. The impact of recruitment was varied in its effects on source countries. In some,
    the migration to the UK did not affect the teacher workforce markedly, whereas in
    others overall loss of teachers to the UK, America and other destinations had a
    serious impact upon the education systems. This was not only with respect to the
    well-reported depletion of human resources in developing nations but also with
    respect to teacher workforce in developed countries. The overall numbers of
     OTTs remained fairly static over the three year period. The recruitment pattern
     from the southern hemisphere was maintained but in 2001 the traditional peak of
     Australian teachers did not materialise and there was a simultaneous influx of
     teachers from other Commonwealth countries. This caused concern and
     ultimately led to the formulation of the Savannah Accord and the development of
     a draft protocol which was subsequently revised and adopted on 1 September
     2004. It aims to:

     “Balance the rights of teachers to migrate internationally, on a temporary or
     permanent basis, in pursuit of a range of career possibilities, against the need to
     protect the integrity of national education systems, and to prevent the exploitation
     of the scarce human resources of poor countries. The Protocol also seeks to
     safeguard the rights of recruited teachers, and the conditions relating to their
     service in the recruiting country.” (www.thecommonwealth.org)

     Whilst the protocol was initially drawn up as a result of issues which arose in the
     Commonwealth countries, due to the increase in teacher migration and the
     proposed General Agreement on Trades and Services, a case could be made to
     widen it to include all countries as not all OTTs originate from these countries.
     The DfES representative agreed that the recruitment organisations,
     governments, LEAs and other key stakeholders should be working together in
     OTT recruitment practices. All non-governmental stakeholders called for a more
     managed approach to overseas teacher recruitment. Both the OTTs and the key
     stakeholders also noted the disparity between information that OTTs received
     when recruited and the reality of working and living in the UK.

6. Recommendations
NASUWT should lobby the Government and other stakeholders with a view
to:
  1. Ensuring that more comprehensive and detailed data is collected about OTTs; for
     example, the present umbrella category of „OTT and instructors‟ on form 618G
     should be disaggregated, as should the work permit data, to distinguish between
     school teachers and others. Ensuring that the data is subsequently used to
     inform the strategic planning of the workforce; exploring why, for example, a
     large percentage of OTTs recruited were in non-shortage areas, the highest
     numbers being recorded for „primary‟ and „secondary English‟.
  2. Recognising the instability of the current free market in teacher supply and
     seeking to ameliorate the effects upon the countries of origin from which OTTs
     are drawn. The DfES and others should be proactive in managing recruitment by,
     for example, negotiating contracts with traditional source countries to supply, or
     even train, teachers for schools in England. This is of particular importance for
     countries such as those in the Caribbean, where the teachers leaving make a
     substantial minority of the teaching force.
  3. Acknowledging the strategically significant position recruiting organisations
     (recruitment agencies, LEAs, headteachers) hold. A regulative body of key
     stakeholders should be convened to monitor the implementation of an „Ethical
     Code of Conduct‟ in accordance with the Commonwealth Teacher Recruitment
     Protocol. Thus guaranteeing that recruiting organisations provide both
     prospective recruits minimum standards of information relating specifically to
     their particular contexts and contracts, and source and recruiting country with full
      data regarding recruitment. Further, the General Teaching Council England, as
      the teachers‟ regulative body, should be encouraged to be proactive in respect of
      these matters.
   4. Ensuring that OTTs, upon their arrival in the country, are provided with an
      induction package targeted to their individual needs, and receive continued
      support with regard to professional, social and emotional issues.
   5. Keeping under close review the management and monitoring of the OTTP,
      particularly in view of the proposed devolution of the programme to Designated
      Recommending Bodies. The TTA in its current review of the programme should
      consider making the process leading to overseas Qualified Teacher Status both
      easier to negotiate and more responsive to individual histories. Consideration
      should, for example, be given to: raising the awareness of newly arrived OTTs
      about the qualification; simplifying documentation; allowing OTTs themselves to
      apply for the programme; fast-tracking OTTs with considerable experience and/or
      seniority in their country of origin.
   6. Exploring the possibility of mapping, against UK Qualified Teacher Status
      standards, the equivalence of teacher training programmes, through an
      organisation such as National Academic Recognition Information Centre. This
      would be particularly beneficial for countries which traditionally supply high
      numbers of OTTs, in order to identify areas of similarity and difference so that the
      current lengthy assessment processes, related to the programme, could be
      simplified.

NASUWT National Executive should consider the following:
7. Compiling a more detailed and comprehensive database of its members in order that
it can identify particular groups, collect information in respect of them, and, where
necessary, target services and support more effectively.
8. Reviewing its professional development programmes for staff and lay activists in
respect of awareness of OTTs. Whether in areas of high density or relative isolation of
OTTs, NASUWT Representatives should be alerted to the needs and the issues they
confront, such as, for example, the racial discrimination reported by 20% of the sample
surveyed.
9. Reviewing its organisational structures with a view to facilitating access and
encouraging enrolment of OTTs. This would be particularly useful in respect of the
website where, for example, pages should be developed specifically for members from
overseas, offering information and support, and the facility to contact each other through
discussion forums. It would also be valuable to have a free access area for prospective
recruits to visit before or at the point of recruitment.
10. Reviewing its policies in light of the recent increase in the migration of teachers in
the global context and the proposed General Agreement on Trades and Services. It
should consider making strategic alliances with international bodies and professional
associations, such as Education International, to develop reciprocal arrangements for
membership and transfer of information to meet the needs of the international teacher
labour market.
LITERATURE REVIEW
1.1 Background
Relatively little is known about the historical pattern of overseas trained teachers (OTTs)
coming into the UK. Traditionally, there have been a small number of exchange
programmes administered by the British Council, through the former Central Bureaux for
Educational Visits and Exchanges, which have allowed teachers to swap teaching
positions. Historically, there has also been a well-known, if little researched, pattern of
teachers from Commonwealth countries, such as Australia and New Zealand, coming to
teach in England for a few years.

The decline in the influence of local education authorities, however, particularly after the
transfer of funding to schools in the early 1990s, coincided with a period of rising school
rolls and falling teacher numbers. These factors together created a shortfall in teacher
numbers that was especially significant in the period between 1995 and 1997, when
numbers leaving the teaching profession rose to unprecedented levels, and in 2001,
when extra money for schools created a severe recruitment crisis as there were
insufficient trained teachers willing and able to work in schools in some parts of England.
London, in particular, suffered a significant shortfall in staffing as reflected in the annual
vacancy rates issued each year by the DfES that reached a peak of 3.1 per cent in
primary and 3.8 per cent in secondary schools during January 2001.

One solution to the staffing problems was to look for OTTs, and it was during the late
1990s and early years of this century that private sector supply agency companies
moved into the education market to help schools meet their staffing needs. Later, these
companies were joined by some LEAs and schools, either operating on their own or in
partnership with a private sector company.

There is no doubt that a number of factors on the supply side of the equation also helped
boost the recruitment of teachers from overseas into the labour market in England.
Firstly, teaching was already becoming a more global profession with the growth in the
international school movement serving the expatriate market worldwide. Secondly,
schools were becoming more cosmopolitan as society in England, especially in the
urban areas, became more multicultural. Thirdly, the growth in technology and especially
the Internet, helped make communications much easier than in the past. The
development of cheap global travel also undoubtedly provided an additional incentive to
travel.

However, although the general pattern of overseas recruitment is well known, the details
are not always well documented. It was not until the publication of the January 2003 data
on „Teachers In Service‟ that OTTs were identified for the first time by the DfES. Even
then, they were part of a category that also included „Instructors without Qualified
Teacher Status (QTS)‟. Even this category did not include all overseas trained teachers
since those with automatic right to QTS, such as EU-trained teachers, were included in
the Qualified Regular Teacher numbers and those training on the OTT conversion
programme to obtain QTS were included in the numbers of „Teachers on Employment-
Based Routes to QTS‟. Thus, it would appear that no overall assessment of the number
of OTTs teaching in England in any one year could be made either by the Government
or by commentators. This differs from the situation in Scotland, where even before a
teacher can undertake supply work they must have registered with the General Teaching
Council for Scotland.

1.2 Teacher supply and recruitment
Teacher shortage is, from time to time, experienced by developing and industrialised
nations alike. One common strategy employed by relatively wealthy industrial countries
for dealing with the problem is to recruit teachers from overseas. Matching the supply of
teachers to demand is not an exact science and the costs are manifest: too few teachers
puts a strain on existing resources and too many wastes human resources.

Teacher shortages characteristically relate to factors such as: birth rate, age profile and
morale of the teaching force, and the economic cycle. An NFER survey (National
Foundation for Educational Research, 2001) of primary schools in 2000 found that just
such a complex range of factors relating to recruitment and retention combined to cause
the contemporaneous shortage of qualified teachers in England and Wales. Some
secondary subjects, such as maths, are areas of chronic shortage, but for many,
shortages come and go. Currently, we are moving into a period of oversupply of
teachers, particularly in the primary phase, resulting in part from a decrease in the
number of children of primary age. The workforce demographics are such, however, that
over 50% of teachers will retire within the next 15 years, in addition to the normal
wastage, auguring an increased demand and potentially a new period of shortage in the
not-too-distant future.

These peaks and troughs of teacher supply have opened up the market for the global
migration of teachers. Barlin and Hallgarten (2002) argue that supply teaching now
occupies a much more central role in filling vacancies and offers a more flexible choice
for both teachers and schools and many overseas teachers are employed in this
capacity particularly in London (Hutchings, Menter, Ross, and Thomson, 2003).

Recruitment agencies are of course key players in the migration of teachers. A number
of UK based agencies have set up offices in other countries, such as Australia, New
Zealand, and South Africa, specifically to recruit teachers. Many agencies have their
own websites and brochures giving information on living expenses and accommodation,
working conditions, the UK education system and Internet links to the useful and
relevant sites.

At one point, the Government itself embarked upon a strategy of direct recruitment to
ameliorate the teacher supply crisis. In April 2002, the Teacher Recruitment and
Retention Unit based at the Government Office for London set up an Overseas Trained
Teachers‟ Working Party to take part in a new pilot project designed to provide schools
with a pool of OTTs who had been preselected by a panel representing the participating
boroughs. In July 2003, a recruitment team travelled to Australia and a total of 38
teachers were recruited to a pool for September 2003, January and Easter 2004
(Government Office for London, 2003). The second stage of this pilot recruitment drive
took place in January 2004 in Canada and a second pool of OTTs was created and
placed in posts for Easter and for September 2004 (Government Office for London,
2004).

This market in teacher supply allows for greater flexibility in addressing teacher
shortages. However, in some cases it has led to abuse of the system with overseas
teachers arriving in the UK to find no job available. This situation became possible when
a temporary initiative was set up between 1 April 2002 and 31 December 2002 to enable
teacher recruitment agencies to apply for work permits in light of the acute shortage of
teachers in the UK.

Some agencies have been criticised by schools and recruits as well as the UK and home
governments (Curtis, 2003). The main criticisms concerned inadequate information on
the cost of living, taxation, Qualified Teacher Status and differences between information
received before and after arrival (Ochs, 2003). Some OTTs reported feeling pressured
by their recruitment agency to change to a different contract and even location once
arrived in the UK (Crace, 2003).

The recruitment market is currently self-regulated and concerns regarding rigour of the
induction and quality assurance processes of recruitment agencies led to the Quality
Mark being launched in July 2002, as a joint initiative between the Department for
Education and Skills and the Recruitment and Employment Confederation (REC, 2002).
It set minimum standards in recruitment practice: agencies or LEAs to be awarded a
Quality Mark had to demonstrate that they met the required standards in recruitment,
selection and performance management.

Moreover, the Teacher Recruitment and Retention Unit, in collaboration with the
Association of London Chief Education Officers and Association of London Government,
facilitated the development of a pan-London recommended list of preferred recruitment
agencies. This list of seven agencies was made available to schools in London on 3
December 2003 and is intended to enable headteachers to access agencies that
endeavour to provide better trained teachers (Government Office for London, 2004).

1.3 Profile and location of overseas trained teachers
Motivation for migration
The most relevant systematic study into the migration of teachers has been conducted
by Commonwealth countries (Ochs, 2003). This survey aimed to quantify the total
numbers in the teaching force, percentage of turnover in teachers over a three-year
period and the numbers of teachers lost from the profession for particular reasons.
Australia, the Bahamas, Barbados, Canada, Jamaica, Malaysia, New Zealand,
Seychelles, St Lucia, Swaziland and Zambia all responded to the Commonwealth
survey, but not all were able to provide all the necessary data. The Ochs (2003) study
showed teachers migrating for a variety of reasons. From Australia and New Zealand,
travel to Europe was a customary aspect of education in early adult life but, since the
education system is common, migrants do not expect their experience in the UK to give
them many career advantages. From Africa and the Caribbean, working in the UK offers
access to higher education, the possibility of enhanced promotion prospects at home, as
well as economic advantages.

Country of origin
It is difficult to state precisely where the OTTs working in the UK originate, as there are
no official statistics relating to where teachers received their training and OTTs may be
employed on either a work permit or a working holiday visa. The number of work permits
issued to those where the job included teachers in 2001, 2002 and 2003 indicated that
South Africa, Australia, New Zealand, Jamaica and Canada top the league (see Table
1).
Table 1: UK approved work permits where job includes teacher (Source: Work
Permits (UK), Home Office)
Country        Population       Issued in      Issued in      Issued         Total
                                2001           2002           2003
South          43,309,000       2,010          2,542          1,538          6,090
Africa
Australia      19,138,000       1,011          1,520          1,318          3,849
New            3,855,400        609            887            667            2,163
Zealand
Jamaica        2,576,000        381            530            514            1,425
Canada         30,007,094       348            513            484            1,345
Zimbabwe       12,627,000       194            325            275            794
India          1,008,937,000    130            317            182            629
Nigeria        113,862,000      60             90             54             204
Ghana          19,306,000       63             123            128            314
Trinidad       1,294,000        43             43             50             136
and Tobago
Kenya          30,669,000       39             77             55             171
Guyana         761,000          8              21             16             45

The Ochs (2003) study confirmed that all countries surveyed generally reported loss of
teachers over the three-year period and the highest reported turnover rate among those
surveyed was found to be Australia.

Number of overseas teachers
The then Education Minister, Mr. Miliband, responding to a series of questions about
OTTs working in UK schools in 2003, said “Information on numbers of teachers with
overseasqualifications is not available.” (Hansard, 17 July 2003)

Researchers specialising in teacher supply in London carried out a longitudinal project
on teacher supply and retention in London involving six LEAs between 1998 and 2000,
and 22 LEAs between 2000 and 2002, but their findings did not reveal any information
regarding OTTs working in these LEAs (http://www.unl.ac.uk/ipse/tsarmis/reports.htm).
As recently as 2002, HMI identified that only three of the 17 LEAs surveyed had „good
data‟ about the numbers of OTTs working in their schools, even though six of the 17
were actively recruiting overseas (HMI, 2002).

Further, the HMI report on the Recruitment and Retention of Teachers and Head
Teachers (June 2002) surveyed 17 LEAs and noted that six (four London boroughs, one
large metropolitan authority and one county authority) were actively pursuing the
recruitment of OTTs. One inner-London borough recruited 87 teachers from South
Africa, 20 from Jamaica and 15 from USA during 2001.

Data is now, however, beginning to be collected more systematically. In 2002, for
example, the Teacher Training Agency included an optional field on course type; i.e.
undergraduate, postgraduate, OTT, etc, at registration for QTS skills tests (see section
1.6).
Although no previous wide-scale data collection has been carried out in relation to
quantifying the number of OTTs working in England, some information can be inferred
from records of work permits issued and the numbers of unqualified teachers reported in
the workforce statistics. Each year the DfES collates workforce statistics from LEAs on
the survey form 618G in relation to qualification status. Thus far, data has not included
specific information about the nationality of these teachers. In January 2004, the DfES
annual survey identified 11,600 overseas trained teachers and Instructors without
Qualified Teacher Status. By comparison, in January 1997, there were only 2,480 such
teachers. For those teachers on Employment-Based Routes to QTS, including those on
the Overseas Trained Teacher Programme (see later for an explanation of this
programme), there were 6,000 identified on this route in January 2004 compared to 460
teachers in January 1997.

Evidence such as the growth in the number of working holiday visas granted to teachers
and publicised recruitment trips by supply agencies (often in collaboration with
headteachers or local authority staff) suggests that much of the increase in the numbers
of unqualified teachers working in maintained schools has been due to the growth in the
number of OTTs. This interpretation seems reasonable. However, it is not conclusive.
For example, the number of teachers returned by LEAs as „without QTS‟ will not include
certain categories of „overseas‟ teachers working in maintained schools. EU nationals,
for example, with qualifications not awarded in England are designated Overseas QTS,
and, under the free movement of labour directives, are deemed to be „Qualified
Teachers‟ in the UK.

Data on the issue of UK work permits sheds only a limited amount of light on the
situation. Many categories of potential recruits do not need work permits, including: all
EU citizens; Commonwealth citizens with UK ancestry (or for certain Commonwealth
countries – working holiday visas); and partners and dependants of people who have
work permits.

Location of overseas teachers in England
OTTs in England might be expected to be working in London and the South East, as
these areas have experienced the greatest teacher shortages and the 2003 National
Labour Market Survey (DfES, 2003) gave clear indication that this was the case. For
example, the distribution of teachers without QTS (including teachers on Employment-
Based Routes to QTS and the Overseas Trained Teacher Programme) indicates that
over 72.4% are employed in just three Government Office regions (London – 37.1%;
South East England – 18.7%; East of England – 16.6%). By contrast, only 2% of
teachers without QTS are employed in schools in the whole of the North East
Government Office region. This is the same percentage of teachers found to be without
QTS in the London Borough of Tower Hamlets alone.

The survey carried out by the NAHT (National Association of Head Teachers) in 2002
revealed out of the 10,454 primary teaching posts (5,199 in inner London and 5,254 in
outer London) in 716 schools: 6% were unfilled, 10% filled by OTTs and a further 8%
filled by teachers without QTS. Thirteen per cent of these OTTs were found to be in
inner-London schools and 7% in outer London; in the inner-London borough of Hackney,
20% of teachers were from overseas.
1.4 Experiences of overseas trained teachers
A great deal of the information and anecdotal evidence about OTTs is derived from the
media: „Children back after teachers are found‟ (BBC, 19 January 2001); „African
teachers rescue London schools‟ (BBC, 2 February 2001); „Overseas staff prop up
London primaries‟ (TES, 1 November 2002); „Capital cost of supply teachers‟ (BBC, 12
November 2002) and „Rules eased for overseas teachers‟ (BBC, 19 January 2001).
Attention is also drawn to recruiting parties flying to distant parts of the world to fill last-
minute vacancies: „More teachers sought – NYC, UK agencies coming to recruit again‟
(Jamaican Gleaner, 11 January 2002); „Head goes to Australia for staff‟ (Daily
Telegraph, 11 September 2003).

A Special Assignment Programme „Lessons Abroad‟, shown on South African television
(SABC 3, 23 March 2004), revealed how many hard-working South African teachers
reach the end of their tether in London‟s inner-city schools. Not empowered to deal with
lack of discipline and unable to form meaningful relationships with learners from
deprived backgrounds who are aggressive and unmotivated, they find the cost of living
higher than expected and the cultural divide wide.

A number of research studies have reported that OTTs can find their experience
demanding, lonely and difficult (Sutherland and Rees (1995), Mowbray (2001) and Ochs
(2003)). The Commonwealth study (Ochs, 2003) gathered the views of OTTs‟
experiences through focus groups. Recruits reported receiving information on Qualified
Teacher Status, National Curriculum and assessment, housing, finance including tax,
national insurance and council tax, but commented that what they received was
inadequate. These OTTs also noted the lack of clarity with regard to official information
on, for example, finance, income tax and Qualified Teacher Status (Ochs, 2003). One
teacher from South Africa, for example, arrived with £100: “No-one told me how far the
money would stretch.” (Ochs, 2003)

Sutherland and Rees (1995) also identified the financial difficulties faced by teachers.
Living in London and the South East is financially challenging for many public sector
workers and may be additionally so for teachers who have no family support in the
country and may even be trying to support a family at home, and may be paid as
unqualified teachers. The Commonwealth study (Ochs, 2003) also noted that some
OTTs felt that the demands of teaching in England improved their teaching, whilst others
thought the restriction of conforming to the National Curriculum had a detrimental effect
upon their standard of teaching in some respects.

Moreover, recruits referred to the differences between the experiences they were
accustomed to and what they found in London (Ochs, 2003). For example, these
exposed their shock by the lack of discipline in schools, with one OTT reporting having
been hit three times. Many of the OTTs did not feel prepared or trained to handle the
behaviour management issues “simply because they did not exist at home” (Ochs, 2003,
p25). Further, Stuart, Cole, Birrell, Snow and Wilson (2003) in their study on minority
ethnic and overseas student teachers in south-east England, commented on how a
Polish teacher found pupil behaviour “quite shocking…at home a good teacher is one
who can give knowledge; here it is one who controls well.”
1.5 Effectiveness of overseas trained teachers
The requirement of teachers is to possess secure knowledge and understanding of the
National Curriculum and assessment, primary and key stage 3 strategies, pedagogic
strategies and classroom management, and to be competent in both spoken and written
English. The Chief Inspector of Schools, using evidence from regular inspections of
schools and from at least one special study, reported the employment of OTTs to be not
entirely unproblematic:

QUOTE:“A third of LEAs surveyed during the year had been actively pursuing the
recruitment of overseas teachers. In London in particular, the recruitment of overseas
teachers has been vital to fill teacher vacancies. This has brought problems as well as
solutions. Such teachers are not usually familiar with the National Curriculum or national
strategies, and some have significant problems with classroom control. Those LEAs
actively pursuing the recruitment of overseas trained teachers also provide good support
for those schools unable to meet the training and induction needs of these teachers.“
Para 423 Annual Report 2001/02, Chief Inspector of Schools (OFSTED, 2002).

The HMI survey of 17 LEAs (Recruitment and Retention of Teachers and Head
Teachers, June 2002) found that LEAs actively pursing recruitment overseas provided
good support to schools in respect of training and induction demands, but, nevertheless,
lack of familiarity with the National Numeracy Strategy and National Literacy Strategy,
and difficulties with classroom management and control were major problems for many
OTTs. Lack of detailed records identifying OTTs means that it is difficult to judge overall
the scale and scope of any problems, issues and instances of good practice. The
headteacher of a West London school reported making a point of getting as many new
recruits as possible to join the school at the end of the summer term, allowing them time
to acclimatise and organise their living arrangements during the summer holiday (Craig,
2002).

1.6 Qualified Teacher Status
The Teacher Training Agency offers an Overseas Trained Teacher Programme (OTTP),
leading to the award of QTS in England. OTTs must complete the programme within four
years and they are required to have at least six weeks‟ experience in an English school
before they can be recommended (by their school or LEA) for assessment under the
OTTP.

There are two options available under the OTTP: assessment only, or training with
assessment. The assessment necessitates evidence from classroom observations of the
OTT, interviews with the OTT and other school staff, and also written evidence provided
in a professional portfolio, which may include evidence from previous teaching posts
both in England and overseas (TTA, 2003a). In addition, OTTs are also required to
demonstrate their proficiency in numeracy, literacy and information and communications
technology in their wider professional role by passing QTS „skills tests‟. If an OTT has at
least two years‟ full-time teaching experience they can also apply for assessment
against the QTS Standards and Induction Standards at the same time.

The performance of OTTs is reported separately in these tests and insights into their
relative performance can be gained. In 2002, OTTs comprised 2.1% of those taking the
tests (TTA, 2003b) and, in terms of the number of attempts needed to pass, were slightly
better than average at numeracy and slightly worse at literacy and ICT (see Table 2).
Table 2: Mean number of attempts need to pass the QTS Skills Tests
                      Numeracy               Literacy               ICT
All Candidates        1.28                   1.25                   1.11
Overseas trained      1.24                   1.27                   1.13
teachers

The process of gaining Qualified Teacher Status is both complex and demanding for the
school and the OTT. Mowbray (2001) notes that few recruits were actually expecting the
process to be so difficult or indeed necessary at all. As recently as 2003, the
Commonwealth Study found recruits were still given little, if any, guidance about the
state of affairs with regard to QTS (Ochs, 2003 p27). Bubb (2003) has offered advice
based on the experience of helping OTTs get QTS. She proposes an 18-step plan and
recommends heads and teachers get expert advice on the 26 page-long application form
before even starting to fill it in.

Not only is the process of gaining QTS difficult, but it also commonly leaves OTTs
feeling undervalued, offended and surprised at not being seen as qualified in England
(Ochs, 2003; Sutherland and Rees, 1995) despite perhaps having years of experience in
their home country. One account given by Ochs (2003) was of a qualified, mature
Jamaican teacher with several years‟ overseas teaching experience who was told when
he arrived at a school in the UK that:

QUOTE: “According to our standards you are not a qualified teacher. I think it would best
suit you if you seek a job as a classroom assistant.”

1.7 Costs and benefits to source and recruiting countries
The moral dimension of the costs and benefits equation is never easily forgotten, as the
recruitment of OTTs is depleting their home countries‟ resources: „UK behind South
African brain drain‟ (BBC, 16 February 2001); „UK looting teachers from poor‟ (BBC, 30
Aug 2001); „UK „poaching‟ Jamaican teachers‟ (BBC, 15 March 2002); „Third World
schools sucked dry‟ (BBC, 28 March 2002).

With respect to this matter, concern has been raised by a number of Caribbean
countries. In May 2002, following large-scale recruitment of OTTs, the Minister for
Education of Jamaica requested the assistance of the Commonwealth in addressing the
problem of teacher recruitment in the Caribbean. Ministers of Education from eight
Caribbean countries met to consider the impact that the recruitment of teachers by
industrialised nations had on the education systems of developing countries. This
culminated in the Savannah Accord in Barbados in July 2002 and the Commonwealth
Secretariat was asked to develop a draft protocol for the recruitment of teachers
(www.thecommonwealth.org). Protocol A called upon the governments of industrialised
countries to insist that the agencies and businesses that handle teacher recruitment do
so in an ethical manner, exercising the highest standards of human resource
management practice. Protocol B provided a set of major commitments that should be
made by developed nations that have recruited teachers from developing countries. The
draft protocol was subsequently revised following the Edinburgh Conference in 2003
(15th Conference of Commonwealth Ministers of Education, 2003); another draft was
presented to a meeting in Lesotho in February 2004; and the Commonwealth teacher
recruitment protocol was adopted at a ministerial meeting in the UK on 1 September
2004 (see Appendix 31). This protocol aims to:

QUOTE: “Balance the rights of teachers to migrate internationally, on a temporary or
permanent basis, in pursuit of a range of career possibilities, against the need to protect
the integrity of national education systems, and to prevent the exploitation of the scarce
human resources of poor countries. The Protocol also seeks to safeguard the rights of
recruited teachers, and the conditions relating to their service in the recruiting country.”
(www.thecommonwealth.org)

In addition to the development of the protocol, the Ochs (2003) study was commissioned
by the Commonwealth Secretariat at the request of Ministers of Education of the
Commonwealth Caribbean.

Amongst other issues, the study highlighted the positive aspects of mobility, such as the
professional and possible career development that a period teaching abroad can provide
and the enrichment value that OTTs can offer their country‟s education system on return.
In addition, many families derive economic aid from remittances from family members
abroad. It has been suggested by others that the free mobility of labour may be
economically advantageous in that even a marginal liberalisation of international labour
laws would create gains for the world‟s economy “far greater than prospective gains from
trade negotiations.” (Stiglitz, 2002). Albeit any such gains from freer mobility of labour
may seem one-sided or at best „potential‟ rather than „actual‟. Mr Hindle, South African
Deputy Director General in the Department of Education, cautions that in South Africa
“to a large extent many of the young professionals that are recruited tend to be single
individuals and, therefore, very little of that income is remitted back to the source
country.” (HOC, March 2004)

It should also be noted that in a number of countries from which the OTTs migrate, the
teaching force is further challenged by debility and early death from AIDS adding to the
loss of human capital in often vulnerable economies. The government of Barbados, a
country increasingly targeted by recruitment agencies, has taken some steps to protect
teachers in subject areas such as mathematics, science, geography and special
education by means of “not supporting requests from overseas recruiters in these
areas.” (Ochs, 2003)

In contrast to Barbados with its small teaching force, South Africa has an institutional
infrastructure to continue to provide a more than sufficient supply of teachers, but Kada
Asmal, South African Minister for Education, notes that this is done at a huge cost
(Asmal, 2004). Asmal further comments in his discussion of South Africa‟s brain drain
dilemma, that many of these teachers choose to return to South Africa, after a year or
two in the UK, and most return as better teachers – more experienced and usually more
appreciative of the quality of the schools in South Africa.

However, it is not only the developing countries that have expressed concern at the
number of teachers leaving home. The New Zealand Ministry of Education‟s annual
teacher supply survey in 2003 revealed that secondary schools are experiencing
increased difficulties in staffing their schools as roll growth in that sector continues. To
help meet the demand for more teachers, the Ministry of Education introduced a range
of initiatives. These initiatives include international relocation grants of NZ$5,000
(around £2,000) to encourage New Zealand teachers overseas to return home and have
also contracted three recruitment agencies to actively encourage New Zealand
secondary teachers working in the United Kingdom to return home to teach ( New
Zealand Ministry of Education, 2003); „And they‟re off‟ (The Guardian, 28 January 2003).

The costs and benefits analysis is by no means straightforward in the recruiting country
either – on top of the direct hiring costs there is the need to provide adequate support for
teachers to enable them to achieve their professional potential. Identifying and
responding to these needs can dramatically influence the overall balance between costs
and benefits (Sutherland and Rees, 1995; Mowbray, 2001; Craig, 2002). The same is
true of the teachers themselves. If they are well supported then their experience can be
good and their contribution positive; but if support is poor then the challenges OTTs face
in and out of school may overwhelm them and undermine their potential development
trajectory (Sutherland and Rees, 1995; Ochs, 2003).

The balance between costs and benefits is illustrated by the example of Margaret Craig
(2002), a headteacher in a West London borough who found herself in May 2001 with 20
known teaching vacancies from a staff of 54. She joined an LEA team visiting Australia
to recruit teachers. Craig points out that in times of staffing crisis there is no alternative
to concentrating on recruitment and retention. The efforts made in the school to provide
systematic and in-depth support for the OTTs was considerable and Craig needed to
devote her continuing professional development programme disproportionately to the
needs of the new staff. However, the investment paid off and the year ended with a
stable staff focused on student learning.

In 2001, Mowbray drew attention to the hazards of using OTTs and described the
situation awaiting teachers from abroad as “a minefield”. Mowbray concluded that many
OTTs were seriously unprepared for the sheer mechanics and expense of living in
Britain: the immigration and qualification systems were both very complicated. Benefits
to schools from the use of OTTs could be considerable but schools had to make a
serious investment in order to achieve them.
2. METHODOLOGY
2.1 Definitions and aims
For the purpose of this research study, the term „overseas trained teacher‟ (OTT) refers
to teachers who were trained in either Commonwealth countries or non-EU countries.
This is independent of whether they are working under the holiday visa scheme,
employer-arranged work permits, or because they had a right of abode for other
reasons. This definition excludes teachers on exchanges and teachers trained
elsewhere in the UK, who have not received training in the National Curriculum for
England and Wales. Also excluded are teachers who came from overseas with the
intention of settling permanently in this country. For this reason responses from OTTs
who entered the country prior to 2001 are not included in the sample reported upon in
this study, as it was considered that these teachers had now sufficient experience of
teaching in England that they did not fall within the compass of the study. The aims of
the study were as follows:
    1. To gather information on the national statistical trends in respect of OTTs
        employed in the UK, their biographical and professional profile, and their
        experience of gaining Qualified Teacher Status.
    2. To examine the mechanisms used to recruit OTTs, the quality of information and
        contractual provisions offered to them, and the educational, economic and social
        impact of their recruitment on their countries of origin.
    3. To explore the reasons why OTTs come to the UK, their experiences and their
        needs in respect of professional, social, financial, induction and training support.
    4. To report on the union affiliation of OTTs, and the support they receive and
        require.

2.2 Quantitative sampling strategy, process and instruments
The research was primarily carried out by means of questionnaires sent to OTTs,
headteachers and NASUWT Regional Officers and Local Association Secretaries during
February and March 2004. Initially, particular LEAs that secondary data analysis
indicated had high densities of OTTs were targeted. The data collected through this
structured opportunity sample was augmented when discussions with policy makers
enabled other LEAs to be identified. Secondary sampling conducted through NASUWT
Local Association Secretaries ensured that some OTTs were picked up in areas that
were relatively isolated from the density areas in the main sampling frame.

LEAs: Eight LEAs were targeted initially with regard to concentration of OTTs as
reported in the School Workforce Statistics (2003). As the data gathering progressed,
further potential concentrations of OTTs were identified and a further seven LEAs were
targeted (see section 2.4 for a list of participating LEAs).

Headteachers: Headteacher questionnaires were sent out to all schools in the targeted
LEAs. Completed questionnaires, in the Freepost envelope provided, were requested by
20 March 04.

The questionnaire consisted of 28 questions that were a mix of both structured-choice
and open-ended questions and focused on: numbers of overseas teachers; employment
status; effectiveness and quality; and service to the school (see Appendix 1).
Overseas trained teachers: Teacher questionnaires were included in the pack sent to
headteachers (5 for each secondary and 3 for each primary school) with a covering letter
that asked for them to be distributed to any non-EU teachers in the school. The OTTs
were also asked to return the completed questionnaire by the 20 March 04 deadline, and
£100 was offered in a prize draw as an inducement to complete and return the
questionnaire.

The questionnaire consisted of 32 questions and was a mix of both structured-choice
and open-ended questions (see Appendix 2). It focused on: recruitment; information;
induction and further professional development; and professional and social
experiences. Confidentiality was assured in respect of the information provided. The
questionnaire also asked teachers to give details if they were willing to be interviewed.

Local Association Secretaries: Questionnaires, to be completed and returned in the
Freepost envelope provided, were sent out to the NASUWT Local Association
Secretaries. An OTT questionnaire was also included in the pack, and a covering letter
which asked the Secretary to distribute the OTT questionnaire to any non-EU trained
teachers in their Local Association.

The Local Association Secretaries‟ questionnaire was a mix of both structure-choice and
openended questions (see Appendix 3) and consisted of 23 questions which focused on:
number of OTTs employed; the recruitment process; the effectiveness of OTTs; and
problems encountered by them.

Regional Officers: Questionnaires were sent out to the Regional Centres with a
covering letter. The Regional Officer was asked to return the completed questionnaire in
the Freepost envelope provided. The questionnaire (see Appendix 4) consisted of six
open-ended questions that focused on issues and problems encountered by overseas
teachers.

Media advertisement: Articles were placed in NASUWT‟s Teaching Today and the New
Zealand News UK explaining the project and asking if any non-EU OTTs would like to
participate. A questionnaire was sent directly to the OTTs who responded and to other
OTTs of their acquaintance.

Overseas trained teacher programme: Data were also supplied by the TTA in respect
of the OTTP.

2.3 Interview sample, processes and schedules
Further in-depth interviews were carried out with a selected group of OTTs and an
NASUWT Regional Officer. Interviews were also undertaken with the following key
stakeholders: government departments, recruitment agencies and high commissions. An
interview schedule was designed for each key stakeholder (Appendix 5) which focused
on various issues in relation to OTTs including qualifications, induction processes,
contractual issues, and the costs and benefits to both the countries of origin and
individuals concerned.

Overseas trained teachers
OTTs who identified themselves as willing to participate in focus group interviews were
contacted and a convenient time arranged. Two focus group interviews were arranged;
both were in London and both lasted about one hour. The participating OTTs were
assured of full confidentiality and made aware of their right to withdraw at anytime. The
interviews were semi-structured allowing the stakeholders to supply rich data to inform
the thematic analysis.

Other key stakeholders
Letters were sent to the following key stakeholders: Barbados high commission;
Jamaican high commission; South African high commission; Australian high
commission; New Zealand high commission; Commonwealth Secretariat; British
Council; Department for Education and Skills; Commission for London Schools;
Government Office for London; Employers‟ Organisation for local government; General
Teaching Council for England (GTCE); Office for Standards in Education; Teacher
Training Agency. Interviews were arranged with key stakeholders who responded
positively to the invitation; they lasted approximately one hour and were tape-recorded
where the interviewee agreed. The high commissions of Australia and New Zealand and
the GTCE felt they had nothing to contribute to the investigation.

2.4 Participants
Overseas trained teachers
The data were supplied by a structured opportunity sample of non-EU OTTs in the 15
targeted LEAs and a further 24 individual OTTs from 14 other LEAs. A total of 136
questionnaires were returned (see Table 3).
Table 3: Frequency of sample in each LEA
LEAs                                          Sample
Hounslow                                      18
Tower Hamlets                                 14
Waltham Forest                                11
Haringey                                      10
Greenwich                                     10
Newham                                        9
Hackney                                       7
Brent                                         7
Lambeth                                       5
Wokingham                                     4
Not specified                                 4
Barnet                                        4*
Kensington and Chelsea                        4**
Bromley                                       3
Islington                                     3
East Sussex                                   3
Bexley                                        3
Surrey                                        3*
Essex                                         2*
Kent                                          2**
Manchester                                    1
Bury                                          1*
Cumbria                                       1*
Oxfordshire                                   1*
Hampshire                                    1*
Peterborough                                 1*
Warwickshire                                 1*
Wiltshire                                    1*
East Riding                                  1*
Poole                                        1*

Total Sample                                 112 + *18 + **6
The data were supplied by an opportunity sample of headteachers in 15 local
education authorities. A total of 277 questionnaires were returned from the 1,370
distributed (Table 4)
Table 4: Frequency of LEA and phase of schools
Name of LEA       Phase of School                                                Total
                  Not        Primary         Secondary    Community Special
                  Known      Phase           Phase        Schools and PRUs
East Sussex                  38              6                                   44
Manchester        1          24              7            6                      38
Bromley           1          22              1                                   24
Haringey                     19              3                                   22
Hounslow                     16              2            2                      20
Waltham Forest    2          17                                                  19
Tower Hamlets     1          15                           2                      18
Greenwich         1          10              5            1                      17
Newham            1          15                                                  16
Wokingham         1          11              1                                   13
Hackney           1          7               1            2                      11
Lambeth                      10                                                  10
Bexley            1          8                                                   9
Islington         1          6               1                                   8
Brent             1          6               1                                   8
Total             12         224             28           13                     277


NASUWT Local Association Secretaries and Regional Officers
A total of 251 questionnaires were distributed to Local Association Secretaries and 44
responses were received. Data was supplied by four of the 10 Regional Officers.

Overseas trained teachers
Eight OTTs were interviewed in two focus groups.

Other key stakeholders
The following agreed to be interviewed: Barbados high commission; Jamaican high
commission; South African high commission; Commonwealth Secretariat; British
Council; Department for Education and Skills; Teacher Training Agency; one NASUWT
Regional Officer; two recruitment agencies.
2.5 Analysis
The qualitative data on the questionnaires were first coded, then both quantitative and
qualitative data were analysed using SPSS. Qualitative thematic analysis was carried
out on the OTTs‟ and key stakeholders‟ interview data sets to identify common themes
that emerged. Meaning is central to thematic analysis and the aim is to understand the
content and complexity of those meanings and hence to explicate the participants‟
versions of their feelings about OTTs‟ experiences in the UK (see Appendix 6 for the
procedure).

2.6 Limitations to the study
Lack of good quality data from LEAs, DfES or NASUWT, relating to the location of OTTs,
made direct distribution of the OTT questionnaire impossible and it is acknowledged that
in the distribution strategy adopted, the headteachers and Local Association Secretaries
were gatekeepers.
3. Profile of Overseas Trained Teachers
3.1 Biographical profile
Responses were received from 136 OTTs: 75% (n = 102) were female and 25% (n = 34)
were male. Interestingly, there was a large range of ages with only 16% under 25; 40%
between 26 and 30; 19% between 31 and 35; and 24% over 35 years (see Table 5). The
greatest number of respondents originated from three countries: South Africa (27%),
New Zealand (26%) and Australia (23%). With regard to ethnicity: 72% of OTTs were
white; 9% were Asian; 8% were black, 5% were New Zealand Pakeha (white); 4% were
mixed race; and 1% were Akan.

Table 5: OTTs’ country of origin and age (Source: OTTs survey date)
Country of Origin             21-25      26-30     31-35     36-40      40+         Total
South Africa                  10         8         9         6          3           36
New Zealand                   4          24        1         2          4           35
Australia                     4          11        8         4          5           32
Canada                        2          4         1                    1           8
America                       2          4                   1                      7
Other                                              3         1          3           7
Caribbean Countries                      3         2                                5
Africa                                             2                    2           4
Eastern Europe                           1                              1           2
Total                         22         55        26        14         19          136


Only 32% of respondents were newly qualified, 40% had between 4 and 10 years‟
experience and 27% had over 11 years‟. There was no obvious pattern in the distribution
across the boroughs or in country of origin in relation to their amount of experience (see
Table 6 and Appendix 7).

Table 6: Country of origin and experience of OTTs (Source: OTTs survey data)
Country of     Not            Newly           Fairly         Very              Total
Origin         specified      Qualified (0-   Experienced    Experienced
                              3 Years)        (4-10 Years)   (11+ Years)
South Africa   1              12              11             12                36
New            1              10              19             5                 35
Zealand
Australia                     9               15             8                 32
Canada                        6               1              1                 8
America                       5               1              1                 7
Other                         1               2              4                 7
Caribbean                                     4              1                 5
Countries
Africa                                        1              3                 4
Eastern                                       1              1                 2
Europe
Total          2              43              55             36                136
OTTs resident in the country since 2001 were included in the analysis and Table 7 below
shows the country of origin and the year they started teaching in the UK.

Table 7: Number of OTTs, country of origin and year started teaching in the UK
(Source: OTTs survey data)
Country                                 2001      2002      2003      2004*     Total
South Africa                            13        18        5                   36
New Zealand                             10        12        12        1         35
Australia                               5         9         7         11        32
Canada                                  2         3         3                   8
America                                           4         3                   7
Other                                   5         1         1                   7
Caribbean Countries                               3         1                   4
Africa                                            3         1                   4
Eastern Europe                          1         1                             2
Total                                   36        54        34        12        136
* data collected from January to March 2004
When the country of origin data is aggregated with respect to hemisphere, an interesting
pattern emerged: the largest number of OTTs who started teaching in the month of
January were from the southern hemisphere (n = 32), with only seven OTTs from the
northern hemisphere. There was also a large peak of OTTs in September, with slightly
more teachers from the southern hemisphere (n = 25) than the northern (n = 20). A
smaller peak of southern hemisphere OTTs was also found in the month of April (n = 12)
(see Figure 1). Interestingly, disaggregated data showed that in the year 2001, the
traditional influx from the southern hemisphere in January did not occur.
Figure 1
Among the OTTs surveyed almost two thirds (n = 89) were qualified to teach in the
primary phase and one third (n = 47) in the secondary phase. There was little out-of-
phase teaching: 94 OTTs were teaching in the primary phase and 42 in the secondary
phase (see Appendix 8). For those teaching in secondary school, the most frequent
subject specialism was English (n = 10), followed by PE (n = 7), science (n = 6) and
mathematics (n = 5) (see Table 8). The Recruitment of Overseas Trained Teachers

Table 8: Subject specialisms of OTTs teaching in secondary schools in UK
(Source: OTTs survey data)
Subject                                     Frequency
English                                     10
PE (or with other)                          7
Science                                     6
Maths                                       5
Geography                                   2
Special Education Needs                     1
Music                                       1
MFL                                         1
ICT (or with other)                         1
Design Technology                           1
Cross Curricular                            1
Behaviour                                   1
Not Specified                               5
Total                                       42

3.2 Geographic profile
Among the LEAs surveyed, the ones which had the greatest numbers of OTTs
responding were Hounslow (13%, n = 18), Tower Hamlets (10%, n = 14) and Waltham
Forest (8%, n = 11). Interestingly, these three LEAs also show a proportionally larger
number of their OTTs from South Africa, New Zealand and Australia. Other LEAs with a
sizeable number of OTTs who responded were Haringey (7%, n = 10) and Greenwich
(7%, n = 10) (see Appendix 9).

This distribution was substantiated by the headteachers‟ survey, where among the LEAs
surveyed those with the greatest numbers of schools employing OTTs were found to be
Tower Hamlets, Waltham Forest, Hounslow and Haringey. Maps to show the distribution
of schools across the LEAs can be found in Appendix 10. Interestingly, in both
Greenwich and Manchester, there were proportionally more schools from the secondary
phase (40%) than from the primary phase (60%). For all the other LEAs, the majority of
schools were in the primary phase (see Table 9).
Table 9: LEAs and phase of school (Source: headteachers survey data)
Name of       Primary        Secondary      Community      Not Known     Total
LEA                                         Special
                                            Schools
                                            and PRUs
Tower         15                            2              1             18 (10%)
Hamlets
Waltham       15                                           2             17 (9%)
Forest
Hounslow      13             2              2                            17 (9%)
Haringey      14             3                                           17 (9%)
Newham        14             3                                           17 (9%)
Greenwich     9              5                             1             15 (8%)
Bromley       12             1                             1             14 (8%)
East Sussex   9              3                                           12 (7%)
Manchester    6              4                                           10 (6%)
Hackney       6              1              2              1             10 (6%)
Wokingham     6              1                             1             8 (4%)
Lambeth       8                                                          8 (4%)
Islington     5              1                             1             7 (4%)
Brent         5              1                             1             7 (4%)
Bexley                                                     1             7 (4%)
TOTAL         143 (79%)      22 (12%)       6 (3%)         11 (6%)       182 (100%)

Amongst the 277 headteachers surveyed, analysis of the data revealed that 66% (n =
182) had employed one or more OTTs for fixed-period appointments in their schools
since 2001. For those headteachers who indicated that they had employed OTTs: 79%
(n = 143) were from the primary phase; 12% (n = 22) from the secondary phase; 3% (n =
6) from community special schools and PRUs; and 6% (n = 11) were unknown.

Table 10: Number of OTTs employed in schools since 2001 (Source: headteachers
survey data)
Year          Primary        Secondary    Community             Not Known        Total
              Schools        Schools      Special and PRUs
2001/02       254            86           4                     26               370
2002/03       258            98           12                    27               395
2003/04       237            108          11                    34               390
TOTAL         749            292          27                    87               1155

The headteachers surveyed revealed that, since 2001, they had employed a total of
1,155 OTTs (370 in 2001/02; 395 in 2002/03; and 390 in 2003/04: see Table 10). The
headteachers surveyed were also asked to state if they had employed OTTs as daily or
short-term supply since September 2003. It was found that out of the 277 headteachers
over half responded in the affirmative.
           Table 11 shows the distribution of OTTs by country of origin across the three LEAs with
           the highest numbers of OTTs (see Appendix 11 for full table of LEAs and OTTs‟ country
           of origin by year).
           Table 11: OTTs by country and year for the 3 LEAs with the highest numbers of
           OTTs (Source: headteachers survey data)

            Australia   New       South    Canada   Caribbean   Africa   Other       Eastern   USA   Other   Total
                        Zealand   Africa            Countries            Commw‟lth   Europe
                                                                         Countries
Hounslow
01/02       12          11        11       0        2           2        0           4         1     0       43
02/03       16          12        16       1        2           1        2           3         1     0       54
03/04       17          8         18       1        2           1        3           3         2     0       55
TOTAL       45          31        45       2        6           4        5           10        4     0       152

Tower
Hamlets
01/02       13          13        11       9        0           0        0           0         1     0       47
02/03       14          12        8        9        1           1        0           0         2     0       47
03/04       18          13        8        7        2           0        0           0         2     0       50
TOTAL       45          38        27       25       3           1        0           0         5     0       144

Haringey
01/02       12          7         8        6        0           0        1           0         0     1       35
02/03       16          10        10       5        0           0        1           0         1     2       45
03/04       17          12        16       4        0           0        3           0         1     3       56
TOTAL       45          29        34       15       0           0        5           0         2     6       136

           Analysis of the data from 44 Local Association Secretaries revealed that three quarters
           (n = 33) were aware of schools employing OTTs; 24 provided rough estimates of the
           number of OTTs they perceived to be employed in their Local Association. The Local
           Association Secretaries thought that there had been an increase in the number of OTTs
           employed each year (236 in 2001; 420 in 2002; and 670 in 2003). This gave a total of
           1,326 OTTs employed in schools since September 2001, with 320 OTTs in primary
           schools, 884 in secondary schools and 122 in community special schools and PRUs.

           Local Association Secretaries (n = 33) were also asked for which subject specialism they
           perceived the OTTs were employed in secondary schools: mathematics (n = 14),
           science (n = 13) and modern foreign languages (n = 10) were the most frequently
           mentioned specialisms (see Appendix 12). Further, the Local Association Secretaries
           were also asked which country they thought these OTTs originated from in their Local
           Association, where Australia (n = 45), New Zealand (n = 32) and South Africa (n = 31)
           were the most frequently mentioned countries (see Appendix 12).

           3.3 Teacher status
           Of the OTTs surveyed 15% (n = 21) had obtained UK QTS, and a further 26% (n = 35)
           were currently on the Overseas Trained Teacher Programme (OTTP) and working
           towards UK QTS. This meant that nearly three out of five of the teachers, although
           qualified in their own country, neither had UK QTS nor were currently working towards
           acquiring it. The total without QTS up to January 2004 (at the time immediately prior to
           the study) was still 68. The breakdown of these OTTs‟ professional status in the UK and
           their years of experience is revealed in Table 12 below.
Table 12: Teachers’ experience and professional status in the UK (Source: OTTs
survey data)
Professional Not              Newly             Fairly      Experienced Total
Status in the Specified       Qualified         Experienced (11+ yrs)
UK            (n=2)           (just             (4-10 yrs)  (n=36)
                              qualified and     (n=55)
                              1-3 yrs)
                              (n=43)
Without QTS 1                 29 (67%)          33 (60%)        17 (47%)         80
On OTT      0                 9 (22%)           15 (27%)        11 (31%)         35
programme
With UK QTS 1                 5 (12%)           7 (13%)         8 (22%)          21

The issue of OTTs‟ status on arrival as unqualified, with its associated lower
remuneration irrespective of training and experience, was of concern to all stakeholders
interviewed. One high commission reported that their teachers felt dishonoured:

QUOTE: “Our teachers felt humiliated…some of them were teaching 15 to 20 years and
were regarded as first-class teachers…suddenly they came here…found that they were
unqualified teachers, and were not offered to be paid commensurate rates with their
previous posts at home and their status was regarded as less than qualified.”

The onerous nature of the assessment process that OTTs had to undergo to obtain QTS
was also a bone of contention: currently managed by the TTA directly, OTTs have to be
recommended for the OTT programme by their schools. This was seen as a potential
conflict of interest, since, even apart from the commitment of time and effort required on
the part of the school, OTTs‟ successful completion of the programme had financial
implications for the school. This led one high commission to suggest “…some teachers
felt schools put obstacles in the way”. One recruitment agency also indicated schools‟
unwillingness to encourage OTTs to obtain QTS:

QUOTE: “…the schools see it [doing QTS] as an imposition…the cost I think, as in time,
not just in the teacher‟s time, but in the school‟s time and them doing the mentoring and
so on, but also in allowing teachers to have time out to do things; they won‟t do it and
they ought to…”

One recruitment agency claimed that some OTTs did not embark upon the programme
as they felt it “slighted their own professionalism” and was an insult to their training and
qualifications. The British Council accepted that for quality assurance purposes OTTs
did need to meet QTS standards and referred to the possibility of “accelerated
programmes” adding “…but the school‟s got to play.”

The Commonwealth Secretariat noted that the importance placed on QTS had varied
over time:
QUOTE: “…when there is a strong need, the qualifications tend to be of less concern,
but some of the teachers, that we were involved in interviewing through our research,
indicated that in 2000 it was as if they were long-lost relatives and we‟ll take you on any
terms and we‟ll concede all sorts of things to you; but, like, now supply and demand are
pretty much neck and neck, they are suddenly hearing not being QTS and that sort of
thing.”
A high commission felt that UK NARIC (National Academic Recognition Information
Centre for the United Kingdom) who validated overseas qualifications for the TTA was
not in touch with OTTs‟ qualifications. One recruitment agency felt that OTTs should not
be classed as unqualified:

QUOTE: “I think that the Government has got it wrong in regarding these people as
unqualified… they are not unqualified teachers, they are teachers holding overseas
teaching qualifications, they are a different group of people; we don‟t recruit unqualified
teachers, but everybody that we send into a school is statistically listed as being
unqualified…”

The need for greater recognition of OTTs‟ qualifications was highlighted by both
recruitment agencies. One recruitment agency noted that being assessed for QTS
should be made easier as well as more transparent with regard to access to the
necessary information and evidence sources. The other recruitment agency thought that
schools should have a professional responsibility to ensure that OTTs were assessed for
UK QTS as soon as possible.

The British Council also was keen to ensure that OTTs were assessed for QTS as
expeditiously as possible, to ensure that they were paid on the qualified teacher scale.
Further, they suggested a mapping of training standards in Commonwealth countries in
order that it is clear which areas, if any, an OTT from a particular country needs to be
further trained in or assessed on, in order to gain UK QTS. The British Council also
thought that the TTA and GTCE should take steps to collaborate on the issue of the OTT
programme:

QUOTE: “…I think that it‟s a helpful way forward to have a kind of mapping so that it‟s
clear that if you‟re Barbadian you might be missing A, B and C, if you‟re Jamaican you
might be missing D and E and what the training programmes are that can be put in
place…if we are going to continue to recruit teachers from overseas…somewhere along
the line the TTA, and GTCE have got to get together and there‟s got to be an agreement
that this is the way forward.”

3.4 Data on Overseas Trained Teacher Programme
Analysis of the data supplied by the TTA in relation to the OTTP revealed that since
January 2001 a total of 2,709 OTTs had presented themselves for UK QTS. Table 13
below shows that the number of OTTs on the OTTP almost doubled in 2002, and a
further increase occurred in 2003. Interestingly, the number of OTTs who had applied for
assessment between January and March 2004 was nearly as many as those who had
applied in the whole of 2001.

Disaggregated by gender, 72% (n = 1,953) were female and 28% (n = 756) male.
Interestingly, for each of the countries of origin, there were more female OTTs than
males, with the exception of Ghana (n = 26) whereby 73% (n = 19) were male and 27%
(n = 7) were female. Further, the total cohort also showed a large age range with only
2% (n = 60) under 25; 37% (n = 1,007) between 26 and 30; 25% (n = 683) between 31
and 35; and a further with 35% (n = 958) over 35 years. These findings are similar to the
age ranges for those OTTs who responded to the survey.
Table 13: Number of OTTs assessed for UK QTS from January 2001 to March 2004
(Source OTTP data)
Year                                        Number of OTTs
2001                                        481
2002                                        734
2003                                        1067
2004*                                       427
Total                                       2709
* data collected from January to March 2004
The largest group on the OTTP from one particular country was found to be from South
Africa with a total of 519 OTTs applying for QTS. Australia was found to be the second
largest group with a total of 275 OTTs, and New Zealand the third with 158 OTTs
applying for QTS since January 2001. Table 14 shows an overall increase in the number
of OTTs starting the OTT Programme in 2002, a decrease in 2003 and an increase in
2004 (from January to March).

Table 14: Country of origin and year started OTTP (Source OTTP data)
Country                                    2001      2002     2003    2004*    Total
Not Specified                              103       50       888     186      1227
South Africa                               150       230      64      75       519
Australia                                  87        118      25      45       275
New Zealand                                39        79       20      20       158
Other2                                     22        57       16      18       113
Africa                                     11        43       14      26       94
Canada                                     19        43       7       13       82
Other Commonwealth Countries               10        34       10      8        62
America                                    18        26       3       8        55
Eastern Europe                             7         24       11      7        49
Caribbean Countries                        4         20       7       16       47
Other                                      11        10       2       5        28
Total                                      481       734      1067    427      2709
* data collected from January to March 2004
Maps to show the distribution of OTTs on the Programme can be found in Appendix 13.
The areas that had the greatest number of OTTs were in London (n = 1,717), where 278
were in East London (including the LEAs of Hackney, Waltham Forest, Tower Hamlets,
and Newham); 223 in North London (including the LEAs of Haringey, Islington and
Barnet); 123 in South West London; and 119 in South East London. These data further
corroborate the LEAs surveyed in the research as six of these seven most densely
populated LEAs were chosen.

Table 15 reveals that overall there were more OTTs assessed for the secondary phase
(57%) than for the primary phase (41%). There were proportionally more OTTs
assessed for the secondary phase than for the primary phase from the Caribbean
countries, Africa, Eastern Europe and other Commonwealth countries. For the countries
of Australia, New Zealand, South Africa and Canada, fairly equal numbers of OTTs were
assessed for the two phases.
Further, the most frequent subject specialisms being assessed overall from January
2001 to March 2004 were found to be primary – no specialism (24%, n = 649); English
(18%, n = 485); mathematics (13%, n = 356); and science (13%, n = 345) (see Appendix
14). The majority of these OTTs (62%) overall applied for QTS with induction
assessment and 38% applied for QTS assessment only. Since 2002, there has been an
increase each year in those applying for assessment with induction assessment (see
Appendix 14).

Table 15: OTTs’ country of origin and teaching phase assessed (Source: OTTP
data)
Country of Origin                      Primary      Secondary      Stages 2      Total
                                       Phase        Phase          and 3
Not Specified                          485          717            25            1227
Australia                              124          148            3             275
New Zealand                            82           74             2             158
South Africa                           249          259            11            519
Canada                                 37           44             1             82
Caribbean Countries                    9            38                           47
Africa                                 15           78             1             94
America                                23           29             3             55
Eastern Europe                         16           33                           49
Other Commonwealth Countries           21           41                           62
Other                                  9            18             1             28
Other2                                 48           63             2             113
TOTAL                                  1118         1542           49            2709

The TTA explained that a consultation had taken place which recommended that the
OTTP should be reviewed and devolved to Designated Recommending Bodies (DRBs)
and to try and reduce some of the burdens on schools. The TTA recognised the need for
change, but they did not intend to make any fundamental changes to the programme.
The TTA also indicated that their administration unit would have a role in monitoring the
DRBs and would continue to offer training:

QUOTE: “We‟ll monitor it…at the moment, the admin, they check out all the applications
that come in…we‟d want that to continue…they would probably for a short time sample
applications and qualifications…and help DRBs. We already offer training to DRBs in
terms of assessment, so we would continue to do that…”

With regard to evaluation of the OTTP, the TTA viewed the success criteria of the
programme purely in terms of the number of failures and withdrawals:

QUOTE: “We don‟t do an evaluation…we look at the success rate in terms of people
withdrawing or people failing and the success rate is quite high…if they‟re going to fail
their assessment then the school or the recommending body will…say look it‟s not
working out, they should withdraw from the programme; but generally with OTTs they‟re
more experienced anyway so it‟s not a huge problem.”

The TTA also revealed that it did not intend to consult with OTTs who were currently on
the programme or any OTTs who had already completed the programme as part of its
review process. The TTA felt that the OTTP was a small part of recruitment to ITT, and
explained their current quandary in relation to the excess number of NQTs and increase
in applications for the OTTP. However, the TTA acknowledged the valuable role of OTTs
in the teacher workforce:

QUOTE: “In terms of the bigger picture, it‟s quite a small part of what we do and in terms
of recruitment to ITT, it‟s not the agency‟s (TTA) main priority because in many cases,
although we know a lot of OTTs fill gaps and they are very important to certain schools,
at the moment…there‟s surplus NQTs especially in primary, so we‟re kind of in a difficult
position…the numbers, the demand for the OTTP is increasing, but the actual vacancies
in schools is going down, so whether we want to do more to, so whether it‟s the right
time to strengthen the programme and to do more to push it, it‟s a difficult one.”

3.5 Professional affiliation
Amongst the OTTs surveyed, 56% were not a member of a professional association in
the UK; the affiliations of those that were are recorded in Figure 2 below. Table 16
shows that there was a lower frequency of union membership in the primary phase than
the secondary phase. Of those OTTs with union membership, 11% (n = 15) had asked
their unions for support in relation to: pay (n = 2); contractual issues (n = 3); constructive
dismissal (n = 1); financial help (n = 1); bullying (n = 1); incidents with students (n = 3);
and general advice (n = 3) (see appendix 15 for specific reasons). Nine of those who
sought help were satisfied with the support offered.

Figure 2: Percentage of OTTs’ union membership (Source: OTTs survey data)
Table 16: Union membership and teaching phase (Source: OTTs survey data)
Union                  3-11                    11-18                  Total
NASUWT                 5                       17                     22
NUT                    31                      5                      36
ATL                    1                       1                      2
TOTAL                  37 (39% of primary      23 (55% of             60 (44% of all
                       OTTs)                   secondary OTTs)        OTTs)

Sixty per cent of those OTTs with union membership identified, in additional comments,
seven areas in which they would like further support or information. These included:
qualification status; training; information on professional associations; rights and
responsibilities (see Appendix 16 for full details).

A third of these OTTs would like more support in relation to understanding the status of
their qualifications. For example, two OTTs would have liked support in the recognition
of their overseas experience; three OTTs would like the union to enable QTS to be
simpler and nine OTTs would also like support in arranging help to achieve QTS. A
further 14 OTTs reported that they would like their union to provide more training, with
workshops on issues like the National Curriculum and its implementation. Eight OTTs
also thought that more information on the professional associations themselves should
be made available and wanted more OTT representation both within the union itself and
in schools. Eight OTTs with union affiliation also felt that they would like their union to
provide more information on teacher issues, such as pay scales, and rights and
responsibilities. Seven OTTs wanted more information on issues such as
accommodation and national insurance. Finally, one OTT suggested that their union
could hold social events so they could meet other OTTs.
4. Recruitment of Overseas Trained Teachers
4.1 Recruitment practices, length of service and type of contract
The 136 OTT respondents were asked how they were recruited to work in this country.
The largest group was hired by teacher recruitment agencies and, for the purposes of
reporting agencies, they were classified into the more frequently mentioned agencies (by
four or more OTTs) TimePlan, Capita, Masterlock, Select, Protocol, Dream (n = 62,
46%) and those mentioned by three or fewer OTTs (n = 37, 27%). Eighteen OTTs (13%)
were recruited by a school and five (6%) were recruited by an LEA. Finally, some 8% (n
= 11) were recruited by means including direct application to a school by the OTT (see
Figure 3).

Figure 3: Percentage of OTTs recruited by each organisation (Source: OTTs
survey data)




Over half (55%, n = 75) of the OTTs were recruited for a particular position in a named
school, 40% (n = 55) were recruited for short-term supply work and the remaining 4% (n
= 6) were all recruited for work within a particular LEA, but not in a named school (see
Figure 4).

Amongst the OTTs currently working in the UK, 40% had a permanent contract
compared with 27% on an annual contract, 18% were on a supply contract and 13% on
a term contract. Only one OTT said that they currently had no contract. These values
suggest that a percentage of those OTTs who identified themselves as working as
supply teachers were, in fact, contracted to work for a period of between a term and a
year, probably in a single school. It is not possible from this data to identify how many
teachers were working as daily supply teachers at the time of the survey (although this
was possible from the headteachers‟ data).

Figure 4: Percentage of OTTs and type of contract (Source: OTTs survey data)




Of those 182 headteachers who recruited OTTs for fixed-term contracts, a total of 134
recruited OTTs in 2001/02; 140 in 2002/03; and 138 in 2003/04. Over half of these
headteachers recruited in all three years, nearly a quarter recruited for two years and a
similar amount for one year.

These headteachers recruited OTTs to their schools by a variety of means. Over three
quarters used a recruitment agency (85%, n = 155), 13 headteachers had hired OTTs
through their own efforts and 10 had OTTs recruited by an LEA. Only four headteachers
recruited by other means. The most frequent length of time that OTTs had been
employed by these headteachers was eight terms (n = 37), followed by four terms (n =
31) and 12 terms (n = 31). Table 17 below outlines the reasons why the headteachers
recruited OTTs.
Table 17: Headteachers’ reasons for recruiting OTTs (Source: headteachers
survey data)
Reason for Recruiting OTTs                             2001        2002          2003
No UK Teachers available                               99 (74%)    98 (70%)      87 (63%)
Better trained                                         2 (1%)      2 (1%)        4 (3%)
Good to have an international staff mix                8 (6%)      6 (4%)        10 (7%)
Cheaper than UK trained teachers                                   2 (1%)        1 (1%)
No UK teachers available and good to have              8 (6%)      13 (9%)       10 (7%)
international staff mix
No UK teachers available and better trained than       6 (4%)      6 (4%)        6 (4%)
UK teachers
No UK teachers available, better trained than UK                   1 (1%)        1 (1%)
teachers and good to have an international staff
mix
Better trained than UK teachers and good to have                                 1 (1%)
an international staff mix
Other                                                  11 (8%)     12 (9%)       16 (12%)

Amongst the headteachers surveyed, 79% (n = 143) stated that OTTs had completed
their fixed-term contracts and 19% (n = 35) indicated that 41 OTTs had not. These
headteachers noted reasons for non-completion of contracts including: family and
personal reasons; ability; inappropriate choice of school; and other (see Appendix 17).

Firstly, in the area of family and personal reasons (n = 19), just under half (n = 9) of the
OTTs did not complete their contracts due to family reasons including homesickness (n
= 4). Secondly, on OTTs‟ ability in UK schools (n = 14), the most common issues were
found to be: poor class management skills (n = 4); incompetence (n = 3); and unable to
reach the required standard within the school (n = 3). The third area for non-completion
of contracts was OTTs‟ school choice (n = 5), where four moved to other schools and
one moved out of London. Finally, on other issues (n = 3), one OTT left to take up a non-
teaching job; one departed due to maternity leave and childcare issues; and one OTT
had difficulty in gaining QTS.

The headteachers surveyed were also asked to state if they had employed OTTs as
daily or short-term supply since September 2003. It was found that out of the 277
headteachers over half responded that they had (53%). Interestingly, three quarters of
those schools that employed OTTs for fixed-period appointments also employed OTTs
as daily or short-term supply teachers. Further, for those schools (n = 95) that had not
employed OTTs for fixed period appointments, 13% were found to have employed OTTs
as daily or short-term supply teachers. Almost all of the headteachers (97%) revealed
that overseas daily or short-term supply teachers had been sent by a recruitment
agency. The headteachers noted a total of 36 different recruitment agencies, where
Protocol (26%), Capita (18%), TimePlan (16%), Select (15%) and International Teachers
Network (12%) were found to be the most frequently mentioned agencies.

It was also found that five per cent of these headteachers specifically asked the
recruitment agency for an OTT for daily support work; three specified that it was
because OTTs had good pedagogy and teaching skills. Further, seven per cent of
headteachers also specifically requested OTTs for short-term contracts. Interestingly,
one headteacher commented that their school sometimes specifically asked for an OTT
for a particular subject, for example physical education. Of those 93% headteachers who
did not, 2% commented that they “would prefer a UK-trained teacher.”

4.2 Information provided on recruitment
The OTTs surveyed were asked to rate the amount and quality of information that was
provided to them when they were first recruited in the following seven areas:
employment status in the UK; position/job; social conditions; discipline in school;
pay/salary; working conditions; and standard of living. The box plots (Figure 5) reveal the
distribution of responses given by the OTTs and reveal that they felt the quality and
amount of information provided was variable.

The majority of OTTs felt that the amount and quality of information provided was good
or adequate in the following areas: employment status (74%), position/job in school
(69%), pay/salary (65%), and working conditions (65%). However, they felt that the
quality and amount of information provided about the local social conditions were less
satisfactory; over a third (35%) thought it was poor, and 40% adequate. Respondents
reported information provided about discipline in schools was very varied: 32% felt it was
poor, 40% thought it was adequate, and only 24% thought it was good. Likewise for
information about the standard of living; 29% felt that it was poor, 44% thought it was
adequate, and 23% felt that it was good.

Figure 5: : Box plots of amount and quality of information provided when first
recruited in the areas of: employment status in the UK
Seventy-six OTTs reported that they would have liked additional information in respect
of: practical employment issues (pensions, national insurance and tax); school practices
and policies; UK education system (National Curriculum); teacher status and
qualifications; information on jobs; living in the UK (accommodation); UK services
(National Health Service, banks and unions); and other issues (support and honest
information) (see Appendix 18).

4.3 Accuracy of information on point of recruitment
The OTTs surveyed were asked to rate the accuracy of the information supplied at the
point of recruitment in the following eight areas: employment status in the UK;
position/job; social conditions; pupil discipline; educational standards; pay/salary;
working conditions; and standard of living.

The box plots (Figure 6) reveal the distribution of the responses given. Overall, the
responses were fairly similar, with the exception of the information on local social
conditions and pupil discipline, where 26% and 28% respectively thought that the
accuracy of the information supplied was poor.

Figure 6: Box plots of accuracy of information provided when first recruited in the
areas of: employment status in the UK, position/job, social conditions, pupil
discipline, pay/salary, working conditions and standard of living (source: OTTs
survey data)
When the OTTs were grouped by recruitment strategy, the box plots (Figure 7) showed
a range of responses in the accuracy of the information provided in the areas of working
conditions and standard of living. The OTTs recruited by LEA and Other revealed that
the information provided to them on working conditions was less accurate than the
information provided to those recruited by a school. Further, those recruited by the more
frequently mentioned agencies showed that there were more OTTs who felt that the
information provided was less accurate than in those recruited by the less frequently
mentioned agency.

Figure 7: Box plots of accuracy of information by recruiter (Source: OTTs survey
data)




Accuracy of information provided Accuracy of information provided on working
conditions on standard of living Strong positive correlations between the amount and
quality of information and the accuracy of the information provided in the areas of:
pay/salary (r = .72, p < .001); standard of living (r = .65, p < .001); and working
conditions (r = .64, p < .001). This showed that the greater the amount and quality of
information, the more accurate the OTTs found the information. Further, moderate
positive correlations were also revealed in the areas of: employment status (r = .50, p <
.001); position/job (r = .55, p < .001); social conditions of the area (r = .51, p < .001); and
discipline in the school (r = .57, p < .001). These correlations show the relationship
between these variables, although to a lesser degree.

4.4 Global recruitment strategies
A thematic analysis of the interviews with key stakeholders revealed a number of
significant issues with regard to recruitment strategies. One of the key causes of concern
was the activities of the recruitment agencies. The practices of recruiters varied; one
agency visited overseas universities:

QUOTE: “There‟s a huge amount of preparatory work, we visit 40-odd universities a
year…we don‟t interview, it‟s pure background work, talking to them…”
The main agenda for these visits was to recruit OTTs for the forthcoming academic year:

QUOTE: “…we recruit for a September start, but also top up supply through the
year…we employ …people who are ex-heads to manage our overseas
recruitment…99% we see in person, and usually we interview overseas, and traditionally
we‟ve taken headteachers with us, to help us with that recruitment and it‟s quite an in-
depth process.”

The agency recruited more teachers in the primary phase than the secondary and
focused on a fixed-term one-year contract. They were seeking in particular an
„international educator‟, a person:

QUOTE: “…who wants to broaden their experiences by teaching overseas…one of the
things that I think is very widely unreported is the growth of the international
teacher…we‟re looking not just at qualifications, but realism on their part, people who
are resilient.”

The recruits included some:

QUOTE: “…quite senior people…people who had been heads of departments…people
mid-career, which is again very different from the young Australian backpacker.”

The other agency interviewed, however, claimed they were no longer “actively recruiting
overseas”:

QUOTE: “…and have no plans to do so; at one point we were going to do overseas
recruitment missions, but…we encountered some resistance in schools to overseas
teachers…and also because there was a turnaround in the demand…we pulled the lot of
them…”

This did not stop OTTs applying to the agency either over the Internet from their home
country or through OTTs who were already in the UK:

QUOTE: “…in some cases the teachers themselves weren‟t so much being recruited as
volunteering because for various political reasons where they were, they wanted to get
out of it.”

The recruitment agencies were sensitive to claims from some developing countries that
they were misleading OTTs and plundering human resources. Although there was a lack
of good information in the countries themselves regarding recruitment, one high
commission was unable to estimate the current demand. Another reported that the
number of teachers leaving their country was still increasing despite the problems some
of their predecessors had experienced in the UK:

QUOTE: “…the number keeps growing…many people are still interested simply because
they are not aware of the problems that have happened already to others.”

The British Council‟s perception, however, was that the number of OTTs was
decreasing. Both recruitment agencies confirmed there had been a huge influx of OTTs
especially in 2001/02, but that currently the numbers were decreasing. One agency
suggested that this was because headteachers were using classroom assistants as
temporary cover because of financial constraints. One recruitment agency also
expressed disappointment at the way private recruitment companies, such as
themselves, were viewed by the Government:

QUOTE: “I think that if organisations like us had not existed, we would be in terminal
crisis in education, I really, really believe that…I do believe that ourselves and the other
bigger players have made a huge difference in the teaching force here…”

It was generally felt by the high commissions that the migration of teachers should be
viewed as an issue for the Commonwealth as a whole, and not just as a problem for
individual countries. The blame for the aggressive recruitment drives were laid largely at
the feet of the agencies:

QUOTE: “The agencies, they have been responsible for recruiting a large number of
Caribbean teachers…the recruitment is very haphazard, it depends very much on what
the situation is in other countries…Before the competitive nature of teacher employment
was introduced into the system, all recruitment was done by the LEA. Then suddenly we
had private agencies getting into the market and taking out our teachers.”

The lack of regulation of the agencies was a cause for concern for high commissions:

QUOTE: “…there‟s no set rule of how people come into the country…”
QUOTE: “…the recruitment agencies just went to a hotel, put adverts in newspapers,
didn‟t tell the Government, and recruited teachers overseas. It was totally disrespectful
to the country…”
QUOTE: “…it ought not to be allowed to happen, without somebody having some control
over where they go, why they are doing it and what they do with the teachers once they
are recruited.”

The British Council representative also depicted somewhat of a free-for-all:

QUOTE: “…it wasn‟t just the agencies that were recruiting, it was the [LEA] recruitment
strategy managers themselves who shopped around, and there was a fair bit of
uncoordinated planning.”

In contrast, the DfES also confirmed LEAs‟ involvement in running supply operations, but
felt that they were responding in an organised way to the teacher shortages by recruiting
OTTs who had a positive impact on the school workforce. One high commission spoke
positively about discussions with one recruitment agency that seemed sensitive to the
country‟s views, and wanted to improve its practices:

QUOTE: “…but, as you know, business is something else, you can‟t say I‟ll police these
people and ensure that happens, and companies come and go…some people who had
a better understanding of what the Government wants, they were more responsible.”

The Commonwealth Secretariat spoke very positively about the Savannah Accord and
adopted:

QUOTE: “…a very clear position…it is the human right of every professional teacher…to
seek their employment where they wish, to move from one country to the other, and no
minister would ever seek to prevent that, and it‟s clearly expressed in the revised draft
document (Savannah Accord Protocol). By the same token, the ministers recognise that
they have a right to safeguard their systems, whether it be education or health…”

One high commission thought that the draft protocol had informed recruitment agencies‟
practices, but felt that some recruiting countries, including Britain, had not been very
helpful:

QUOTE: “You cannot really stop them, we train them up, if they want to go, hopefully
they will come back to us with wider experience later on…if our resource is a human
being then we have to see that as an export of knowledge, so to speak, and hope that
you get your remittances…”

All the key stakeholders offered a variety of suggestions for ways forward in the
recruitment of OTTs. All three high commissions proposed some form of managed
labour market:

QUOTE: “What we want is a much more managed labour market, particularly if you‟re
recruiting teachers from developing countries which would have spent x number of
pounds training those teachers…and you are suddenly bringing them out of that system,
and not replacing them with anybody…how we can manage so both countries benefit
from the recruitment exercise…it ought to be possible…to develop a system…to
manage at least some of their teachers coming out and ensuring that whilst they are
here, they will be benefiting from what is on offer here, which can then be fed back into
the education system there.”

One high commission suggested a solution centred on sabbatical leave:

QUOTE: “If this was a simple government-to-government solution I would say give
teachers a bit of experience, and send them to the UK, and then after some time they
come back, and they will fill in the post of those who are coming out of the system into
the UK system. It works, because if you say no, we want experienced teachers in the
UK, fine, we can get those experienced teachers for 2, 3 or 5 years out of the system
into the UK, but the gaps that they will leave will be filled by those teachers who are
unemployed, and by the time the more experienced ones come back, we can fill them in
elsewhere and on a rotation basis.”

Finally, the third high commission suggested a joint training programme:

QUOTE: “…if the other countries looking for teachers want to train our teachers, bringing
them over while they‟re in training, a combination of training there and here could work.
It would, to some extent, minimise the amount of difficulty even the very experienced
teachers have when they come here, not having the exposure to the British education
system.”

For another high commission the issues of regulating, monitoring and controlling the
behaviour and practices of recruitment agencies were also key. Further, the British
Council was pleased that the Savannah Accord had brought teacher recruitment
practices up the agenda. The Commonwealth Secretariat also valued the development:
QUOTE: “The proposed protocol should recognise that there is value in teacher
exchange between the Commonwealth countries and some focus should be placed on
the benefits of such exchanges or periods of secondments…The new draft speaks to
bilateral arrangements between source and recruitment countries, and we hope and
perceive that out of that may come creative responses to the situation where exchanges
or bursaries or even assistance of training teachers in the source country, so as to
supply the recruiting country, will emerge.”

4.5 Impact on source country
Discussions with the high commissions on the impact to the source country revealed
very diverse contexts and issues; one described a situation in his country of high
unemployment, particularly amongst professionals:

QUOTE: “…about 40% of the people…are unemployed, and part of that 40% is caused
by things like this, people being offered lucrative jobs overseas…after a while it doesn‟t
work…they come back, and they find it very difficult to find jobs…they can only go to
private schools and there are not many…they can‟t get back into the state system…it‟s
only one exit, you can‟t go out and come back, unless there are special
circumstances…It‟s very tragic, because someone who is experienced, who has been to
the UK, taught for 3, 4, 5 years, this person is back with all this knowledge and this
person can‟t find a private school.”

A second high commission also admitted that many newly qualified teachers were
unemployed and that their recruitment had little impact on the current teaching force. A
third high commission, however, felt that the teacher recruitment had a serious impact
on his country‟s education system; but thought that the long-term effects for teacher
professional development were positive:

QUOTE: “…there has always been teacher mobility in the Commonwealth, but not in
such large numbers and in such a short amount of time…in the short term it has impact
on key subject areas, like science…in the long term there are benefits because teachers
do improve their professional training.”

The DfES was sensitive to charges that the UK was „asset-stripping‟ developing
countries and views such as those expressed by one organisation in its analysis of the
situation:

QUOTE: “At the moment we‟re not recompensing the country…we‟re stripping them of
the people they most need to be the leaders in education in their countries, which makes
it even worse…then when you get to this end, we‟re not treating them as if they are the
brightest and best of those countries and we‟re not supporting them, which has a doubly
negative effect…firstly, we‟ve taken them out of their environment…secondly, very often
we damage their confidence, and as a result when they go back, they‟re less effective
than they would have been had they stayed…”

The British Council was clear that many countries did not wish to prevent teachers
working overseas, but would value some acknowledgement:

QUOTE: “…even the countries that are most aggrieved don‟t actually want not to allow
free movement of people, they just want a level of recognition.”
The Commonwealth Secretariat raised the issue that remittances in relation to teacher
recruitment was unclear, but felt that overall there was considerable capital loss:

QUOTE: “The issue of remittances is not really resolved…when a country invests in
training and developing a teacher and when that teacher is taken, there is considerable
capital loss.”

5. Experiences of Overseas Trained Teachers
5.1 Induction and further professional development
The OTTs surveyed (n = 136) were asked to rate the support that they received, when
they first arrived in the UK, in the following five areas: professional expectations;
pedagogic skills; curriculum knowledge; housing needs; and financial advice. The
distribution of responses is revealed in the box plots (Figure 8) and shows they felt that
the support they received was better in some areas than in others. Thirty-seven per cent
felt the support received for professional expectations was good and 32% felt it was
adequate. A third thought that the support received on pedagogic skills was good and
40% thought it was adequate. Similarly, for curriculum knowledge only 21% thought it
was good, whereas 47% thought it only adequate. In contrast, 42% felt the support in
housing needs and financial advice was poor and 37% and 40% respectively thought
support on housing and financial advice to be adequate.

Figure 8: Box plots of support received when first arrived in the areas of:
professional expectations, pedagogic skills, curriculum knowledge, housing
needs and financial advice (Source: OTTs survey data)




There was variation amongst the three LEAs with the most number of OTTs working in
their schools (Hounslow, Tower Hamlets and Waltham Forest). The OTTs in one of the
LEAs felt that the support received for professional expectations was much better than
those in the other two and the OTTs generally felt the same in relation to the support
received for pedagogic skills and curriculum knowledge. However, for support on
housing needs and financial advice, a much greater range in these responses was
revealed for both LEAs. Indeed, in one of the LEAs no OTT felt that the support that they
received in relation to these areas was very good (Figure 9).
Figure 9: Box plots of support received when first arrived in the areas of:
professional expectations, pedagogic skills, curriculum knowledge, housing
needs and financial advice for the three LEAs (Source: OTTs survey data) Where:
1 = poor; 2 = adequate; 3 = good; 4 = very good




Of the OTTs surveyed, 93% had been involved in professional development activities
whilst teaching in the UK. In one of the 15 LEAs, none of the OTTs reported being
involved in any activities. For those OTTs involved in activities, the most common was
found to be training days, with 91% having attended these. Further, 79% were found to
have participated in courses, conferences or workshops and 62% have observed their
colleagues. However, only 56% have had a professional development review and 50%
ICT training. Further, 13% noted that they had also attended other professional
development activities, including behaviour management training (n = 2), SATs courses
(n = 3) and gifted and talented courses (n = 1).

5.2 Teaching in the UK
Decision to teach in the UK
One hundred and thirty-five OTT respondents gave reasons for their decision to teach in
the UK, and these included: desire to work/live in UK; professional opportunities; and life
experience (see Appendix 19). Eighteen per cent of the OTTs wanted to work/live in the
UK, with over half of these indicating that the pay/salary conditions was their motive;
eight OTTs specifically wanted to live in London; one OTT felt that the UK was safer
than his/her home country and another claimed to be interested in the culture. Fifteen
per cent of OTTs gave professional opportunities as their reason, including professional
development opportunities and greater availability of jobs than in their home country.
Two thirds claimed life experience as their motivation; 58 noted a desire to travel; 55
wanted an „experience‟; six needed a change of environment and for a further 14, there
were family reasons.

Most challenging
Amongst those OTTs surveyed, 130 commented on what they found most challenging
about teaching in the UK and seven themes emerged: students/pupils; teaching in the
UK; National Curriculum and assessment; school; working/living in the UK; education
system; and parents (see Appendix 20). Nearly 70% felt that the students were most
challenging, over half of these remarking upon the lack of discipline and ensuing
behaviour management problems. A further 27% of responses fell into the „teaching in
the UK‟ theme and included excessive paperwork, onerous workload and different
teaching methods. A quarter of OTTs remarked upon their lack of familiarity with the
National Curriculum and assessment system and, in particular, how rigid they found it.

School-related issues were cited by 15% of OTTs, with limited resources being the most
common. Thirteen per cent felt that working/living in the UK was most challenging, and
in particular low pay, long working hours and travel times. The education system was
cited by 7% of OTTs as being the most challenging aspect of working in the UK;
examples such as learning abbreviations and how and when to do things were
mentioned. Finally, 3% of OTTs felt that lack of support and respect towards teachers
and educational values were most challenging for them.

Most rewarding
Responses from 125 OTTs on the most rewarding aspect of teaching in the UK revealed
six themes: students; teaching experience; teacher development; UK issues; new and
cultural experiences; and school (see Appendix 21). Thirty-one per cent of OTTs found
the students the most rewarding aspect of teaching and 27% felt that UK issues were
the most rewarding, where 15 OTTs noted the salary, nine commented on the
opportunity to travel, and six highlighted the school holidays. A quarter of OTTs thought
that teacher development was the most rewarding aspect; 14 noted professional
development and nine OTTs found it most rewarding to learn new teaching methods.
There were also 22% of OTTs who felt gaining teaching experience the most rewarding
aspect, where nine OTTs highlighted the value in experiencing a different teaching
system.
Over 20% of OTTs also thought that aspects of the school they were teaching in, where
11 OTTs reported that the resources available to them and 12 OTTs noted the excellent
support of the staff and the headteacher were the most rewarding. Finally, 19% of OTTs
highlighted that new and cultural experiences were the most rewarding about teaching in
the UK, with 11 OTTs noting cultural experience the most.

Advice to others considering teaching
All the OTT respondents offered advice to others considering teaching in the UK and
these were categorised broadly as: personal thoughts and attributes (35%); practical
advice before arriving (12%); practical advice upon arrival (30%); and advice on schools,
teaching and pedagogy (23%) (see Appendix 22).

Personal thoughts by over a third of OTTs included comments such as: “go for it”, “it‟s
great experience” and “it‟s hard work”. Practical advice before arriving in the UK included
comments such as: “get information on teaching in the UK”, “find out the full range of
educational opportunities in London” and “have money in the bank”. Practical advice
once arrived in the UK included: “read up on the curriculum” and “do the OTTP
immediately”. Finally, advice in respect of schools, teaching and pedagogy included:
“research school first” (n = 9), and “be prepared to deal with discipline and classroom
management” (n = 4).

5.3 Problems encountered
The OTTs surveyed were asked if they had sought any help from others whilst working
in the UK in the following six areas: legal/contractual matters; social or emotional
support; professional expertise; financial management; discrimination; and other
problems. The 33 Local Association Secretaries and the Regional Officers were also
asked if they had been approached by OTTs about problems they had encountered in
these areas.

Legal/contractual matters
In the area of legal/contractual matters, 13% or 17 of the OTTs had sought help, 11 of
these specified reasons that included: contractual; practical employment; school; and
property. In relation to contractual issues, three teachers had required help with
contracts, where two had been ended prematurely and one had been changed. On
practical employment issues, two OTTs needed help with national insurance, tax and
pensions; one wanted help with applying for a work permit; and another over pay after
obtaining QTS. Legal issues in relation to school included problems resulting from an
OTT refusing to take a school journey with a student after an incident; one for
constructive dismissal; and one about the unprofessional behaviour of a headteacher.
Finally, one OTT required legal help in relation to buying a property (see Appendix 23).

The Recruitment of Overseas Trained Teachers 33 Nearly 70% of the Local Association
Secretaries reported that they had been approached by OTTs in relation to five areas:
pay; QTS; discipline and behaviour; renewal of contract; and general contractual
matters. For pay issues, these included disputes over pay scales subsequent to the
award of UK QTS and nine cases in respect of QTS related to recognition of overseas
qualification and enrolment onto the OTTP. Local Association Secretaries also reported
contact with OTTs on discipline and behaviour issues (n = 3) and in particular with
problems in the classroom. Advice was also given in the matter of renewal of contracts
(n = 6), where some OTTs wanted to break their contracts (n = 3) and some had not
been renewed (n = 2). Local Association Secretaries had also been approached in
relation to general contractual matters (n = 9), such as terms and conditions of contracts
(n = 1) and problems with short-term contracts (n = 1) (see Appendix 24).

Two Regional Officers reported that they had been contacted by OTTs in relation to
legal/contractual matters: in one case a New Zealand teacher wanted to stay one year
more than their work permit allowed; another was an unfair dismissal case of a Black
African teacher without UK QTS, employed by a school on a fixed-term contract and
replaced when the contract ended. In respect of this latter case, the OTT had not
understood the terms of the contract. The case was settled and the teacher received
compensation.

Social/emotional support
It was found that 13% of the OTTs had received social/emotional support during their
stay, 10% of whom specified the reasons, which included: three for stress; one for
depression; four as a result of problems in school; two for problems with their own
children; two for transitionrelated problems; and one after being mugged (see Appendix
23).

A quarter of the Local Association Secretaries reported they had been approached by
OTTs for social/emotional support in relation to: living in the UK; racial issues; and
school issues such as „settling in‟, „feeling isolated‟ and coping with a different culture.
One Local Association Secretary had been approached by two OTTs with racial
problems. Finally, social/emotional support was also sought by two OTTs in relation to
school issues, when one was bullied by senior managers and another had a problem
with a pupil (see Appendix 24).

Financial management
OTT responses indicated that 10% had sought help in relation to financial management:
half being help for practical employment issues and the rest in relation to living in the UK
issues (see Appendix 23).

On the matter of financial management, 28% of Local Association Secretaries reported
that they had been approached by an OTT. Reasons for being approached included
problems with cost of accommodation (n = 4) and arrangements to bring over family (n =
1) (see Appendix 24).

Professional expertise
Interestingly, just over half of those OTTs surveyed (n = 72) responded that they had
sought professional expertise and 53 specified their reasons which included help on the
UK education system (n = 105); professional development and qualifications (n = 4); and
school issues (n = 4). In relation to the UK education system, they sought support on
planning (n = 34); curriculum (n = 35); assessment (n = 28); the UK system (n = 7); and
completing documentation (n = 1). In relation to professional development and
qualifications, two had sought help in respect of the OTTP and QTS (see Appendix 23).

Over half of the Local Association Secretaries had been approached by OTTs on the
issue of professional expertise. Four main areas were: workload (n = 7); planning and
teaching (n = 5); pupil behaviour and discipline issues (n = 4); and professional
competence where, in one example noted, an OTT was the subject of a capability
procedure (see Appendix 24).

Two Regional Officers had also been approached by OTTs, one in relation to
professional expertise in 2002/03 and one with regard to competence matters in
2003/04. In 2002/03 one Regional Officer noted that they were approached by a female
American OTT with an issue on QTS and pay scales. The Regional Officer reported that
the problem occurred when the OTT encountered a delay in receiving UK QTS. The
problem was fully resolved after 2 to 3 months and with a positive outcome:

QUOTE: “The secondary school gave her a one-year contract with the agreement that
she followed the OTT Programme. Lack of knowledge of bureaucratic process by
teachers, school, and to some extent LEA and university, led to delays in her being
registered for the Programme. As a result, delay in her achieving QTS and moving onto
qualified teacher scale. Issue complicated by cultural differences – feisty, argumentative
New Yorker trying to clarify her situation with a taciturn headteacher! Situation fully
resolved after 2/3 months. QTS confirmed and teacher given permanent contract.”

The second Regional Officer reported that they had been approached by an OTT in
2003/04 in relation to competence matters. The Regional Officer noted that it was an
ongoing competency procedure case involving a teacher from Russia.

Other problems
Amongst those OTTs surveyed, 35% (n = 48) also highlighted that they had encountered
other practical problems since working and living in the UK, including: accommodation,
such as lack of affordable housing (n = 9); living in the UK, such as getting a
doctor/dentist and credit (n = 9); jobs in the UK (n = 2); practical employment issues
such as national insurance problems (n = 9); school problems/issues such as lack of
management support (n = 6); difficulties obtaining bank accounts (n = 11); approval of
overseas qualifications for the OTTP (n = 5); and visa issues (n = 1) (see Appendix 23).

A quarter of Local Association Secretaries also noted that they had been approached by
an OTT. Reasons for being approached included issues of racism, sexism and cultural
diversity (n = 1); general housing problems (n = 1); racial discrimination by students with
senior management failing to support the OTT (n = 1); and bullying by management (n =
1) (see Appendix 24).

Discrimination
Amongst those OTTs surveyed, it was found that 20% (n = 27) had encountered
discrimination whilst living and working in the UK. There were seven areas of
discrimination encountered by these OTTs, which included: racial (n = 4); nationality (n =
2); and gender discrimination (n = 1). Nine OTTs also reported that they felt they were
not treated the same as their UK colleagues, and two OTTs felt that students showed
them less respect as they were from overseas. There were also four OTTs who felt
discriminated against by the school and one OTT also noted that they were paid less
than other teachers as they were from overseas (see Appendix 23).

Just over half of these teachers reported the discrimination: five contacted their
union/professional association; nine reported it to their school management; and five
informed their recruitment agency. One teacher also reported it to a contact in their LEA
and one to a senior colleague in the school.

Two OTTs claimed that they were satisfied with the support and response received from
their union. One of these teachers, who had experienced racism from his head, reported
that he had:

QUOTE: “…received nearly £1,000 compensation, but found the whole experience very
humiliating…”

Five out of nine OTTs who reported cases to their school management were also
satisfied with the response. One OTT who reported racist remarks by parents and
students was satisfied that:

QUOTE: “…it was dealt with very well.”

Conversely, one OTT who perceived that they were not treated the same as UK
teachers was not satisfied with the response from the school management. In addition,
all five OTTs who informed their recruitment agency expressed their dissatisfaction with
their response. An OTT who reported being undermined by negative remarks from the
school staff added that they were:

QUOTE: “…recognised as more professional since leaving the agency and now
employed by an LEA.”

One Regional Officer had dealt with a case of racial discrimination in which a
Zimbabwean OTT was employed through an agency to work in a school. The OTT felt
that they were being racially discriminated against in school and approached the
Regional Officer after a number of incidents including once when they had been asked
not to teach a lesson but to clean the staffroom. The OTT‟s contract was with the agency
and not the school. However, the case was settled before a tribunal and the OTT
received £8,000 in compensation.

Current trends
The 33 Local Association Secretaries who were aware of OTTs working in schools in
their Local Association were asked what they thought the current trend in relation to the
number of reported cases was (see Appendix 25). Out of the 22 Local Association
Secretaries who commented on this, just under half felt that the problems were
increasing, and one observed:

QUOTE: “The problems will worsen – as all teachers come under more and more
pressure – the time and commitment to support OTTs will just not be possible.”

Nearly a quarter of Local Association Secretaries thought that the problems were
currently decreasing, one observing:

QUOTE: “[The area] has had a high turnover of staff. Overseas teachers have prevented
major problems in schools. Turnover is slowing and overseas teachers will bear the
brunt of any teacher loss…”
Only one Local Association Secretary felt that there were currently no problems: “No real
evidence base – lack of contact may be said to equate to no real problems.” Three
thought that the levels of problems were currently the same and a further three did not
know the current levels of problems.

5.4 Support structures
In relation to support structures, all three high commissions and the British Council felt
concerned that OTTs were not provided enough accurate, specific and detailed
information at the point of recruitment. The British Council suggested that the main
cause for concern was not just increased movement:

QUOTE: “One country is particularly aggrieved and disturbed, because the issue is not
simply the stripping of teachers, it‟s actually the betrayal of teachers, and the extent to
which you can make a UK salary look extremely attractive in comparison to their
country‟s salary, and what they don‟t say is what it will cost you to buy a room, a flat.”

One high commission also felt that the recruitment agencies were economical with the
truth in order to entice teachers to the UK:

QUOTE: “…you‟ll find recruitment agencies going to our country and telling the people a
completely different story from what they are going to get…they will put on the table a
number of good offers, which are never going to materialise once they get to the
UK…Between 2001 and now I‟ve had roughly 20-25 cases.”

Another high commission also reported problems including: accommodation; status of
families; types of leave of absence; working conditions; pay; national insurance; tax; and
obtaining visas for families. It was also felt that OTTs had not, in particular, understood
supply contracts:

QUOTE: “…because on supply where there is work one day, then not the next day and
then they could be out of work and the teachers didn‟t realise that was the contract.”

One agency, who offered to set up lodgings for OTTs, admitted the difficulty of arranging
appropriate accommodation: different expectations and lack of comprehension of the
cost of living:

QUOTE: “…we are very aware that you‟ve got that group who have an entirely different
set of needs…whereas a backpacker might be happy to be in a shared house with your
own room, they want a house; to rent a house in London it will be about £2,000
depending…they can‟t possibly conceive that the money that they are going to
command is not going to cover that…so they would then go into accommodation, which
they would not find appropriate, and then there are more problems because they are not
settled at home…I think also sitting…in one…of the countries, the salaries look
incredible…you can send all the lists in the world about living expenses for the week, but
I don‟t think they recognise it and so…they go in at a lower level, still expect to be able to
support the family and won‟t have the money to send back, so I think that‟s an enormous
issue, and is my greatest concern.”

The other recruitment agency offered some practical support but not accommodation:
QUOTE: “We do an initial „meet-and-greet‟ where we will deal with practical things like
bank accounts…medical facilities…where they should be looking for somewhere to live,
we don‟t usually find them places, because that‟s part of the resilience factor, if you can‟t
find yourself somewhere to live you‟re going to find it pretty hard to manage a
classroom.”

The British Council reported information received from professional associations that
OTTs did not realise what the schools they were recruited for would be like:

QUOTE: “…they were not told about the schools to which they were coming…I had that
from the teaching unions out there, that it was not made very clear that they would be
coming to some of the most difficult schools in London.”

One recruitment agency commented on the difficulties in communicating such
information:

QUOTE: “…it‟s the sort of thing that you need to say several times for it really to get into
their consciousness…”

and on preparing OTTs to work in UK schools:

QUOTE: “…it seems to me that the biggest issue is that education overseas in many
cases is regarded in such a different light to the UK, and the expectations of a teacher‟s
role is so different, when they get here, what they were expecting just isn‟t the reality and
that‟s the real challenge: how you actually prepare people for that…you can say let‟s
have more familiarisation courses…they can certainly get themselves up to speed on
things like the National Curriculum…understanding the structure of the school and…of
the school day, but what they haven‟t got is actual experience of being in an English
school…”

The issue of shared African-Caribbean heritage was also raised by the British Council, a
high commission and one agency; it was felt that headteachers assumed this group
would find it easy to manage African-Caribbean pupils, which was not the case, as the
British Council reported:

QUOTE: “A serious issue was the assumption that because you share, and in some
cases two or
three generations back, a similar heritage means that the African-Caribbean teachers
can cope with young African-Caribbean Londoners, and the Caribbean teachers were
just appalled, and totally out of their depths…The teacher doesn‟t want to admit that they
are out of their depth, the senior management doesn‟t want to insult this apparently
experienced teacher and so you get this mismatch, and as a result there were some
quite serious difficulties and there was a sense that…‟but you must understand because
you are also from the Caribbean‟.”

One agency also perceived there was a general misconception that supply teaching
would be easy:

QUOTE: “…I think there‟s a huge misconception about supply teaching…people forget
that it‟s an extremely hard job…and if you‟ve got no experience of the English system
and you‟ve got perhaps different expectations of pupil behaviour, you‟re going to have a
really hard time…I think heads perhaps at one point saw overseas teachers as an
answer to their prayers and I think now are more nervous of recruiting an overseas
teacher. I think some have had really good experiences, but most have had really bad
experiences.”

One high commission noted the lack of induction that OTTs received and the surprise
that the OTTs experienced at the cultural differences:

QUOTE: “Now imagine a teacher arriving, spend half a day being told what schools are
like and sent to a school only to find that kids are running all over the place…these
teachers who are accustomed to seeing kids sitting down and listening and
learning…and can‟t manage that and the shock of it…it‟s two different cultural
experiences…”

The British Council felt that some LEAs were more responsive than others in providing
induction:

QUOTE: “Some LEAs just thought, stick them in a class and they‟ll do fine, others…took
the trouble to try to get together a very comprehensive package of training and
support…At the point where problems were huge, we had local authorities knocking on
our door…What we did do, was to work with a number of local authorities…in terms of
induction arrangements and support arrangements…We talked about the different roles
that people within schools need to have…I think that some of them used it and some of
them didn‟t…”

Both recruitment agencies offered induction programmes to OTTs on the National
Curriculum and the education system, and also ran evening and weekend courses on
issues such as behaviour management. Although one of the agencies admitted that
attendance was not good. As an example of good practice one recruitment agency
worked in conjunction with an LEA:

QUOTE: “…the LEA…set up an in-service training programme, which it ran every
Saturday morning, leading to QTS, so they were supported materially by us, and the
LEA provided the resources to give them good in-service training…it worked
extraordinarily well…”

However, the necessity for continued support throughout the year was noted by a
number of stakeholders. The British Council sensed that this was not always well
understood:

QUOTE: “…a lot of the LEAs thought that if they gave them lots of support in September
that was all they needed and didn‟t recognise that actually they were going to need even
more support in November and that was when the trough hit…”

Continuous monitoring systems, including exit interviews, to ensure both OTT and
school were satisfied was an area in which one recruitment agency admitted a
weakness. Stakeholders also highlighted the issue of schools‟ preparedness to support
OTTs:

QUOTE: “…almost all teachers will get themselves into some sort of muddle at some
time…and there are schools who will…say get rid of this person, and it‟s not that they‟re
a bad teacher…if it was a British teacher they would be counselled and supported and
they would move on, I think that overseas teachers can be treated as second-class
citizens in our schools…”

The recruitment agencies also emphasised that in addition to professional support,
OTTs needed a range of pastoral support mechanisms throughout their stay, such as
advice about accommodation, travelling and finances; all of which could, if left
unresolved, impact upon the OTT‟s ability to perform well in the classroom. They also
stressed the issue of social isolation; one agency ran social meetings. One high
commission also identified this as an issue:

QUOTE: “Those with a strong support system here find it easier…I think that those with
family support in UK survive better…”

The DfES mentioned the similarity between the teacher training courses in Australia and
New Zealand and the UK system. One of the recruitment agencies thought that
Australian teachers were viewed more positively than other OTTs, a perception
confirmed by the British Council:

QUOTE: “…we‟ve had from schools information that…that group (Australians) is highly
effective…they understand the requirements of a curriculum such as ours…We‟ve not
had any feedback that there‟s been particular problems with this group…They‟re a good
deal, heads love them, the agencies love them, everybody laughs all the way to the
bank.”

Interestingly, two high commissions also noted the distinctions made between Australian
teachers and those from the Caribbean countries. One high commission felt that this
was an issue of racial discrimination and even perceived that Australian teachers were
paid more:

QUOTE: “There is a serious issue about racial discrimination about who‟s a good
teacher. Why is it that Australian teachers are regarded as better teachers than black
teachers?…They also don‟t get paid as much as Australian teachers even though they
may be more experienced.”

The British Council felt that there was a need for information presented to OTTs, via a
website or a pamphlet, to be accurate, precise and related directly to issues they would
encounter. In addition, a recruitment agency suggested a video link with a classroom in
the UK:

QUOTE: “…to do a video link, where they can actually live observe a class, because…if
you take a video you‟re going to take the best…or even if you decide to take something
which shows a flavour of some of the difficulties, it‟s not the same as seeing something
live…”

This recruitment agency also felt that a key issue for them was the preparation of
schools to receive OTTs, and not just how the OTTs themselves were prepared. The
DfES representative expressed the concern of the Government regarding the need of
the Savannah Group to develop a protocol, but nevertheless stressed the need for
greater collaboration and involvement between the schools, LEAs and recruitment
agencies.
6. Employing Overseas Trained Teachers
6.1 Attitudes and perceptions about recruitment
Those headteachers (n = 195) who had employed OTTs on fixed-term and/or on supply
and short-term appointments, responded to a series of general statements in relation to
the recruitment of OTTs. The box plots show the range in responses for each of the 12
statements (see Figure 10).

Just over half of these headteachers agreed with the statement that OTTs were only
employed in schools because there were not enough UK-trained teachers. A clear
majority of headteachers (83%) also agreed that OTTs provided a valuable service in
filling the gaps in schools. However, in relation to the statement that some subjects could
not be sustained without the use of OTTs, half of the headteachers (49%) felt neutral
about this; 28% agreed; and 23% disagreed. Three-quarters of the headteachers agreed
that OTTs add value to the school community, and only a small minority (3%) disagreed.
However, only 8% felt that OTTs were more professional than newly trained UK
teachers, where 37% of headteachers disagreed and over half (55%) were neutral. The
box plots reveal the large range of responses to the statement that OTTs are only in the
UK as part of a working holiday. Just over 40% of headteachers were unsure if OTTs
were only in the UK as part of a working holiday, and around one third either disagreed
(31%) or agreed (29%).

Over a half of the headteachers disagreed that OTTs were more likely to face
discrimination than UK teachers, and 36% were neutral. Around one-third of
headteachers agreed that OTTs made more demands on schools than UK trained
teachers, and nearly half were undecided. Twenty per cent of headteachers agreed that
OTTs were surprised about the poor state of UK schooling and 32% disagreed. Nearly
90% of headteachers agreed that OTTs benefited from working in UK schools, and none
of the headteachers disagreed with this statement.

Two-thirds of the headteachers thought that the recruitment agencies had been
responsible for the growth in numbers of OTTs, and just less than 30% were undecided.
However, just less than half of the headteachers agreed that recruitment agencies did a
professional job and 46% were undecided.
Figure 10: Box plots for the 12 statements (Source: headteachers survey data)
Where: 1 = Disagree; 2 = Neutral; 3 = Agree




The Local Association Secretaries (n = 44) were also asked for their views on a series of
general statements in relation to the recruitment of OTTs. The box plots reveal the range
in responses for each of the 13 statements (see Figure 11 overleaf).

Over 60% of the Local Association Secretaries agreed with the statement that OTTs
were only employed in schools because there were not enough UK trained teachers and
55% also agreed that OTTs provided a valuable service in filling the gaps in schools.
Just over half (52%) agreed that OTTs added value to the school community; however,
46% were undecided about this statement. With regard to the statement that some
subjects could not be sustained without the use of OTTs, nearly half were undecided,
36% agreed and 16% disagreed. Just over half of the Local Association Secretaries
disagreed with the statement that OTTs were more professional than newly trained UK
teachers and 46% were undecided.

Over 40% of the Local Association Secretaries agreed that OTTs were surprised about
the poor state of UK schooling, 46% were neutral and only 14% disagreed. Over half of
the Local Association Secretaries also agreed that OTTs benefited from working in UK
schools, 46% were undecided, and none disagreed. In relation to the statement that
OTTs were only in the UK as part of a working holiday, just over half of the Local
Association Secretaries were undecided, around a third disagreed and just over a
quarter agreed.
Interestingly, the box plots revealed the large range of responses in relation to the
statement that OTTs were more likely to face discrimination and harassment than UK
trained teachers. Nearly half of the Local Association Secretaries (46%) agreed with this
statement, just over a quarter (27%) disagreed and just over a quarter (27%) were
neutral. Further, 43% agreed that OTTs make more demands on schools than UK
trained teachers, and the same percentage were undecided. Moreover, in relation to the
statement that school practices with regard to OTTs were fair, over two-thirds of the
Local Association Secretaries were undecided, only 23% agreed and 9% disagreed.

Nearly 60% of Local Association Secretaries believed that the recruitment agencies had
been responsible for the growth in numbers of OTTs, and over one-third were
undecided. However, only 7% agreed and 7% disagreed that these recruitment agencies
did a professional job, and the majority were neutral (59%).

Figure 11: Box plots for the 13 statements (Source: Local Association Secretaries
survey data) Where: 1 = Disagree; 2 = Neutral; 3 = Agree




6.2 Perceived skill levels
The headteachers surveyed (n = 182) who employed OTTs on fixed-term contracts rated
OTTs against UK trained teachers on the following four areas: curricular knowledge,
subject knowledge, pedagogic skills and classroom management. Nearly three-quarters
perceived OTTs‟ subject knowledge to be the same as UK trained teachers. Similarly,
65% of headteachers also believed that OTTs‟ pedagogic skills were the same,
however, 21% felt that they were with better. Fifty four per cent of headteachers felt that
OTTs‟ curriculum knowledge was the same as UK trained teachers, although 37%
believed that they were worse. Finally, for classroom management, 58% of
headteachers felt that the OTTs were the same as the UK trained teachers, and 23%
believed that they were worse.

The 148 headteachers who had recruited OTTs on supply and short-term contracts also
rated overseas supply teachers on their knowledge and skills against UK trained
teachers. Fifty seven per cent of the headteachers felt that overseas supply teachers
were the same as UK trained teachers in relation to their curriculum knowledge; 64% in
relation to subject knowledge; 58% in relation to pedagogic skills; and 55% in relation to
classroom management. Around a quarter of the headteachers also felt that overseas
supply teachers were worse than UK trained teachers in these areas (33%; 24%; 21%;
and 20% respectively). However, 14% of headteachers felt that overseas supply
teachers‟ pedagogic skills were better than UK trained teachers‟ and 17% also thought
that they were better in their classroom management than UK trained teachers.

The headteachers (n = 182) who had employed OTTs on fixed-term contracts were
asked to state if they felt that certain countries produced „better‟ teachers than were
produced in this country. A third of headteachers thought that teachers from Australia
were better, followed by New Zealand (29%), South Africa (7%) and Canada (7%).
Interestingly, 12% of headteachers believed that there was not a country that produced
„better‟ teachers than were produced in this country and 11% did not know (see Figure
12).

Figure 12: Graph to show countries which seem to produce ‘better’ teachers than
this country (Source: headteachers survey data)




The Local Association Secretaries surveyed (n = 44) were asked to rate the OTTs in
general against UK trained teachers in four areas: curricular knowledge, subject
knowledge, pedagogic skills and classroom management. The box plots revealed the
range in responses for each of the four areas (see Figure 13).

Thirty-two per cent of Local Association Secretaries believed that OTTs‟ curriculum
knowledge was the same as UK teachers and 36% believed classroom management
was the same. In comparison, just under 60% of the Local Association Secretaries
thought that OTTs‟ subject knowledge was the same as UK trained teachers‟ and half
thought pedagogic skills were the same. Interestingly, only 16% of Local Association
Secretaries perceived that OTTs were worse than UK teachers for subject knowledge
and 21% for pedagogic skills. However, 41% of Local Association Secretaries believed
that OTTs‟ classroom management was worse, and 36% felt that curriculum knowledge
was worse. Around one quarter of the Local Association Secretaries felt that they were
unable to rate the OTTs against UK-trained teachers in the areas of: curriculum
knowledge (30%); pedagogic skills (27%); subject knowledge (23%) and classroom
management (23%). Only one Local Association Secretary perceived that OTTs were
better than UK trained teachers for curricular knowledge, subject knowledge and
pedagogic skills. Further, no Local Association Secretaries felt that OTTs were better
than UK trained teachers in relation to classroom management.

Figure 13: Box plots of OTTs rated against UK trained teachers in the areas of:
curriculum knowledge; subject knowledge; pedagogic skills and classroom
management (Source: Local Association Secretaries survey data) Where: 1 = Not
able to rate them; 2 = Worse than UK trained teachers; 3 = The same as UK trained
teachers; 4 = Better than UK trained teachers




The 33 Local Association Secretaries were also asked their views on the preparation of
OTTs to work in schools (see Appendix 26). Out of the 25 Local Association Secretaries
who commented on this, 56% (n = 14) felt that there was a lack of preparation of OTTs
to work in schools with one Local Association Secretary commenting: “Very poor – like
NQTs there should be a full, informed and frank induction period.”

Only 8% (n = 2) felt that the OTTs were prepared well to work in school, where one
Local Association Secretary also commented on a programme set up in their area: “A
planned programme of introduction is available for new staff – centrally organised”.
Further, 8% (n = 2) also felt that OTTs‟ preparation to work in school varied, where one
Local Association Secretary commented: “Varies very much from school to school and
agency to agency. Often many promises made but unfulfilled.”
6.3 Cost and benefits
A range of responses given by headteachers (n = 182) in relation to problems
encountered with employing OTTs was revealed in nine different areas (see Figure 14).
On the issue of work permits, over half (59%) of the headteachers stated that they never
had problems, with only 21% noting occasional problems. Over a third of headteachers
also reported that they never had problems with OTTs in relation to subject knowledge
(37%), discipline issues (45%) and pedagogic skills (47%), although, just under a third
reported that they occasionally had problems with these areas (29%, 24%, and 27%,
respectively). However, the box plots revealed that responses from headteachers in
relation to problems with knowledge of the National Curriculum were more varied. Over
a third (37%) of headteachers occasionally had problems, a quarter reported that they
frequently had problems, 19% never had problems and 18% rarely had problems.

Figure 14: Box plots of problems with employing OTTs in the areas of: work
permits; subject knowledge; discipline issues; knowledge of National Curriculum;
pedagogic skills; ability to relate to staff, pupils and parents; and ability to settle
down in the UK (Source: headteachers survey data) Where: 1 = Never; 2 = Rarely;
3 = Occasionally; 4 = Frequently




Over half of the headteachers also noted that they had never experienced any problems
with OTTs‟ ability to relate to staff (64%); pupils (57%); or parents (54%), and further,
around one quarter reported that they rarely had problems (25%; 25%, and 28%
respectively). Similarly, in relation to OTTs‟ ability to settle down in the UK, over half
(56%) of the headteachers had never experienced any problems; nearly a third (29%)
had rarely experienced any problems and 12% experienced problems occasionally.

The headteachers surveyed (n = 182) commented on the advantages of recruiting OTTs
into schools and revealed four areas: practical employment issues; OTTs‟ contribution in
teaching; OTTs‟ qualities; and OTTs‟ contribution to the school and UK education
system (see Appendix 27).

Nearly half of these comments made by headteachers (45%) concerned OTTs‟
contribution to school and the UK education system, where 17% believed that the
cultural and ethnic diversity made to staff by employing OTTs was an advantage.
However, 13% of headteachers felt that there was no advantage in employing OTTs.
Other common advantages in this area included: a wider perspective to the curriculum
and teaching strategies (8%); OTTs had new ideas (8%); and OTTs‟ overall contribution
to school (10%). In the second area, OTTs‟ qualities, nearly one-third of headteachers
(29%) believed that this was an advantage, where 6% of headteachers noted three
different qualities about OTTs which they found particularly advantageous: motivation;
hardworking; and usually more positive.

Practical employment issues were the most advantageous for 20% of headteachers,
with OTTs being able to fill gaps (12%) being the most common. Further, 8% believed
that OTTs enable full staffing; and 3% felt that OTTs were advantageous in filling
shortage subjects. Finally 12% of headteachers felt that the contribution OTTs made to
teaching overall was an advantage. Eight per cent of headteachers thought that OTTs
were well trained and a further 2% also noted three other particular areas that they felt
were advantageous: very experienced; professional; and had good subject knowledge.

The headteachers surveyed (n = 182) highlighted the disadvantages of recruiting OTTs
into schools (see Appendix 28). Four themes were revealed, namely: practical
employment issues; OTTs‟ contribution in teaching; school and community issues; and
OTTs‟ behaviour and length of stay. Firstly, just over a third of headteachers believed
that OTTs‟ contribution to teaching was disadvantageous, where 66 headteachers felt
that OTTs lacked specific UK knowledge. Some headteachers also felt that issues such
as classroom management (n = 12), planning (n = 3) and language (n = 2) were also
disadvantages in relation to OTTs‟ contributions to teaching. Just over one-third (37%) of
headteachers also thought that practical employment issues were a disadvantage when
employing OTTs. The most common issues in this area were found to be: induction
requirement for OTTs (n = 18); and OTTs‟ qualification status (n = 13). Interestingly, 36
headteachers stated that there was no drawback in employing OTTs. The third area
related to school and community issues (17%), where 31 headteachers commented on
school issues, such as OTTs‟ lack of long term commitments to the school (n = 12) and
7 headteachers commented on community issues which included OTTs‟ difficulty in
adapting to the different culture (n = 3). Finally, 9% of headteachers felt that OTTs‟
behaviour and length of stay were disadvantages, and related to issues such as leave
and holidays (n = 10) and returning home (n = 8).

Amongst the headteachers surveyed, 174 gave their views on the recruitment of OTTs
as a staffing resource for schools in England (see Appendix 29). Over half these
headteachers (55%) felt that employing OTTs was a good option, and gave comments
such as: “very good to have a steady turnover of motivated teachers” and “fill vital role –
provides schools with teachers”. Further, 9% noted that the recruitment of OTTs was
good as a short-term solution, stating: “fine as interim but not forever” and “short-term
answer, but need to ensure training enough UK teachers.” Interestingly, only 6% of
headteachers viewed the recruitment of OTTs as a necessary option, where one
headteacher commented that OTTs have “kept the school afloat.”
A further 6% of headteachers also noted that the recruitment of OTTs was not their first
option when recruiting new members of staff. Five headteachers highlighted that they
“would rather have a pool of UK trained teachers” and only 3% believed that it may be
advantageous for the UK, but they were concerned for these teachers‟ home countries.
Six headteachers also noted that there was great variability in OTTs and that some
found it difficult teaching in the UK. Interestingly, four headteachers believed that some
OTTs from particular countries fit in better, for example one headteacher commented:
“Australian teachers seem to fit in best.” There were also three headteachers who felt
that OTTs needed training before entering the system and a further five headteachers
who commented that it was not ideal to recruit teachers from overseas.

The 33 Local Association Secretaries were also asked what their view was of the
recruitment of OTTs to work in schools (see Appendix 30). Out of the 25 Local
Association Secretaries who commented on this, 40% (n = 10) felt that it was necessary
to recruit teachers from overseas into schools, with one Local Association Secretary
commenting, “Last resort, should not be taken away from homeland, children/schools”,
and another also noting that it is: “A desperation measure”.

Further, 16% (n = 4) of the Local Association Secretaries also felt that it was an
acceptable strategy, where one Local Association Secretary commented: “If they can do
the job and prevent other teachers having to cover classes or children being sent home
then so be it.” However, one Local Association Secretary felt it was an unacceptable
strategy: “What was happening to some of our members was modern-day slavery. There
have been some improvements. We do not want to see people exploited.”

Twelve per cent (n = 3) of the Local Association Secretaries also felt that it was
beneficial to schools, however, 8% (n = 2) also noted that recruiting teachers from
overseas caused extra work for schools: “Members find that overseas teachers need
support in many areas in school – no time or money is invested by the school. Far too ad
hoc and goodwill.” In contrast, one Local Association Secretary felt that the recruitment
of OTTs had little impact on the schools in their areas as this recruitment was at a
minimum level. Finally, 16% (n = 4) reported that in their local association there was no
particular view of the recruitment of OTTs to work in schools: “No strong views either
way – numbers at present are limited.”
7. Discussion
7.1 Discussion of findings
  1. Three-quarters of the 136 OTTs in our sample originated from the three southern
     hemisphere countries (South Africa, Australia and New Zealand) in almost equal
     numbers. About half of the remainder originated from North America and the
     other half from various other areas such as Africa and Commonwealth Caribbean
     states. Similar to the gender spilt of the UK teaching force, 75% of OTTs were
     female and 25% male. Contrary to the common perception of OTTs as being
     recruited straight from training (e.g. House of Commons, 2004), the age profile of
     the sample shows that 16% were under 25, 40% between 26 and 30, a further
     19% between 31 and 35, and the remaining 25% were over 35. This profile was
     further evidenced by the fact that OTTs also had much greater teaching expertise
     than was generally perceived: just over 30% had less than 4 years, whereas over
     25% had over 11 years‟ teaching experience. Further, 65% of OTTs were
     primary trained and 35% secondary; there was little out-of-phase teaching.
     Interestingly, not only was primary not a shortage area but in the secondary
     phase English and PE, neither of which were „shortage‟ subjects, were the most
     common subject specialisms, followed by science and maths. For those
     assessed on the OTTP, 24% were primary and the most common secondary
     specialisms were English (18%), maths (13%) and science (13%).
  2. Of the eight LEAs targeted initially, and the further seven sampled in a later
     tranche, the ones with the highest density of OTTs were Hounslow, Tower
     Hamlets and Waltham Forest, Haringey, Greenwich and Newham. Data from the
     headteachers confirms this distribution: of the 277 schools that responded, 182
     had employed 1,155 OTTs between them since September 2001. Thus, our
     OTTs were largely located in inner-city London schools, although outlying
     clusters, such as the one in Greenwich, were located. This is in line with the
     school workforce data (2003), however, the data are not easy to disaggregate
     given that overseas trained teachers are included in two groups: „Overseas
     Trained Teachers and Instructors without Qualified Teacher Status‟ and
     „Teachers on Employment-Based Routes to QTS including those on the
     Overseas Trained Teacher Programme‟. This data also does not include specific
     information about the nationality of these teachers. Further data on the issue of
     UK work permits provides only a limited amount of information, since many
     potential recruits do not need work permits, including: all EU citizens;
     Commonwealth citizens with UK ancestry (or for certain Commonwealth
     countries – working holiday visas); and partners and dependants of people who
     have work permits.
  3. Of the OTTs in the sample, 75% were recruited by agencies, nearly 50% of
     which comprised just six agencies (TimePlan, Capita, Masterlock, Select,
     Protocol and Dream); schools and LEAs recruited just over 20%. Just over half of
     the OTTs were recruited for work in particular schools and 40% for supply work.
     Overall, 40% had permanent contracts compared with 27% who were on an
     annual contract; these figures suggest that a percentage of teachers working as
     supply teachers were in fact contracted to work for a period of at least a term,
     probably in a single school. The average stay of OTTs overall was found to be
     seven terms. Around three-quarters of headteachers claimed they recruited
     OTTs because there were no UK teachers available at the time.
4. The information received by OTTs at the point of recruitment was rated: „good‟ or
   „adequate‟ in respect of „employment status‟ (74%), „post/job‟ (69%) and „pay and
   working conditions‟ (65%); but less satisfactory in respect of „social conditions‟
   where over a third thought it was poor (35%). With regard to „discipline‟ and
   „standard of living‟, the quality of the information was regarded as very variable.
   Retrospective analysis of the accuracy of the information by OTTs showed that
   they thought it was „good‟ or „adequate‟ in all categories except „social
   conditions‟, where 26% deemed it „poor‟, and „discipline‟ where nearly 30%
   thought the accuracy of the information had been poor. Additional information
   that OTTs would have found useful included school-related information (50% of
   OTTs that responded), practical employment issues such as pensions, national
   insurance and tax (36% of OTTs that responded) and the UK education system
   (24% of OTTs that responded).
5. The induction support OTTs received was rated „adequate‟ or „good‟ in respect of
   pedagogic skills by 83%; and professional expectations and curriculum
   knowledge by nearly 70%. Less well thought of and rated „adequate‟ or „poor‟ by
   about 80% were „housing needs‟ and „financial advice‟. It was clear from teachers
   and other stakeholders that continued support from schools was needed
   throughout the first year and such support was found to be inconsistent across
   the sample. The support needed was not just, or perhaps even centrally, about
   professional and pedagogic issues but about practical things and life skills in a
   foreign country.
6. Nearly 60% of the OTTs in the sample had the status and salary of unqualified
   teachers, and were not working towards QTS, despite their overseas
   qualifications and the fact that 67% had over 4 years‟ experience as teachers.
   Only 15% of OTTs had QTS and a further 26% were currently working towards
   being assessed on the OTTP. The assessment process itself was considered by
   the OTTs, and most of the other stakeholders, to be timeconsuming, onerous
   and demeaning. The British Council also raised the issue of the similarity of
   many of the teacher training programmes in Commonwealth countries, and
   suggested that in order to facilitate assessment, a mapping of equivalences
   could be undertaken by the TTA in order to identify areas, if any, in which
   particular countries may be lacking in respect of UK QTS. It was also reported
   that information about obtaining QTS was not widely publicised; OTTs had to be
   recommended by their school for the programme, which would involve the school
   in giving considerable extra time and effort, and ultimately have financial
   implications. The OTTP is currently under review and it is planned to devolve it to
   DRBs. This review may help decrease the burden to schools, but since the TTA
   neither intends to evaluate the programme nor make any fundamental changes
   the issues surrounding UK QTS may continue to exist. The prospects for
   significant change seem even further depressed since GTCE, the regulating
   body for teachers, do not apparently see this as an area in which they have a
   meaningful contribution to make in respect of policy or practice; when they were
   asked to participate in our research they felt “unable to assist”.
7. Amongst the OTTs surveyed, 44% were members of professional associations in
   the UK. The pattern of affiliation was significantly different in primary and
   secondary in that there was a lower frequency of union membership in the
   primary phase. Thirty nine per cent of primary OTTs were members of a union as
   opposed to 55% of secondary OTTs. Within these two phases there were again
   significant differences: in primary 14% were members of NASUWT, whereas
   84% were members of the NUT; in the secondary phase 74% were members of
    NASUWT, and 22% were members of the NUT. Less than half of the 10
    Regional Officers and less than 20% of 251 NASUWT Local Association
    Secretaries responded to the questionnaire and of the latter 75% reported an
    awareness of OTTs in their area. The data provided by Local Association
    Secretaries with regard to their perceptions of the phase and subject specialisms
    of OTTs in their area appeared at variance with the OTT and headteacher survey
    data and the OTTP data.
8. The problems encountered by OTTs were categorised as professional (53%),
    practical/social or emotional (48%), legal/contractual (13%), financial
    management (10%) and discrimination (20%). Examples of professional issues
    reported by OTTs focused centrally around the UK education system (planning,
    assessment, curriculum, workload and discipline issues). Over half of the
    NASUWT Local Association Secretaries who responded had been approached
    by OTTs about professional issues. Social/practical/emotional issues reported by
    OTTs included stress, depression, transition to the UK and practical issues
    centred largely around accommodation. living in the UK, getting a bank account,
    etc. Over a quarter of Local Association Secretaries who responded reported that
    they had been approached by OTTs in relation to these issues. Legal and
    contractual problems encountered by OTTs included ending and changing
    contracts, and legal issues in relation to contracts and work permits. Over half of
    the NASUWT Local Association Secretaries had been approached by OTTs
    about legal and contractual matters mainly in respect of issues relating to QTS
    status and general contractual matters. Twenty-seven OTTs (20%) claimed to
    have encountered discrimination, of these nine felt they were not treated the
    same as UK teachers, a further four felt they were discriminated against by
    school staff, and six claimed racial discrimination. Only one NASUWT Local
    Association Secretary reported an episode of discrimination that had been
    brought to their attention. Overall, 40% of the Local Association Secretaries who
    responded thought problems experienced by OTTs were increasing and 25%
    thought they were decreasing.
9. The headteachers thought that OTTs were the same as UK trained teachers in
    respect of: subject knowledge (74% of heads); pedagogic skills (65%); classroom
    management (58%) and curriculum knowledge (54%). Twenty one per cent of
    headteachers thought that OTTs‟ pedagogic skills were better than those of UK
    trained teachers, however, 37% thought curriculum knowledge, and 23% thought
    classroom management, were worse than UK trained teachers. It has to be
    remembered that OTTs in the main were teaching in challenging schools in
    which UK teachers were unwilling to work and their competence in classroom
    management skills should be read in this context.
10. The impact of recruitment was varied in its effects on source countries. In some,
    the migration to the UK did not affect the teacher workforce markedly, whereas in
    others overall loss of teachers to the UK, America and other destinations had a
    serious impact upon the education systems. This was not only with respect to the
    well-reported depletion of human resources in developing nations but also with
    respect to teacher workforce in developed countries. The impact of teacher
    recruitment also varied over the time of the study. The overall numbers of OTTs
    remained fairly static over the three-year period. The recruitment pattern from the
    southern hemisphere was maintained but in 2001 the traditional peak of
    Australian teachers seemingly did not materialise and there was a simultaneous
    influx of teachers from Commonwealth countries. This caused concern and
    ultimately led to the formulation of the Savannah Accord and the development of
       a draft protocol. The Commonwealth Teacher Recruitment Protocol was
       subsequently revised and adopted at a ministerial meeting in the UK on 1
       September 2004. This Protocol aims to:

       QUOTE: “Balance the rights of teachers to migrate internationally, on a
       temporary or permanent basis, in pursuit of a range of career possibilities,
       against the need to protect the integrity of national education systems, and to
       prevent the exploitation of the scarce human resources of poor countries. The
       Protocol also seeks to safeguard the rights of recruited teachers, and the
       conditions relating to their service in the recruiting country.”
       (www.thecommonwealth.org)

       Whilst the Protocol was initially drawn up as a result of issues which arose in the
       Commonwealth countries, not all OTTs originate from these countries and the
       Protocol should therefore be widened to include all countries, due to the nature
       and increase in teacher migration and the proposed General Agreement on
       Trades and Services. The DfES representative agreed that the recruitment
       organisations, governments, LEAs and other key stakeholders should be working
       together in OTT recruitment practices. All non-governmental stakeholders (high
       commissions, British Council, and Commonwealth Secretariat) called for a more
       managed approach to OTT recruitment. Suggestions included: sabbatical leave
       from country of origin, and joint teacher training venture. Both the OTTs and the
       key stakeholders also noted the disparity between information that OTTs
       received when recruited and the reality of working and living in the UK, where the
       key stakeholders noted a need for more meaningful information. One recruitment
       agency proposed that a live link with a class would give OTTs a „real‟ idea about
       classrooms in England.

7.2 Further research
To more fully understand the recruitment and needs of OTTs, this study requires further
elaboration in a number of ways. Firstly, this research base would be strengthened by a
large scale national survey providing more comprehensive and accurate data on the
OTTs currently working and living in the UK.

Secondly, in relation to OTTs‟ experiences of living and working in the UK the present
study elicited interesting findings and further in-depth case studies could be carried out
in order to fully explore these areas and strengthen the current findings. Further, the
study revealed that the traditional concept of the „young backpacker‟ coming to the UK to
travel and teach was frequently not the case and therefore the reasons why experienced
OTTs also come to the UK and the impact this has on their home countries might also
usefully be further investigated.

The study also revealed that OTTs were employed in non-shortage subject areas and
sometimes in LEAs which did not necessarily have a teacher recruitment problem.
Further research exploring schools‟ reasons for the employment of OTTs might usefully
be undertaken in order to fully explore why headteachers recruit OTTs, whether they
may prefer to employ OTTs rather than NQTs and how they utilise OTTs with many
years of experience. Union representatives‟ views could also be considered with regard
to how they balance their commitment to both NQTs and OTTs.
Fourthly, given that the OTTP is being devolved to DRBs, OTTs experiences in the
process of gaining UK QTS and the uniformity of assessment across the DRBs warrants
investigation, particularly in relation to how DRBs manage OTT isolates, where the
DRBs themselves may have had little or no experience with such teachers.

Finally, the study revealed that OTTs have a number of different union affiliations.
Further indepth research could be carried out in order to fully understand the reasons
why and how OTTs make their choice of union and to find out what OTTs think their
union in the UK should be specifically doing for them. In addition, an exploration into
their union affiliations in their home country would perhaps also help to facilitate the
development of alliances with professional associations to develop reciprocal
arrangements for membership.
8. Recommendations
NASUWT should lobby the Government and other stakeholders with a
view to:
  1. Ensuring that more comprehensive and detailed data is collected about OTTs; for
     example, the present umbrella category of „OTT and instructors‟ on form 618G
     should be disaggregated, as should the work permit data, to distinguish between
     school teachers and others. Ensuring that the data is subsequently used to
     inform the strategic planning of the workforce; exploring why, for example, a
     large percentage of OTTs recruited were in non-shortage areas, the highest
     numbers being recorded for „primary‟ and „secondary‟ English.
  2. Recognising the instability of the current free market in teacher supply and
     seeking to ameliorate the effects upon the countries of origin from which OTTs
     are drawn. The DfES and others should be proactive in managing recruitment by,
     for example, negotiating contracts with traditional source countries to supply, or
     even train, teachers for schools in England. This is of particular importance for
     countries such as those in the Caribbean, where the teachers leaving make up a
     substantial minority of the teaching force.
  3. Acknowledging the strategically significant position recruiting organisations
     (recruitment agencies, LEAs, headteachers) hold. A regulative body of key
     stakeholders should be convened to monitor the implementation of an „Ethical
     Code of Conduct‟ in accordance with the Commonwealth Teacher Recruitment
     Protocol. Thus guaranteeing that recruiting organisations provide both
     prospective recruits minimum standards of information relating specifically to
     their particular contexts and contracts, and source and recruiting country with full
     data regarding recruitment. Further, the GTCE, as the teachers‟ regulative body,
     should be encouraged to be proactive in respect of these matters.
  4. Ensuring that OTTs, upon their arrival in the country, are provided with an
     induction package targeted to their individual needs, and receive continued
     support with regard to professional, social and emotional issues.
  5. Keeping under close review the management and monitoring of the OTTP,
     particularly in view of the proposed devolution of the programme to DRBs. The
     TTA in its current review of the programme should consider making the process
     leading to overseas QTS both easier to negotiate and more responsive to
     individual histories. Consideration should, for example, be given to: raising the
     awareness of newly arrived OTTs about the qualification; simplifying
     documentation; allowing OTTs themselves to apply for the programme; and fast-
     tracking OTTs with considerable experience and/or seniority in their country of
     origin.
  6. Exploring the possibility of mapping, against QTS standards, the equivalence of
     teacher training programmes, through an organisation such as NARIC. This
     would be particularly beneficial for countries which traditionally supply high
     numbers of OTTs, in order to identify areas of similarity and difference so that the
     current lengthy assessment processes, related to the programme, could be
     simplified.
NASUWT National Executive should consider the following:
  7. Compiling a more detailed and comprehensive database of its members in order
      that it can identify particular groups, collect information in respect of them, and,
      where necessary, target services and support more effectively.
  8. Reviewing its professional development programmes for staff and lay activists in
      respect of awareness of OTTs. Whether in areas of high density or relative
      isolation of OTTs, NASUWT Representatives should be alerted to the needs and
      the issues they confront, such as, for example, the racial discrimination reported
      by 20% of the sample surveyed.
  9. Reviewing its organisational structures with a view to facilitating access and
      encouraging enrolment of OTTs. This would be particularly useful in respect of
      the website where, for example, pages should be developed specifically for
      members from overseas, offering information and support and the facility to
      contact each other through discussion forums. It would also be valuable to have
      a free access area for prospective recruits to visit before or at the point of
      recruitment.
  10. Reviewing its policies in the light of the recent increase in the migration of
      teachers in the global context and the proposed General Agreement on Trades
      and Services. It should consider making strategic alliances with international
      bodies and professional associations, such as Education International, to
      develop reciprocal arrangements for membership and transfer of information to
      meet the needs of the international teacher labour market.
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The Recruitment of Overseas Trained Teachers 55
Glossary
ATL Association of Teachers and Lecturers

DfES Department for Education and Skills

DRB Designated Recommending Body

GTCE General Teaching Council for England

HMI Her Majesty‟s Inspectors

HOC House of Commons

ICT Information and Communications Technology

LEA Local Education Authority

MFL Modern Foreign Language

NARIC National Academic Recognition Information Centre (United Kingdom)

NAHT National Association of Head Teachers

NASUWT National Association of Schoolmasters Union of Women Teachers

NFER National Foundation of Educational Research

NLS National Literacy Strategy

NQT Newly Qualified Teacher

NNS National Numeracy Strategy

NUT National Union of Teachers

OFSTED Office for Standards in Education

OTT Overseas Trained Teacher

OTTP Overseas Trained Teacher Programme

QTS Qualified Teacher Status

PRU Pupil Referral Unit

REC Recruitment and Employment Confederation

SATs National Key Stage Tests formally known as Standard Assessment Tasks

TTA Teacher Training Agency
NASUWT
Hillscourt Education Centre
Rose Hill
Rednal
Birmingham B45 8RS
T: 0121 453 6150
F: 0121 457 6208/9
E: nasuwt@mail.nasuwt.org.uk
W: www.teachersunion.org.uk
04/11031
National Association of Schoolmasters Union of Women Teachers