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AP Environmental Science Evolution and Biodiversity Test

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AP Environmental Science Evolution and Biodiversity Test Powered By Docstoc
					CHAPTER 11
WATER AND WATER POLLUTION

E     1.   All of the following are downstream countries that could suffer from an upstream country
           withdrawing more water from a shared river except
           a. Egypt.
           b. Jordan.
           c. Israel.
           d. Iraq.
      *    e. Turkey.

E     2.   There is potential for conflict over water resources among all of the following pairs of countries
           except
           a. Sudan and Egypt.
           b. Syria and Jordan.
           c. Syria and Israel.
      *    d. Turkey and Egypt.
           e. Syria and Iraq.

11-1 WATER’S IMPORTANCE, USE, AND RENEWAL

E     3.   Water covers about ____% of the Earth’s surface.
           a. 51
           b. 61
      *    c. 71
           d. 81
           e. 91

E     4.   Water
           a. provides habitats for many organisms.
           b. maintains Earth’s climate.
           c. makes up most of living organisms.
           d. dissolves a variety of substances.
      *    e. all of these answers.

M     5.   Which of the following statements is false?
      *    a. Water is one of the better-managed resources.
           b. We do not charge enough for water.
           c. We waste and pollute water.
           d. More than 50% of organisms’ weight is water.
           e. Water expands when it freezes.

E     6.   Approximately ____% of the Earth’s water is fresh rather than salt water.
      *    a. 3
           b. 9
           c. 27
           d. 60
           e. 85




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E     7.   Only about _____% of the world’s total water supply exists as uncontaminated fresh water on or
           close to the surface and readily available for human use.
           a. 0.0003
      *    b. 0.003
           c. 0.03
           d. 0.3
           e. 3.0

M     8.   The hydrologic cycle will naturally purify and recycle fresh water as long as humans don’t
           a. pollute the water faster than it is replenished.
           b. withdraw it from groundwater supplies faster than it is replenished.
           c. overload it with slowly degradable and nondegradable wastes.
           d. a and b only.
      *    e. all of these answers.

M     9.   During which of the following does water move in a direction different from the others?
           a. percolation
      *    b. transpiration
           c. infiltration
           d. precipitation
           e. runoff

M     10. Porous water-saturated layers of underground rock are known as
      * a. aquifers.
          b. recharge areas.
          c. watersheds.
          d. runoff areas.
          e. water tables.

D     11. Which of the following statements is false?
          a. Recharging of water is a slow process.
          b. Fossil aquifers are nonrenewable resources on a human time scale.
          c. Aquifers could be called slow-moving underground lakes.
      * d. Groundwater is stationary and does not move.
          e. The water table is located at the top of the zone of saturation.

M     12. Throughout the world, the most water is used for
      * a. irrigation.
          b. industrial processes.
          c. needs of animals and humans.
          d. transportation.
          e. cooling towers of power plants.

E     13. Averaged globally, about two-thirds of the water withdrawn each year is used for
          a. industrial processes.
          b. cooling towers of power plants.
      * c. irrigation of croplands.
          d. domestic use.
          e. none of these answers.

E     14. Which of the following uses tends to consume the smallest amount of water?
          a. irrigation
      * b. public use
          c. industry
          d. power plant cooling
          e. transportation




Water and Water Pollution                                                                               375
M     15. In the western United States as compared to the eastern United States, the major water
          problem(s) is (are)
          a. flooding.
          b. insufficient water for some urban areas.
      * c. chronic drought and insufficient runoff.
          d. pollution of rivers, lakes, and groundwater.
          e. insufficient water for industry.

E     16. Of the following uses for water, the one that is least significant in the eastern United States is
      * a. irrigation.
          b. energy production.
          c. cooling.
          d. manufacturing.
          e. transportation.

E     17. In the western United States, the largest use for water is
      * a. irrigation.
          b. energy production.
          c. cooling.
          d. manufacturing.
          e. transportation.

E     18. The least important water concern in the East is
          a. occasional urban shortages.
          b. water pollution.
      * c. shortage of runoff caused by low precipitation.
          d. flooding.
          e. lack of water for industry.

E     19. The most serious water problem in the West is
          a. occasional urban shortages.
          b. water pollution.
      * c. shortage of runoff caused by low precipitation.
          d. flooding.
          e. lack of water for industry.

E     20. The zone of saturation is
          a. the portion of Earth’s surface available for saturation.
          b. the region from which surface water drains into a body of water.
          c. water-saturated layers of sand, gravel, or bedrock.
      * d. an area of earth in which spaces in soil and rock are filled with water.
          e. the area we can generally count on as a stable source of fresh water from year to
              year.

11-2 SUPPLYING MORE WATER

E     21. Water can be scarce because of
          a. water stress.
          b. aridity.
          c. desiccation.
          d. drought.
      * e. all of these answers.




376                                                                                     Section II / Chapter 11
E     22. Water scarcity from long-term shortage of water due to a dry climate is called
          a. water stress.
      * b. aridity.
          c. drought.
          d. desiccation.
          e. acute shortage.

M     23. Water scarcity from drying up of the soil because of deforestation or overgrazing is called
          a. water stress.
          b. aridity.
          c. drought.
          d. acute shortage.
      * e. desiccation.

M     24. Water scarcity from increasing numbers of people relying on fixed levels of runoff is called
      * a. water stress.
          b. aridity.
          c. drought.
          d. desiccation.
          e. acute shortage.

M     25. Water scarcity during a period when precipitation is lower than normal and evaporation is higher
          than normal is called
          a. water stress.
          b. aridity.
      * c. drought.
          d. desiccation.
          e. acute shortage.

E     26. Water supply can be increased by
          a. water diversion projects.
          b. construction of dams and reservoirs.
          c. improving efficiency of water use.
          d. withdrawing groundwater.
      * e. all of these answers.

M     27. Large dams and reservoirs
          a. reduce danger of flooding upstream.
          b. are inexpensive to build.
          c. cannot be used for outdoor recreation.
      * d. can be used to provide electric power.
          e. all of these answers.

D     28. Which of the following statements about disadvantages of large dams is false?
          a. Reservoir formation displaces people and destroys wildlife habitat.
          b. They can contribute to the incidence of earthquakes.
          c. Eventually siltation requires their abandonment.
      * d. They often cause flooding downstream.
          e. They cause water loss through evaporation.




Water and Water Pollution                                                                                377
D     29. Water transfer projects best illustrate the ecological principle that
      * a. you can never do just one thing.
          b. external costs should be internalized.
          c. matter is conserved.
          d. energy is conserved.
          e. all of these answers.

M     30. Someone from northern California is likely to express concern over which of the following uses
          of water?
          a. urban use
      * b. dilution of pollution
          c. irrigation for agriculture
          d. power plant cooling
          e. all of these answers.

D     31. Which of the following statements about the Aral Sea is false?
      * a. Water has been diverted from the Aral Sea and the two rivers that replenish its water for use
             in manufacturing.
          b. The volume of the Aral Sea has dropped by 75%.
          c. The salinity levels have risen dramatically.
          d. Most native fish species have disappeared.
          e. The surface area has decreased by 54%.

D     32. Strategies that could improve the situation at the Aral Sea include all of the following except
          a. charging farmers more for irrigation water to reduce waste.
      * b. removing trees that block the diversion project.
          c. introducing water-saving technologies.
          d. using groundwater to supplement irrigation water.
          e. constructing wetlands and artificial lakes.

E     33. Currently in the United States, groundwater is being withdrawn ____ times faster than it is
          being replaced.
          a. 2
      * b. 4
          c. 8
          d. 10
          e. 20

M     34. The Ogallala Aquifer
          a. is a fossil aquifer and has a slow recharge rate.
          b. will be depleted by one-fourth by 2020 if current withdrawal rates continue.
          c. is the largest known aquifer in the world.
      * d. all of these answers.
          e. is located in the United States.

D     35. Which of the following will occur first?
          a. The Ogallala Aquifer will dry up.
          b. We will reach the year 2020.
          c. The Ogallala Aquifer will reverse direction.
      * d. The high cost of pumping water from the dropping water tables will force a change in
             agriculture.
          e. The Ogallala Aquifer will be fully recharged.




378                                                                                   Section II / Chapter 11
M     36. Desalination may be accomplished by
          a. desiccation.
      * b. reverse osmosis.
          c. salt-eating bacteria.
          d. halide adsorption.
          e. all of these answers.

D     37. Which of the following statements about desalination is true?
          a. The common methods of desalination are reverse osmosis and evaporation.
      * b. Desalination is expensive.
          c. The removed salt can simply be dumped back into the ocean.
          d. Desalination is the best approach to solving irrigation problems.
          e. Desalination is the best method of acquiring clear water for drinking.

M     38. Desalination
          a. is expensive.
          b. uses vast amounts of energy.
          c. produces large amounts of salt and other minerals.
          d. is more common in arid regions of the world.
      * e. all of these answers.

M     39. It is most economically and environmentally sound to focus water resource management on
          a. increasing the water supply.
          b. controlling the ―mining‖ of groundwater.
      * c. increasing the efficiency of the way we use water.
          d. developing desalination plants.
          e. cloud seeding and towing icebergs to arid regions.

11-3 REDUCING WATER WASTE

E     40. According to the World Resources Institute, what percentage of the water that people use
          throughout the world is unnecessarily wasted?
          a. 25–30%
          b. 35–40%
          c. 45–50%
          d. 55–60%
      * e. 65–70%

E     41. The world’s largest water user is
          a. India.
          b. China.
      * c. the United States.
          d. Russia.
          e. Australia.

D     42. Which of the following statements is false?
          a. Lasers could be used to aid in contouring agricultural fields to increase even distribution of
             water.
          b. Seepage from irrigation canals can be reduced by use of plastic and tile liners.
      * c. Clearing land will increase its water retention.
          d. Small check dams of earth and stone can be used in developing countries to retain more
             water.
          e. Drip irrigation systems waste less water than center-pivot sprinkler systems.




Water and Water Pollution                                                                               379
E     43. Which of the following offers the greatest conservation of water?
          a. center-pivot sprinkler systems
          b. low-energy precision-application (LEPA) sprinkler systems
      * c. trickle or drip irrigation
          d. gravity-flow canal systems
          e. diagonal-pivot systems

M     44. Irrigation efficiency can be improved by
          a. using traditional farming techniques.
      * b. using computer-controlled systems that deliver water to crops as needed.
          c. planting salt-sensitive crops.
          d. planting only genetically engineered crops.
          e. all of these answers.

D     45. All of the following are available to improve water efficiency except
          a. xeriscaping.
          b. policies allowing use of gray water.
          c. systems to purify and completely recycle wastewater from houses, apartments, or office
               buildings.
      * d. condensing water vapor from indoor air.
          e. using water meters to monitor and charge for municipal water use.

E.    46. An individual can reduce his or her water use and waste by
          a. using water-saving toilets, showerheads, and faucet aerators.
          b. xeriscaping.
          c. using gray water.
          d. repairing water leaks.
      * e. doing all of the above answers.

11-4 TOO MUCH WATER

M     47. Benefits of floods include all of the following except
          a. provision of productive farmland downstream.
          b. refilling of wetlands.
          c. provision of important breeding and feeding grounds for wildlife.
      * d. filling up of soil air spaces to prevent oxidation of nutrients.
          e. none of these answers.

D     48. People like to settle on floodplains for all of the following reasons except
          a. good transportation.
          b. flat sites for buildings.
      * c. security.
          d. fertile soil.
          e. availability of nearby rivers.

M     49. Floods and droughts are
          a. strictly natural disasters.
      * b. influenced by human activities.
          c. decreased by increases in human population.
          d. independent of human activity.
          e. all of these answers.




380                                                                                      Section II / Chapter 11
D     50. Humans increase the likelihood of flooding by
          a. building on floodplains.
          b. urbanization.
          c. removing water-absorbing vegetation.
          d. draining wetlands.
      * e. all of these answers.

M     51. Which of the following conditions in the Himalayan watershed contribute(s) to flooding in
          Bangladesh?
          a. rapid population growth
          b. deforestation
          c. unsustainable farming practices
      * d. all of these answers.
          e. none of these answers.

M     52. To reduce flooding risks, an environmentalist is most likely to choose
      * a. floodplain management.
          b. a flood control dam.
          c. channelization of streams.
          d. artificial levees.
          e. none of these answers.

M     53. Floodplain management includes
          a. prohibiting building in high-risk zones.
          b. constructing floodways to minimize damage when flooding occurs.
          c. elevating buildings in flood zones.
          d. a and b only.
      * e. all of these answers.

11-5 WATER POLLUTION: TYPES, EFFECTS, AND SOURCES

E     54. Of the following organisms, the group that is least likely to cause disease is
          a. bacteria.
          b. protozoa.
      * c. algae.
          d. parasitic worms.
          e. viruses.

E     55. A good indicator of water quality for drinking or swimming is the number of colonies of
      * a. coliform bacteria.
          b. algae.
          c. dinoflagellates.
          d. manatees.
          e. protozoa.

M     56. A body of water can be depleted of its oxygen by
          a. viruses and parasitic worms.
      * b. organic wastes.
          c. sediments and suspended matter.
          d. organic compounds such as oil, plastics, solvents, and detergents.
          e. all of these answers.




Water and Water Pollution                                                                             381
D     57. Which of the following statements is false?
          a. Heat can lower dissolved oxygen and make fish vulnerable to disease.
          b. Organic wastes that can be decomposed by aerobic bacteria reduce the amount of oxygen in
             the water supply.
          c. Radioactive wastes and toxins can be concentrated by biological amplification.
      * d. Inorganic nutrients such as fertilizers have no adverse effects on aquatic ecosystems.
          e. Sediment can cloud water and reduce photosynthesis.

E     58. Nitrates and phosphates are examples of
          a. disease-causing agents.
          b. oxygen-demanding wastes.
          c. organic plant nutrients.
      * d. inorganic plant nutrients.
          e. sediment.

E     59. Acids, salts, and metals are examples of
          a. oxygen-demanding wastes.
          b. organic plant nutrients.
          c. inorganic plant nutrients.
      * d. water-soluble inorganic chemicals.
          e. sediment.

E     60. Heat, organic wastes, and inorganic plant nutrients may all deplete dissolved _____ from
          water.
          a. nitrogen
      * b. oxygen
          c. particulate matter
          d. minerals
          e. hydrogen

E     61. One class of pollutants that can cause a population explosion of aerobic bacteria is
          a. disease-causing agents.
      * b. oxygen-demanding wastes.
          c. inorganic chemicals.
          d. organic chemicals.
          e. sediment.

E     62. One class of pollutants that can cause excessive growth of algae is
          a. radioactive substances.
          b. oxygen-demanding wastes.
      * c. inorganic plant nutrients.
          d. organic chemicals.
          e. sediment.

E     63. The greatest source of water pollution in terms of total weight is
          a. fertilizers.
      * b. sediments.
          c. oxygen-demanding wastes.
          d. water-soluble inorganic chemicals.
          e. organic chemicals.




382                                                                                  Section II / Chapter 11
E     64. Which of the following decrease(s) photosynthesis in bodies of water?
          a. disease-causing organisms
          b. inorganic plant nutrients
      * c. sediment or suspended matter
          d. heat
          e. organic chemicals

E     65. All of the following are nonpoint sources of water pollution except
      * a. offshore oil wells.
          b. livestock feedlots.
          c. urban lands.
          d. croplands.
          e. parking lots.

E     66. Which of the following is a point source of pollution?
          a. acid deposition
          b. urban streets
      * c. oil tankers
          d. suburban lawns
          e. parking lots

E     67. Which of the following is a nonpoint source of water pollution?
          a. sewage treatment plant
          b. electric power plant
          c. active and inactive coal mines
      * d. logged forest
          e. factories

11-6 POLLUTION OF FRESHWATER STREAMS, LAKES, AND AQUIFERS

M     68. Which of the following statements is false?
          a. Because of their flow, dilution, and bacterial decay, most streams recover rapidly from
             pollution by heat and biodegradable waste.
          b. In rapidly flowing rivers, dissolved oxygen is replaced quickly.
          c. The amount of oxygen in rivers declines in dry seasons.
      * d. The amount of oxygen in rivers increases as the water’s temperature rises.
          e. The amount of oxygen in rivers increases as the water’s temperature falls.

E     69. Oxygen sag curves
          a. usually occur during a rainy spring.
      * b. may occur when oxygen-demanding wastes are added to the water.
          c. may develop in fast-moving rivers.
          d. may occur upstream from a sewage treatment plant.
          e. all of these answers.

D     70. Which of the following statements is false?
          a. Requiring cities to withdraw water downstream of the city would reduce pollution.
      * b. Slow-flowing rivers are less susceptible to pollutants than fast-flowing streams.
          c. The width and depth of the oxygen sag curve depend on water volume and flow rate.
          d. Streams can recover from degradable pollutants as long as they are not overloaded.
          e. Oxygen sag curves show the time and distance needed for a stream to recover.




Water and Water Pollution                                                                              383
D     71. The water pollution and control laws enacted in the 1970s have done all but which one of the
          following?
          a. reduced or eliminated point-source pollution on rivers
          b. increased the number and quality of wastewater treatment plants
          c. held the line against disease-causing agents and oxygen-demanding wastes
      * d. forced municipalities to take their water supply from the downstream side of the city
          e. none of these answers.

D     72. Which of the following statements is false?
      * a. Rivers are more vulnerable than lakes to contamination by plant nutrients, oil, toxins, and
             pesticides.
          b. Acid deposition and fallout represent a more serious hazard to lakes than rivers.
          c. Eutrophication is a natural process and can occur without the influence of humans.
          d. Human activities can induce cultural eutrophication.
          e. Eutrophication is caused by inputs of nutrients and silt from the surrounding land basin.

E     73. Cultural eutrophication is caused by
          a. infestations of zebra mussels.
          b. water supply intakes.
      * c. fertilizer runoff.
          d. decomposing algae.
          e. natural runoff.

M     74. Which of the following developments of cultural eutrophication would occur last?
          a. fish kills
          b. blooms of algae
          c. increase in aerobic bacteria
          d. increase of plants such as duckweed
      * e. increase in anaerobic bacteria

E     75. In cultural eutrophication, game fish die from
          a. acid deposition.
      * b. suffocation from lack of oxygen.
          c. toxic substances in the water.
          d. salt.
          e. loss of space.

E     76. About ____ of the 100,000 medium to large lakes in the U.S. suffer from cultural
          eutrophication.
          a. one-fifth
          b. one-fourth
      * c. one-third
          d. one-half
          e. one-tenth

M     77. All of the following strategies would help prevent cultural eutrophication except
          a. banning the use of phosphate detergents.
          b. preventing the runoff of fertilizer from agricultural fields.
          c. advance treatment of municipal sewage.
      * d. stopping release of toxic heavy metal pollution.
          e. land-use control to reduce nutrient runoff.




384                                                                                 Section II / Chapter 11
D     78. Which of the following would not reduce cultural eutrophication?
          a. Dredge lake bottoms.
          b. Pump oxygen into lakes.
          c. Control land-use to prevent nutrient runoff.
      * d. Ban cloud seeding.
          e. Remove excess weeds.

M     79. Groundwater
          a. has turbulent flows that dilute pollutants.
          b. has large populations of decomposing bacteria that break down degradable wastes.
      * c. is cold, which slows down decomposition rates.
          d. may take five to ten years to cleanse itself of wastes.
          e. is quickly renewable.

M     80. Which of the following statements about underground contaminants is false?
          a. Degradable organic wastes do not decompose as rapidly underground as on the surface.
          b. There is little dissolved oxygen to aid in degradation of wastes.
      * c. Waste products are diluted and dispersed quickly in underground aquifers.
          d. It can take hundreds to thousands of years for contaminated groundwater to cleanse itself of
             degradable wastes.
          e. In some coastal areas, groundwater has been contaminated by saltwater intrusion.

D     81. Groundwater would be least protected by
          a. storing hazardous liquids above ground in tanks with leak-detecting systems.
      * b. putting double hulls on tankers.
          c. monitoring aquifers near landfills.
          d. requiring liability insurance for underground tanks storing hazardous liquids.
          e. requiring leak-detecting systems for underground tanks used to store hazardous waste.

11-7 OCEAN POLLUTION

M     82. Which of the following aquatic ecosystems is most capable of diluting, dispersing, and
          degrading large amounts of sewage, sludge, and oil?
          a. estuary
          b. swiftly flowing stream
      * c. deep-water ocean
          d. coastal parts of the ocean
          e. slow-moving river

D     83. Which of the following marine ecosystems is least polluted from ocean dumping and coastal
          development?
          a. mangrove swamps
      * b. deep-ocean trenches
          c. coral reefs
          d. wetlands
          e. estuaries

E     84. The largest estuary in the United States is
          a. Mobile Bay.
      * b. Chesapeake Bay.
          c. San Francisco Bay.
          d. Puget Sound.
          e. Gulf of Mexico.




Water and Water Pollution                                                                             385
M     85. In Chesapeake Bay, 60% by weight of phosphates come from ____ and 60% by weight of
          nitrates come from _____.
      * a. point sources, nonpoint sources
          b. point sources, nitrate rocks
          c. nonpoint sources, point sources
          d. phosphate rocks, nonpoint sources
          e. phosphate rocks, point sources

D     86. Of the following sources of oil in the environment, the one that contributes least is
      * a. tanker accidents and blowouts at offshore drilling rigs.
          b. washing tankers and releasing the oily water.
          c. normal operation of offshore wells.
          d. pipeline leaks.
          e. none of these answers.

M     87. The majority of the oil pollution of the ocean comes from
          a. blowouts (rupture of a borehole of an oil rig in the ocean).
          b. tanker accidents.
          c. environmental terrorism.
      * d. runoff from land.
          e. normal operation of offshore wells.

D     88. The effects of an oil spill depend on the
          a. time of year.
          b. type of oil (crude or refined).
          c. weather conditions.
          d. amount released.
      * e. all of these answers.

M     89. The most common problem encountered by seabirds coated with oil is
          a. immediate death.
          b. vulnerability to predators.
      * c. loss of buoyancy and insulation, causing deaths from exposure.
          d. poisoning by taking in the oil internally.
          e. starvation.

E     90. Of the following organisms, the ones least likely to be killed by heavy oil components are
          a. oysters.
      * b. marine birds.
          c. crabs.
          d. clams.
          e. mussels.

E     91. The oil company responsible for the oil spill of the Valdez was
          a. Alyeska.
          b. Gulf.
      * c. Exxon.
          d. Sunoco.
          e. Texaco.




386                                                                                   Section II / Chapter 11
E     92. Which of the following is false?
          a. Oil evaporates and undergoes decomposition.
      * b. The environment recovers more slowly from crude oil spills than from refined oil spills.
          c. Recovery from oil spills is faster in warm water than in cold water.
          d. Estuaries and salt marshes suffer the most damage from oil pollution.
          e. Oil spills can have a negative economic impact on coastal residents.

11-8 PREVENTING AND REDUCING SURFACE-WATER POLLUTION

E     93. The leading nonpoint source of water pollution is
          a. municipal landfills.
          b. runoff from city streets and storm sewers.
      * c. agriculture.
          d. industrial wastes.
          e. leaks from offshore oil wells.

D     94. Farmers can reduce pesticide runoff by
          a. applying pesticides only when needed.
          b. using biological methods of pest control.
          c. using integrated pest management.
          d. controlling runoff.
      * e. all of these answers.

M     95. Livestock growers can control runoff of animal wastes from feedlots and barnyards by
          a. increasing animal density.
      * b. diverting runoff of animal wastes into detention basins.
          c. removing buffers between stockyards and surface water.
          d. locating feedlots on gently sloping land so rainwater will naturally clean off the stockyards.
          e. all of these answers.

E     96. Reforestation
      * a. reduces soil erosion and pollution from sediment.
          b. increases the severity of flooding.
          c. helps accelerate projected global warming.
          d. decreases biodiversity.
          e. all of these answers.

D     97. Which of the following would not reduce nonpoint-source pollution?
          a. Require buffer zones of permanent vegetation between cultivated fields and surface water.
          b. Divert runoff of animal wastes into detention basins to be used as fertilizer.
      * c. Establish wastewater lagoons.
          d. Use biotic control or integrated pest management.
          e. Reduce the need for fertilizers.

E     98.    The Clean Water Act and Water Quality Act attempt to maintain the _____ integrity of U.S.
             waters.
            a. biological
            b. chemical
            c. physical
            d. a and c only
      *     e. all of these answers




Water and Water Pollution                                                                               387
D     99. In 1995, using the strategy of controlling the air pollutant sulfur dioxide as a model, the EPA
          proposed to reduce water pollution through
          a. more regulations.
          b. educating the public to prevent water pollution.
          c. changing American lifestyles.
      * d. a discharges trading policy.
          e. more water testing.

D     100. The Clean Water Act could be strengthened by all of the following strategies except
           a. prevention and control of toxic water pollution.
           b. more funding for watershed planning.
           c. allowing citizens to bring lawsuits to ensure that water pollution laws are enforced.
      * d. establishing national effluent standards.
           e. requiring states to do a better job of monitoring and enforcing water pollution laws.

M     101. Which of the following types of sewage treatment are properly matched?
           a. primary—biological process
           b. secondary—mechanical process
      * c. advanced—physical and chemical processes
           d. secondary—chemical process
           e. primary—chemical process

M     102. Which of the following types of sewage treatment are properly matched?
           a. primary—removal of pollutants particular to a given area
      * b. secondary— removal of oxygen-demanding wastes
           c. advanced— removal of suspended solids
           d. all of these answers.
           e. none of these answers.

M     103. Which of the following substances are removed to the greatest extent by combined primary and
           secondary wastewater treatment?
           a. organic pesticides
      * b. organic oxygen-demanding wastes
           c. toxic metals and synthetic organic chemicals
           d. radioactive isotopes
           e. all of these answers

D     104. Of the following, the most ecologically reasonable way to dispose of sewage sludge is
           a. incineration.
           b. dumping into the deep trenches of the ocean.
           c. conventional landfills.
      * d. treating with heat and using as fertilizer.
           e. none of these answers

D     105. All of the following are used to disinfect or to purify water except
           a. ozone
           b. chlorine
      * c. iodine
           d. ultraviolet radiation
           e. a and b




388                                                                                  Section II / Chapter 11
D     106. Sustainable use of the Earth’s water resources involves
      * a. an integrated approach to managing water resources and water pollution throughout each
               watershed.
           b. continued subsidizing of the market price of water so that there is fair distribution of water.
           c. emphasis on waste management over waste prevention.
           d. emphasis on individual and community responsibility rather than cooperation among
               political entities.
           e. all of these answers.

D     107. A change in the U.S. Safe Drinking Water Act that is least likely to be recommended by an
           environmentalist is
           a. banning all lead in new plumbing pipes, faucets, and fixtures.
      * b. increased reliance on voluntary compliance to drinking water standards.
           c. strengthening public notification requirements of drinking water violations.
           d. reducing testing and administrative costs and improving treatment by combining smaller
               water systems into larger ones.
           e. combining small water treatment facilities with larger ones nearby.

11-9 DRINKING WATER QUALITY

D     108. To further sustainable use of water supplies, environmentalists are least likely to call for
           a. reduction of pollution sources.
           b. reuse of wastewater.
      * c. decentralization of control of water supply and quality.
           d. moving from pollution treatment to pollution prevention.
           e. elimination of national drinking water tests.

E.    109. Which country do experts believe have the cleanest drinking water?
           a. United States
      * b. Canada
           c. Mexico
           d. India
           e. China




Water and Water Pollution                                                                                 389
Labeling




M 11.   On the dilution and decay of degradable wastes figure, choose the zone in which populations of
        organisms with high oxygen requirements will most likely be eliminated.

M 12.   On the dilution and decay of degradable wastes figure, choose the zone in which the breakdown
        of degradable wastes by bacteria starts to deplete the dissolved oxygen.

M 13.   On the dilution and decay of degradable wastes figure, choose the zone in which the water has
        recovered from oxygen-demanding wastes and heat.

M 14.   On the dilution and decay of degradable wastes figure, choose the zone in which the water needs
        time and must have an adequate flow rate.

M 15.   On the dilution and decay of degradable wastes figure, choose the zone in which the bacteria
        have not started the decay of degradable, oxygen-demanding wastes.

        Answers: 11.     C      12.    B     13.    E      14.    D     15.    A




390                                                                                Section II / Chapter 11
M 16.     On the primary and secondary sewage treatment figure, choose the letter that represents where
          bacteria are killed and the water is clean.

M 17.     On the primary and secondary sewage treatment figure, choose the letter that represents where
          sludge is dried before being disposed of.

M 18.     On the primary and secondary sewage treatment figure, choose the letter that represents where
          the water is aerated.

M 19.     On the primary and secondary sewage treatment figure, choose the letter that represents where
          large floating objects and solids are removed.

M 20.     On the primary and secondary sewage treatment figure, choose the letter that represents where
          activated sludge settles out in the biological process of sewage treatment.

M 21.     On the primary and secondary sewage treatment figure, choose the letter that represents where
          suspended solids settle out as sludge in the physical process of sewage treatment.

M 22.     On the primary and secondary sewage treatment figure, choose the letter that represents where
          all the sludge is combined before drying.

          Answers: 16.      E     17.    G     18.    C      19.   A      20.    D
                   21.      B     22.    F




Water and Water Pollution                                                                            391

				
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