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AP Environmental Science Endangered Species Test

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					CHAPTER 9
SUSTAINING BIOIDIVERSITY: THE SPECIES APPROACH

E     1.   Alexander Wilson, an ornithologist in the early 1800s, described a flock of ____ that he
           estimated was 240 miles long and one mile wide and consisted of over two million birds.
           a. Carolina parakeets
           b. starlings
           c. sparrows
      *    d. passenger pigeons
           e. California condors

E     2.   The passenger pigeon became extinct in
           a. 1874.
           b. 1894.
      *    c. 1914.
           d. 1934.
           e. 1954

M     3.   Passenger pigeons
           a. were used as fertilizer.
           b. were good to eat.
           c. were suffocated by burning grass or sulfur below their roosts.
           d. feathers were used to stuff pillows.
      *    e. all of these answers.

9-1   SPECIES EXTINCTION

M     4.   The current extinction crisis differs from previous mass extinctions in that
           a. ecosystems that store genes for future radiations are being protected.
      *    b. the current crisis is caused by the human species.
           c. it is taking place at a slower rate.
           d. recovery is likely to be faster because of genetic engineering.
           e. it is making the planet healthier.

E     5.   A biologist is most likely to say that the passenger pigeon is
           a. endangered.
           b. locally extinct.
           c. ecologically extinct.
      *    d. biologically extinct.
           e. threatened.

M     6.   You are an ecologist studying alligators in the outback. You find that the population of
           alligators is so depleted that organisms that depend on alligator holes for their survival are also
           hurting. You would most likely label the alligators
           a. threatened.
           b. endangered.
           c. locally extinct.
      *    d. ecologically extinct.
           e. biologically extinct.




342                                                                                       Section II / Chapter 9
M     7.   An endangered species is any species that can
           a. undergo alteration of its genetic traits.
           b. become rare within the next century.
      *    c. soon become extinct in all or part of its range.
           d. eventually become threatened or rare.
           e. be considered economically important, but is rare.

E     8.   The California condor and whooping crane are
      *    a. endangered species.
           b. threatened species.
           c. imported species.
           d. overpopulated species.
           e. biologically extinct.

E     9.   The grizzly bear and American alligator are
           a. endangered species.
      *    b. threatened species.
           c. imported species.
           d. overpopulated species.
           e. biologically extinct.

D     10. All of the following characteristics would make a species more prone to extinction except
          a. low population density.
      * b. small body size.
          c. specialized niche.
          d. low reproductive rate.
          e. fixed migratory patterns.

M     11. Small populations of species
          a. may be below the critical population density.
          b. are vulnerable to catastrophic events.
          c. may have a reduced evolutionary potential for survival.
      * d. all of these answers.
          e. none of these answers.

M     12. The type of species that offers the best opportunity to apply the prevention principle is the
          a. keystone species.
          b. alien species.
      * c. indicator species.
          d. endemic species found in only one part of the world.
          e. endangered species.

M     13. The blue whale is extinction prone for all of the following reasons except
          a. low reproduction rate.
      * b. feeding at the top trophic level.
          c. specialized feeding habits.
          d. fixed migratory patterns.
          e. none of these answers.




Sustaining Biodiversity: The Species Approach                                                             343
9-2   IMPORTANCE OF WILD SPECIES?

M     14. Biologists claim that species have
          a. ecological value.
          b. economic value.
          c. medical and scientific value.
          d. intrinsic value.
      * e. all of these answers.

M     15. Wild plant species have economic value as
          a. fiber.
          b. dyes.
          c. oils.
          d. medicines.
      * e. all of these answers.

D     16. Economic services performed by wild species include
          a. nitrogen-fixation.
          b. production of medicines.
          c. pollination of crops.
          d. fuelwood and lumber.
      * e. all of these answers.

M     17. The ecosystem service least likely to be provided by wild species is
          a. recycling nutrients and decomposition of organic wastes.
          b. diversifying the gene pool.
      * c. balancing all the impacts of human activities.
          d. moderating Earth’s climate.
          e. natural pest and disease control.

E     18. People regard wildflowers as beautiful, and this is evidence that wildflowers have _____
          importance.
          a. economic
      * b. aesthetic
          c. medical
          d. ecological
          e. recreational

M     19. An environmentalist is least likely to go on an ecotour which
          a. takes precautions to reduce the tour’s impact on the local ecosystem.
          b. contributes a high percentage of the tour company’s profits to local environmental projects.
          c. hires naturalists and local people.
      * d. provides lodging in internationally-owned lodging facilities.
          e. collects specimens.

E     20. People who believe that wild species have an inherent right to exist generally believe that
          species have
          a. economic value.
          b. extrinsic value.
      * c. intrinsic value.
          d. utilitarian value.
          e. recreational value.




344                                                                                   Section II / Chapter 9
9-3   CAUSES OF PREMATURE EXTINCTION OF WILD SPECIES

D     21. Underlying causes of extinction and reduction of wildlife populations include all of the
          following except
          a. affluence.
          b. human population growth.
      * c. sustainable development.
          d. governmental policies that undervalue ecological services.
          e. rising resource use.

M     22. The cause of endangerment and extinction of wild species with the longest delay is
          a. habitat fragmentation.
      * b. human population growth.
          c. poaching and commercial hunting.
          d. pollution.
          e. climate change.

M     23. The greatest threat to most species is
      * a. reduction of habitats.
          b. water pollution.
          c. parasites.
          d. sport hunting.
          e. climate change.

M     24. The greatest species terminator is habitat destruction of
          a. coral reefs.
          b. grasslands.
      * c. tropical forests.
          d. deserts.
          e. temperate forests.

M     25. National parks can be viewed as habitat islands surrounded by
          a. logging.
          b. industrial activity.
          c. energy extraction.
          d. agriculture.
      * e. all of these answers.

D     26. Which of the following is false? Habitat islands
      * a. are wildlife preserves set aside to sustain endangered species.
          b. can create small populations vulnerable to inbreeding.
          c. are often too small to support the minimum number of individuals required to sustain a
             population.
          d. may be national parks, protected areas, or freshwater lakes.
          e. are more vulnerable to competition from nonnative and pest species.

E     27. Fragmentation of tropical forests would be harmful to
          a. skunks.
          b. cowbirds.
      * c. migrating songbirds.
          d. raccoons.
          e. possums.




Sustaining Biodiversity: The Species Approach                                                         345
D     28. Habitat fragmentation
          a. can create barriers that limit the ability of species to find food and mates.
          b. increases edge areas that make some species more vulnerable to predators.
          c. may create habitats too small to support the minimum breeding population of some species.
          d. may limit the ability of some species to disperse and colonized new areas.
      * e. all of these answers.

D     29. The introduction of nonnative species often results in unforeseen consequences. This experience
          indicates that when introducing nonnative species, we would be well-advised to apply the
          a. first law of thermodynamics.
          b. law of common property.
      * c. precautionary principle.
          d. law of supply and demand.
          e. second law of thermodynamics.

E     30. About _____ of the species on the U.S. official list of endangered and threatened species
          are there in part because of population declines caused by nonnative species.
          a. one-fifth
          b. one-fourth
          c. one-third
      * d. one-half
          e. three-fourths

D     31. Japanese kudzu vine offers all of the following except
          a. starch used in Asian beverages and herbal remedies.
          b. control of soil erosion.
      * c. toxic berries that deplete bird populations.
          d. a source of tree-free paper.
          e. herbal remedies for diseases.

M     32. The rapid doubling of a water hyacinth population in nutrient-rich waters with no
          predators is an example of
      * a. a positive feedback loop.
          b. a negative feedback loop.
          c. an accumulation.
          d. a synergistic interaction.
          e. a delay.

E     33. All of the following are organisms imported into the United States that cause damage except the
      * a. prairie dog.
          b. sea lamprey.
          c. Japanese beetle.
          d. house sparrow.
          e. kudzu.

E     34. Argentina fire ants can be described by all of the following except:
          a. They attack with painful and burning stings.
          b. They have killed humans, pets, and livestock.
          c. They cost the U.S. an estimated $600 million per yer.
      * d. They are typically called keystone species.
          e. They don’t have predators in the U.S.




346                                                                                  Section II / Chapter 9
E     35. A threatened species causes demand for the species to increase. The species becomes
          endangered. Which of the following characteristics of complex systems is best applied to this
          sequence?
          a. negative feedback loop
      * b. positive feedback loop
          c. delay
          d. antagonistic interaction
          e. a synergistic interaction

M     36. Which of the following is least responsible for the strong decline in elephant populations?
      * a. global climate change
          b. legal ivory trade
          c. habitat loss
          d. poaching
          e. low reproductive rate

D     37. Importing exotic birds for households may
          a. be hazardous to the owners’ health.
          b. result in the decline of tourist income from exporting countries.
          c. result in a 90% animal death rate.
      * d. result in all of these answers.
          e. endanger or threaten bird species.

E     38. The pet trade has depleted populations of
          a. birds.
          b. mammals.
          c. tropical fish.
      * d. reptiles.
          e. all of these answers.

E     39. Some exotic plant species that may bring $5,000 to $15,000 to collectors are most likely
          a. mushrooms.
      * b. orchids or cacti.
          c. bromeliads or ferns.
          d. bonsai or dwarf trees.
          e. lilies.

M     40. Even with the best management, wildlife reserves may be depleted in a few decades because of
          a. depletion of fossil fuels.
      * b. climatic change brought about by projected global warming.
          c. demands for sport trophies.
          d. biological magnification of pesticides.
          e. the pet trade.

D     41. DDT can harm wildlife by
          a. making them more vulnerable to diseases.
          b. making them more vulnerable to parasites and predators.
          c. killing them directly.
      * d. all of these answers.
          e. decreasing reproductive rates.




Sustaining Biodiversity: The Species Approach                                                           347
E     42. Which of the following bird species would least likely show the harmful effects of biological
          magnification?
          a. falcon
      * b. cardinal
          c. pelican
          d. sparrow hawk
          e. owl

9-4   PROTECTING WILD SPECIES: THE LEGAL APPROACH

M     43. Which of the following is not one of the three major approaches to protecting wildlife?
          a. the species approach
          b. the ecosystem approach
          c. the wildlife management approach
      * d. the kinder, gentler human approach
          e. the sanctuary approach

E     44. CITES is
      * a. a treaty controlling the international trade in endangered species.
          b. a set of regulations controlling the introduction of exotic species.
          c. a pact that supports critical ecosystems that support wildlife.
          d. an international organization dedicated to the preservation of endangered species.
          e. all of these answers.

M     45. CITES is limited by
          a. violators receiving only small fines.
          b. spotty enforcement.
          c. member countries exempting themselves from protecting some species.
          d. much of the illegal trade in wildlife going on in countries that have not signed the treaty.
      * e. all of these answers.

E     46. Transporting of live or dead wild animals across U.S. state borders without a federal permit is
          prohibited by
          a. CITES.
      * b. the Lacey Act.
          c. the Endangered Species Act.
          d. the Delaney Act.
          e. the Amber Act.

D     47. The Endangered Species Act of 1973
          a. is one of the world’s toughest environmental laws.
          b. allows the use of endangered species for approved scientific purposes or if the use enhances
              the survival of the species.
          c. authorizes identification of endangered species solely on a biological basis.
          d. requires all commercial shipments of wildlife to enter or leave the U.S. through one of nine
              designated ports.
      * e. all of these answers.

E     48. Animals listed as endangered or threatened cannot be _____ in the United States.
          a. injured
          b. hunted
          c. collected
          d. killed
      * e. all of these answers.




348                                                                                    Section II / Chapter 9
E     49. Identification and listing of the majority of endangered species is done by the
      * a. Fish and Wildlife Service.
          b. Environmental Protection Agency.
          c. National Park Service.
          d. Department of the Interior.
          e. Nature Conservancy.

E     50. Over the last quarter century, the number of species found exclusively on the U.S. list
      * a. increased about ten times.
          b. increased about five times.
          c. stayed the same.
          d. decreased by about 50%.
          e. decreased by about 20%.

D     51. All of the following would strengthen the Endangered Species Act except
          a. giving private landowners tax breaks for helping protect endangered ecosystems.
          b. surveying the species and ecosystems we have.
      * c. making the protection of endangered species on private land voluntary.
          d. locating and protecting the most endangered species.
          e. giving private landowners financial incentives and technical help for helping protect
               endangered species.

M     52. When wildlife experts must judge which species to save, they are least likely to choose a species
          because
          a. it has the best chance for survival.
      * b. it is furry and charismatic.
          c. it has the most ecological value to the ecosystem.
          d. it is potentially useful for agriculture or medicine.
          e. none of these answers.

M     53. Habitat conservation plans
          a. reach a compromise between the interests of private landowners and those of endangered
              species.
          b. allow landowners to destroy critical habitat in exchange for taking steps to protect the
              species.
          c. ultimately are trying not to reduce the recovery chances of protected species.
          d. all of these answers.
          e. none of these answers.




Sustaining Biodiversity: The Species Approach                                                          349

				
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