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AP Environmental Science Waste Resources Test

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					        APES SUPER DUPER Ch 14 (Waste Water Treatment) and Ch 15 Take Home Test
        Multiple Choice: Answer 60 out of 65 Questions (1pt each) PUT ANSWERS ON ANSWER SHEET

____   1. Averaged globally, about two-thirds of the water withdrawn each year is used for
          a. industrial processes.
          b. cooling towers of power plants.
          c. irrigation of croplands.
          d. domestic use.
____   2. Which of the following uses tends to consume the smallest amount of water?
          a. irrigation
          b. public use
          c. industry
          d. power plant cooling
____   3. For drinking water, the World Health Organization recommends a level of _____ coliform bacteria colonies
          per 100 milliliters of water sample.
          a. 0
          b. 5
          c. 10
          d. 100
____   4. A body of water can be depleted of its oxygen by
          a. viruses and parasitic worms.
          b. organic wastes.
          c. sediments and suspended matter.
          d. organic compounds such as oil, plastics, solvents, and detergents.
____   5. Nitrates and phosphates are examples of
          a. disease-causing agents.
          b. oxygen-demanding wastes.
          c. organic plant nutrients.
          d. inorganic plant nutrients.
____   6. The greatest source of water pollution in terms of total weight is
          a. fertilizers.
          b. sediments.
          c. oxygen-demanding wastes.
          d. water-soluble inorganic chemicals.
____   7. Which of the following types of sewage treatment are properly matched?
          a. primary-biological process
          b. secondary-mechanical process
          c. advanced-physical and chemical processes
          d. secondary-chemical process
____   8. Which of the following types of sewage treatment are properly matched?
          a. primary-removal of pollutants particular to a given area
          b. secondary- removal of oxygen-demanding wastes
          c. advanced- removal of suspended solids
          d. all of these answers
____   9. Which of the following substances are removed to the greatest extent by combined primary and secondary
          wastewater treatment?
          a. organic pesticides
          b. organic oxygen-demanding wastes
          c. toxic metals and synthetic organic chemicals
           d. radioactive isotopes
____ 10.   Of the following, the most ecologically reasonable way to dispose of sewage sludge is
           a. incineration.
           b. dumping into the deep trenches of the ocean.
           c. conventional landfills.
           d. treating with heat and using as fertilizer.
____ 11.   All of the following are used to disinfect or to purify water except
           a. ozone
           b. chlorine
           c. iodine
           d. ultraviolet radiation
____ 12.   Sustainable use of the earth's water resources involves
           a. an integrated approach to managing water resources and water pollution throughout each
               watershed.
           b. continued subsidizing of the market price of water so that there is fair distribution of
               water.
           c. emphasis on waste management over waste prevention.
           d. emphasis on individual and community responsibility rather than cooperation among
               political entities.
____ 13.   After Love Canal was abandoned, it was sold and used for
           a. an elementary school and housing project.
           b. a shopping mall.
           c. an amusement park.
           d. an industrial park.
____ 14.   The Love Canal incident demonstrates that
           a. preventing pollution is safer and cheaper than cleaning it up.
           b. political officials are alert and sympathetic to their constituents.
           c. pollutants can be stored safely underground for a long time.
           d. polluting companies can escape from the costs and responsibility of their actions.
____ 15.   With 4.7% of the world's population, the United States produces _____ of the world's solid waste.
           a. 4.6%
           b. 13%
           c. 23%
           d. 33%
____ 16.   Garbage produced directly by households and businesses accounts for _____% of the solid waste produced in
           the United States.
           a. less than 2
           b. 5
           c. 10
           d. 15
____ 17.   The single largest category of U.S. solid waste is
           a. mining waste.
           b. agricultural wastes.
           c. industrial wastes.
           d. municipal wastes.
____ 18. The recycling/composting rate of municipal solid waste produced in the United States is about
         a. 5%.
         b. 15%.
         c. 30%.
         d. 45%.
____ 19. A waste is considered hazardous if it possesses one of four properties. Which of the following is not one of
         those properties?
         a. flammable
         b. unstable
         c. soluble
         d. corrosive
____ 20. If a small business produces less than ___ pounds of a waste per month, the EPA does not consider the
         material hazardous.
         a. 22
         b. 220
         c. 2200
         d. 2220
____ 21. _____% of the U.S. hazardous waste is not regulated by hazardous-waste laws.
         a. 35
         b. 55
         c. 75
         d. 95
____ 22. Legally designated and controlled forms of hazardous waste make up about _____ of the total hazardous
         waste produced.
         a. 5%
         b. 15%
         c. 25%
         d. 35%
____ 23. In a low-waste approach, which of the following strategies should be given top priority?
         a. incinerate
         b. reuse
         c. reduce
         d. bury
____ 24. In a low-waste approach, which of the following strategies should be given lowest priority?
         a. incinerate
         b. reuse
         c. reduce
         d. bury
____ 25. Which is the most advanced approach?
         a. recycling materials
         b. using biodegradable material
         c. creating more durable products
         d. reducing the amount of materials used
____ 26. Industrial ecology tries to
         a. maximizing the input of energy per unit of output.
         b. maximizing the input of matter resources per unit of output.
         c. make resource use an open system.
         d. adjust inputs and outputs to the carrying capacity of the environment.
____ 27. Studies by two soft-drink companies indicate that 16-oz bottles of soft drinks cost ____ in refillable bottles.
         a. three times more
         b. two times more
         c. one-half less
         d. one-third less
____ 28. At the checkout counter, an environmentalist is most likely to
         a. say "plastic please."
         b. say "paper please."
         c. say "I brought my own bag."
         d. walk out of the store.
____ 29. The most desirable type of recycling is
         a. primary, or closed-loop recycling.
         b. secondary, or open-loop recycling.
         c. tertiary, or figure-eight recycling.
         d. materials-recovery facility recycling.
____ 30. Which of the following statements is false?
         a. It is more economical to have consumers separate trash before pickup than to use
             materials-recovery facilities.
         b. Glass, iron, and aluminum can be recovered from solid wastes.
         c. Source separation involves consumers separating trash into categories like glass, paper,
             and metal.
         d. Materials-recovery facilities provides many more jobs than source separation recycling.
____ 31. Critics of recycling are most likely to claim
         a. it isn't worth the effort.
         b. there is no solid-waste problem.
         c. incineration is the safest and most efficient way to dispose of solid wastes.
         d. it doesn't make sense to recycle if it costs more than sending wastes to a landfill or an
             incinerator.
____ 32. Obstacles to recycling in the United States include
         a. lack of inclusion of environmental costs in market prices.
         b. tax breaks for mining virgin materials.
         c. lack of large, steady markets for recycled materials.
         d. all of these answers.
____ 33. Obstacles to recycling can be overcome by all of the following except
         a. requiring households and businesses to pay directly for garbage collection based on how
             much they throw away.
         b. encouraging government purchases of recycled products.
         c. requiring ecolabels that evaluate life-cycle environmental costs.
         d. enacting a national aluminum-can bill.
____ 34. As Germany's reduced-packaging initiative progressed, higher fees were charged for
         a. cardboard.
         b. glass.
         c. metal.
         d. plastic and composite materials.
____ 35. Environmentalists would most like to see aluminum cans
         a. buried in landfills.
         b. burned in incinerators.
         c. recycled.
         d. replaced by refillable bottles.
____ 36. In 2000, the United States recycled about _____ of all its wastepaper.
         a. 19%
         b. 29%
         c. 49%
         d. 69%
____ 37. Recycling paper
         a. saves energy.
         b. increases water and air pollution.
         c. eliminates jobs.
         d. increases production costs.
____ 38. Consumers of recycled products are most effective when they maximize the amount of _____ waste in the
         products.
         a. pre-producer
         b. post-producer
         c. pre-consumer
         d. post-consumer
____ 39. Plastic materials are a problem because
         a. they do not decompose readily in landfills.
         b. toxic lead and cadmium can leach out of plastics.
         c. they can harm animals that swallow them or become entangled in them.
         d. all of these answers.
____ 40. Of the following materials, the most difficult to recycle is
         a. glass.
         b. plastic.
         c. paper.
         d. aluminum.
____ 41. Hazardous waste experts point out that all incinerators burning waste
         a. release toxic air pollutants.
         b. can eliminate air pollution by using electrostatic precipitators.
         c. can eliminate air pollution by using baghouse filters.
         d. can eliminate air pollution by using scrubbers.
____ 42. Components of a modern state-of-the-art landfill include
         a. wells to monitor potential contamination of groundwater.
         b. plastic liners on the bottom of the landfill.
         c. collection, storage, and treatment of leachate.
         d. all of these answers.
         e. A and B only
____ 43. Underground anaerobic decomposition in a landfill produces
         a. volatile organic compounds.
         b. methane.
         c. hydrogen sulfide.
         d. B and C only
         e. All of the Above
____ 44. Which of the following statements about landfill leaching is false?
         a. Rain filtering through landfills leaches toxic materials.
         b. Contaminated leachate can seep from the bottom of landfills.
         c. Contaminated groundwater is not a problem at landfills.
         d. Older, unlined landfills may have particularly bad water pollution problems.
____ 45. The real cost of dumping hazardous wastes is borne by the
         a. producer of the waste.
         b. disposer of the waste.
         c. haulers of the waste.
         d. taxpayers who pay to clean up disposal messes.
____ 46. Which of the following statements about disposal of hazardous wastes is false?
         a. Waste-disposal firms in the United States and other industrialized nations have shipped
              hazardous wastes to other countries.
         b. Most legal U.S. exports of hazardous waste go to Mexico and Panama.
         c. Hazardous wastes have been labeled "exports for recycling" even though they are often
              dumped in importing countries.
         d. In 1994, the United States was the only one of a 64-country meeting not to sign a ban on
              exporting hazardous wastes from developed countries to developing countries.
____ 47. In the United States, lead comes from
         a. paint used in new homes.
         b. drinking water that runs through pipes held together with lead solder.
         c. today's ceramics industry.
         d. burning pine logs in fireplaces.
____ 48. Most atmospheric emissions of dioxins in the United States are released by
         a. landfills.
         b. paper mills.
         c. medical and municipal solid-waste incinerators.
         d. refrigerator manufacturers.
____ 49. Which of the following is not one of the top three uses of chlorine?
         a. laundry bleach
         b. plastics
         c. paper and pulp bleaching
         d. solvents
____ 50. All of the following except _____can help replace many chlorinated organic solvents.
         a. citrus-based solvents
         b. soap and water
         c. steam cleaning
         d. ozone
____ 51. Chlorine bleaching of wood pulp and paper can be replaced by using
         a. oxygen.
         b. hydrogen peroxide.
         c. ozone.
         d. all of these answers.
____ 52. The Resource Conservation and Recovery Act of 1976
         a. requires the EPA to identify hazardous wastes.
         b. requires the EPA to set standards for hazardous-waste management.
         c. requires all firms that handle more than 100 kilograms of hazardous waste per month to
              have a permit stating how such wastes are to be managed.
         d. all of these answers.
____ 53. The Superfund program pays
         a. to clean up inactive or abandoned hazardous-waste dump sites.
         b. to monitor hazardous wastes.
         c. for testing for lead in paint, water, and air samples.
         d. the doctors' bills and lawyers' fees for pollution events.
____ 54. Which of the following statements about hazardous-waste cleanup is false?
         a. Cleaning up toxic military dumps is estimated to cost $100-200 billion over 30 years.
         b. The Department of the Interior will need to spend more than any other agency for cleanup.
         c. Pollution prevention is cheaper than cleanup strategies.
         d. Cleaning up contaminated Department of Energy sites used to make nuclear weapons will
              run between $200 billion and $400 billion over 30 to 50 years.
____ 55. Enforcement of Superfund has failed because
         a. polluters deny responsibility.
         b. polluting businesses campaign that toxic dumps are not that threatening.
         c. big polluters sue local governments and small businesses to make them responsible for
              cleanup.
         d. of all the above reasons.
____ 56. It is generally accepted that enforcement of Superfund could be improved by
         a. creating a form of triage in which hazardous-waste sites are classified by severity and the
              worst ones get treated first.
         b. involving people and local governments where sites are located in the decision-making
              process.
         c. setting up an Environmental Insurance Resolution Fund.
         d. all of these answers.
____ 57. All of the following are called for by the grass-roots movement for environmental justice except
         a. NIMBY (Not in My Backyard).
         b. holding polluters and elected officials who support them personally accountable.
         c. opposing hazardous-waste landfills, deep-disposal wells, and incinerators.
         d. demanding wider distribution of unwanted industries and waste facilities.
____ 58. Which of the following principles contributes least to the transition to a low-waste society?
         a. There is no "away."
         b. The best priorities for dealing with waste are to reduce, reuse, and recycle.
         c. Everything is connected.
         d. Economic growth and free markets are the keys to waste reduction.

____ 59. The major source of solid waste in the US comes from what source?
         a. Homes
         b. Factories
         c. Agriculture
         d. Mining wastes
         e. Petroleum refining

____ 60. What is the largest type of domestic solid wastes in the US?
         a. Yard wastes
         b. Paper
         c. Plastic
         d. Glass
         e. Metal

____ 61. The major source of solid waste in the US comes from what source?
         a. Homes
         b. Factories
         c. Agriculture
         d. Mining wastes
         e. Petroleum refining
____ 62. A piece of industrial or commercial property that is abandoned or underused and often environmentally
         contaminated, and could be considered as a potential redevelopment is known as a
         a. Redevelopment site
         b. Business Opportunity Sham
         c. Strategic development site
         d. Brownfield
         e. Superfund Site

____ 63. Of the 1400 sites on the Superfund National Priority List,
         a. Only 50 have been handled
         b. About 100 have been handled
         c. About half have been handled
         d. Under the current Bush Administration, all of them have been cleaned up and those guilty
             punished….bad ceo no $457, 000, 000 bonus
         e. None of have been handled


____ 64. About 70% of US hazardous wastes comes from
         a. Agricultural pesticides
         b. Smelting, mining, and metal manufacturing
         c. Nuclear Power Plants
         d. Chemical and Petroleum industries
         e. Households—this means YOU buddy!

____ 65. Which of the following methods of handling wastes is against the law in the US?
         a. Incineration
         b. Dumping it in open land fills
         c. Burying it underground
         d. Exporting the Material to foreign countries
         e. Dumping the material in the open ocean
APES TAKE HOME TEST MULTIPLE CHOICE ANSWER SHEET
 1._____    25. _____   49._____

 2._____    26._____    50._____
                                                    PUT AN
 3._____    27._____    51._____
                                                    “X”
 4._____    28._____    52._____
                                                    Through
 5._____    29._____    53._____
                                                    The 5
 6._____    30._____    54._____                    Questions
                                                    That You
 7._____    31._____    55._____                    Are
                                                    Omitting
 8._____    32._____    56._____

 9._____    33._____    57._____

 10._____   34._____    58._____

 11._____   35._____    59._____

 12._____   36._____    60._____

 13._____   37._____    61._____

 14._____   38._____    62._____

 15._____   39._____    63._____
                                   NAME:______________________
 16._____   40._____    64._____
                                   PLEDGE_______________________
 17._____   41._____    65._____
                                   _______________________________
 18._____   42._____
                                   _______________________________
 19._____   43._____
                                   _______________________________
 20._____   44._____

 21._____   45._____

 22._____   46._____

 23._____   47._____

 24._____   48._____
Ch 15 Take Home Test
Answer Section

MULTIPLE CHOICE

     1. ANS:   C          OBJ: 14-2
        TOP:   SUPPLY, RENEWAL, AND USE OF WATER RESOURCES
     2. ANS:   B          OBJ: 14-2
        TOP:   SUPPLY, RENEWAL, AND USE OF WATER RESOURCES
     3. ANS:   A          OBJ: 14-5
        TOP:   TYPES, EFFECTS, AND SOURCES OF WATER POLLUTION
     4. ANS:   B          OBJ: 14-5
        TOP:   TYPES, EFFECTS, AND SOURCES OF WATER POLLUTION
     5. ANS:   D          OBJ: 14-5
        TOP:   TYPES, EFFECTS, AND SOURCES OF WATER POLLUTION
     6. ANS:   B          OBJ: 14-5
        TOP:   TYPES, EFFECTS, AND SOURCES OF WATER POLLUTION
     7. ANS:   C          OBJ: 14-8
        TOP:   SOLUTIONS: PREVENTING AND REDUCING SURFACE-WATER POLLUTION
     8. ANS:   B          OBJ: 14-8
        TOP:   SOLUTIONS: PREVENTING AND REDUCING SURFACE-WATER POLLUTION
     9. ANS:   B          OBJ: 14-8
        TOP:   SOLUTIONS: PREVENTING AND REDUCING SURFACE-WATER POLLUTION
    10. ANS:   D          OBJ: 14-8
        TOP:   SOLUTIONS: PREVENTING AND REDUCING SURFACE-WATER POLLUTION
    11. ANS:   C          OBJ: 14-8
        TOP:   SOLUTIONS: PREVENTING AND REDUCING SURFACE-WATER POLLUTION
    12. ANS:   A          OBJ: 14-8
        TOP:   SOLUTIONS: PREVENTING AND REDUCING SURFACE-WATER POLLUTION
    13. ANS:   A
    14. ANS:   A
    15. ANS:   D          OBJ: 15-1       TOP: WASTING RESOURCES
    16. ANS:   A          OBJ: 15-1       TOP: WASTING RESOURCES
    17. ANS:   A          OBJ: 15-1       TOP: WASTING RESOURCES
    18. ANS:   C          OBJ: 15-1       TOP: WASTING RESOURCES
    19. ANS:   C          OBJ: 15-1       TOP: WASTING RESOURCES
    20. ANS:   B          OBJ: 15-1       TOP: WASTING RESOURCES
    21. ANS:   D          OBJ: 15-1       TOP: WASTING RESOURCES
    22. ANS:   A          OBJ: 15-1       TOP: WASTING RESOURCES
    23. ANS:   C          OBJ: 15-2       TOP: PRODUCING LESS WASTE AND POLLUTION
    24. ANS:   D          OBJ: 15-2       TOP: PRODUCING LESS WASTE AND POLLUTION
    25. ANS:   D          OBJ: 15-2       TOP: PRODUCING LESS WASTE AND POLLUTION
    26. ANS:   D          OBJ: 15-3
        TOP:   SOLUTIONS: CLEANER PRODUCTION & SELLING SERVICES INSTEAD...
    27. ANS:   D          OBJ: 15-4       TOP: REUSE
    28. ANS:   C          OBJ: 15-4       TOP: REUSE
    29. ANS:   A          OBJ: 15-5       TOP: RECYCLING
30.   ANS:     D           OBJ: 15-5         TOP: RECYCLING
31.   ANS:     D           OBJ: 15-5         TOP: RECYCLING
32.   ANS:     D           OBJ: 15-5         TOP: RECYCLING
33.   ANS:     D           OBJ: 15-5         TOP: RECYCLING
34.   ANS:     D           OBJ: 15-5         TOP: RECYCLING
35.   ANS:     D           OBJ: 15-6
      TOP:     CASE STUDIES: RECYCLING ALUMINUM, WASTEPAPER, AND PLASTICS
36.   ANS:     C           OBJ: 15-6
      TOP:     CASE STUDIES: RECYCLING ALUMINUM, WASTEPAPER, AND PLASTICS
37.   ANS:     A           OBJ: 15-6
      TOP:     CASE STUDIES: RECYCLING ALUMINUM, WASTEPAPER, AND PLASTICS
38.   ANS:     D           OBJ: 15-6
      TOP:     CASE STUDIES: RECYCLING ALUMINUM, WASTEPAPER, AND PLASTICS
39.   ANS:     D           OBJ: 15-6
      TOP:     CASE STUDIES: RECYCLING ALUMINUM, WASTEPAPER, AND PLASTICS
40.   ANS:     B           OBJ: 15-6
      TOP:     CASE STUDIES: RECYCLING ALUMINUM, WASTEPAPER, AND PLASTICS
41.   ANS:     A           OBJ: 15-7
      TOP:     DETOXIFYING, BURNING, BURYING, AND EXPORTING WASTES
42.   ANS:     D           OBJ: 15-7
      TOP:     DETOXIFYING, BURNING, BURYING, AND EXPORTING WASTES
43.   ANS:     E           OBJ: 15-7
      TOP:     DETOXIFYING, BURNING, BURYING, AND EXPORTING WASTES
44.   ANS:     C           OBJ: 15-7
      TOP:     DETOXIFYING, BURNING, BURYING, AND EXPORTING WASTES
45.   ANS:     D           OBJ: 15-7
      TOP:     DETOXIFYING, BURNING, BURYING, AND EXPORTING WASTES
46.   ANS:     B           OBJ: 15-7
      TOP:     DETOXIFYING, BURNING, BURYING, AND EXPORTING WASTES
47.   ANS:     B           OBJ: 15-8         TOP: CASE STUDIES: LEAD, DIOXINS, AND CHLORINE
48.   ANS:     C           OBJ: 15-8         TOP: CASE STUDIES: LEAD, DIOXINS, AND CHLORINE
49.   ANS:     A           OBJ: 15-8         TOP: CASE STUDIES: LEAD, DIOXINS, AND CHLORINE
50.   ANS:     D           OBJ: 15-8         TOP: CASE STUDIES: LEAD, DIOXINS, AND CHLORINE
51.   ANS:     D           OBJ: 15-8         TOP: CASE STUDIES: LEAD, DIOXINS, AND CHLORINE
52.   ANS:     D           OBJ: 15-9
      TOP:     HAZARDOUS-WASTE REGULATION IN THE UNITED STATES
53.   ANS:     A           OBJ: 15-9
      TOP:     HAZARDOUS-WASTE REGULATION IN THE UNITED STATES
54.   ANS:     B           OBJ: 15-9
      TOP:     HAZARDOUS-WASTE REGULATION IN THE UNITED STATES
55.   ANS:     D           OBJ: 15-9
      TOP:     HAZARDOUS-WASTE REGULATION IN THE UNITED STATES
56.   ANS:     D           OBJ: 15-9
      TOP:     HAZARDOUS-WASTE REGULATION IN THE UNITED STATES
57.   ANS:     A           OBJ: 15-10        TOP: SOLUTIONS: ACHIEVING A LOW-WASTE SOCIETY
58.   ANS:     D           OBJ: 15-10        TOP: SOLUTIONS: ACHIEVING A LOW-WASTE SOCIETY
      59. D;     60. B; 61 and 62 D; 63. B; 64. D; 65. E

				
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