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Rome’s First Triumvirate

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									Rome’s FIRst
 60 B.C.E. – 53 B.C.E

     By: Jim Ellis
► To better gain an understanding of the political and
 social history of the world we live in, it is important for
 middle school world history students to be introduced
 to cultures other than their own. By introducing the
 students to these ancient world cultures they can begin
 to gain a better understanding of the current world
 they live in and how it progressed to its current state.
                Grade Level
►I   will be teaching this
      lesson to seventh
     grade world history
             Content Standard
►   Grade 7: World Studies: Ancient Times to 1750

►   In the seventh grade students begin the four-year historical
    sequence with a study of the ancient world. This study includes
    not only history but incorporates each of the other six standards
    into the chronology. Students learn that each historic event is
    shaped by its geographic setting, the culture of the people,
    economic conditions, governmental decisions and citizen action.
    Students also expand their command of social studies skills and
►    The seventh grade world history students will:

1.   Identify the members of Rome’s first triumvirate with 100% accuracy.
2.   Explain the personal qualities of each ruler in the triumvirate, as well what
     each member had to gain by forming the triumvirate.
3.   Identify how the triumvirate was unique and important in the evolution of
     Roman society and life.
4.   Prepare a one page analytical paper discussing the importance of the
     triumvirate in Roman history and what effect, if any, the triumvirate had on
     the future of Rome and its governance.
5.   Based upon the criteria and examples discussed in class, each student must
     construct a model of Caesar and his army crossing the Rubicon River and
     returning home to Rome.
6.   Support or refute the idea that Rome’s first triumvirate rule was a pivotal
     turning point in the direction of Roman rule and history.
     What is a Triumvirate?

►   Tri-um-vi-rate – a government of
    three officers or magistrates
    functioning jointly.
  Members of the Triumvirate

1. Gnaeus   Pompeius Magnus – “Pompey the
  Great” (106-48 BCE)

2. Marcus   Licinius Crassus – (112-53 BCE)

3. Gaius   Julius Caesar – “Julius Caesar” (100-
  44 BCE)
Who Were These Men?
          Gnaeus Pompeius Magnus
            “PomPey tHe GReat”
►   Pompey, who lived from 106-48 BCE,
    was a general in the Roman army under
    the rule of Sulla. When Sulla died in
    78 BCE Pompey took this opportunity
    to ask the Senate for a series of special
    high commands so he could deal with
    the revolts that were plaguing the
    Republic at that time. Pompey quickly
    dealt with the many problems plaguing
    Rome while all the time gaining more
    Senate approved powers. In 70 BCE
    Pompey joined forces with the newly
    elected Consul, (and future triumvirate
    member), Crassus. Before Pompey
    joined the triumvirate he single-
    handedly redrew the map of the Eastern
    Mediterranean by developing new
    cities through conquest. Pompey,
    through his victories had increased
    Rome’s annual income by 70 percent.
       Marcus Licinius Crassus
►   Crassus was know in late Republic
    as Rome’s richest man. Though
    not born into a life of money,
    Crassus gained much of his wealth
    through greedy schemes by
    becoming the cities greatest
    landlord. Crassus used this money
    to support political ambitions,
    which lead to his being appointed
    Consul in 70 BCE. Crassus’s
    biggest military achievement was
    his defeat of Spartacus and the
    slave revolt in 71 BCE. Crassus,
    had joined forces in 70 BCE with
    Pompey, and would eventually help
    form Rome’s triumvirate by 60
            Gaius Julius Caesar
►   Caesar, who was a military genius,
    was elected Consul in 59 BCE with
    the help of his triumvirate friends,
    Pompey and Crassus. Today
    Caesar is one of the most celebrated
    figures in all of Roman history.
    Caesar is known most notably for
    his impressive victories in Gaul,
    (modern-day France). Caesar
    remained in Gaul for seven years
    during his conquests which began
    shortly after his being elected
    Consul in 59 BCE. By the end of
    his conquests in Gaul, Caesar had
    gained a huge section of land for
    the Roman Republic stretching
    from the Pyrenees mountains in
    modern-day Spain and the Atlantic
    coast to the Rhine river of modern-
    day Germany.
                The Triumvirate
►   With the alliance of Pompey, Crassus, and Caesar in 60 BCE
    Rome’s first triumvirate was born. Immediately following the
    formation of the triumvirate Caesar left to conquer Gaul for the
    next seven years leaving Pompey and Crassus to govern much of
    the Republic. Together the three rulers controlled most of the
    Roman military. Crassus, wanting to further his name and status,
    left to conquer Syria but was killed in 53 BCE. With the death of
    Crassus as well as Pompey’s wife, who happened to be Caesar’s
    sister, the triumvirate disintegrated into a two man alliance.
    Finally in 52 BCE with Caesar still in Gaul, Caesar’s enemies
    persuaded the Senate to declare Caesar a “public enemy” and
    asked Pompey to “save the Republic” The alliance of Pompey
    and Caesar was now in serious disarray. The civil war that was
    to follow would prove to be a great power struggle between
    Pompey, Caesar, and the Senate, which there could be only one
                Civil War and the
               fall of the republic
►   As the civil war began Caesar and his army marched on Rome. While
    crossing the Rubicon river which served as the northern boarder of Italy
    Caesar declared, “the die is cast,” meaning, there was no turning back. Caesar
    easily swept to victory over the Senatorial army lead by Pompey in 48 BCE,
    and completely destroyed them in 45 BCE. Also in 45 BCE Pompey was
    stabbed to death while coming ashore in Egypt as he fled the wrath of Caesar.
    Caesar was now the sole ruler of Rome, and by 44 BCE Caesar had declared
    himself. “dictator for life.” That same year Caesar life was cut short as he was
    assassinated by sixty Senators fearing his grip on power. The assassination of
    Caesar was the first assassination of a head of state in Rome in eighty-nine
    years and would signal the start of the pattern of political scandal and murder.
    The Republic was now dead and the age of the Emperor was in place, Rome
    would stay much the same until the demise of the Western Empire in 476 CE.
Learning Center Guidelines
►   Students can use the learning center during the last fifteen
    minutes of class each day, lesson permitting, and throughout the
    period if they have shown that all other work has been
    completed. I will manage their use by keeping a record of who
    has accessed the center and for what period of time, to
    accomplish this each student must sign their name, the date, and
    the time the entered and left the center before and after each visit.
    The students will be allowed to use the center as much as they
    like as long as their work is completed and the lesson for the day
    has been completed. The students will get instructional feedback
    from the teacher as they are using the center and by completing
    and scoring the worksheets located in the learning center.
Assorted Pictures
 of Ancient Rome
(Flavian Amphitheater)
Coliseum Interior
Imperial Fora
    Trajan's Column
detail of Tiber river warf
    Basilica Julia:
overview looking South
The Pantheon
Various Ancient Rome Websites
► Julius Caesar Website

► Welcome To The Romans Page

► Ancient Rome

► Feminae Romanae: The Women of Ancient Rome

► Ancient Rome: Images and Pictures

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